World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Dilma Rousseff

Article Id: WHEBN0007977772
Reproduction Date:

Title: Dilma Rousseff  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Brazilian presidential election, 2010, Supreme Federal Court, BRICS
Collection: 1947 Births, Brazilian Christian Socialists, Brazilian Economists, Brazilian Guerrillas, Brazilian People of Bulgarian Descent, Brazilian Roman Catholics, Brazilian Torture Victims, Brazilian Women in Politics, Cancer Survivors, Cordons of the Order of Stara Planina, Energy Ministers of Brazil, Female Heads of Government, Female Heads of State, Living People, People from Belo Horizonte, Presidents of Brazil, Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Sul Alumni, Women in War in South America, Women in Warfare Post-1945, Workers' Party (Brazil) Politicians
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Dilma Rousseff

Her Excellency
Dilma Rousseff
Official portrait of Dilma Rousseff
36th President of Brazil
Assumed office
1 January 2011
Vice President Michel Temer
Preceded by Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Chief of Staff of the Presidency
In office
21 June 2005 – 31 March 2010
President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Preceded by José Dirceu
Succeeded by Erenice Guerra
Minister of Mines and Energy
In office
1 January 2003 – 21 June 2005
President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Preceded by Francisco Luiz Sibut Gomide
Succeeded by Silas Rondeau
Personal details
Born Dilma Vana Rousseff
(1947-12-14) 14 December 1947
Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Nationality Brazilian
Political party Workers' Party
Spouse(s) Cláudio Galeno Linhares (1967–69)
Carlos Franklin Paixão de Araújo (1969–2000)
Children Paula Rousseff Araújo (born 1976)
Residence Alvorada Palace (official)
Porto Alegre (private)
Alma mater Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Profession Economist
Religion Roman Catholicism
Website Official website

Dilma Vana Rousseff (Brazilian Portuguese:  born 14 December 1947) is a Brazilian economist and politician currently serving as the 36th President of Brazil. She is the first woman to hold the office.[1] She was previously the Chief of Staff of the President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva from 2005 to 2010.[2]

The daughter of a Bulgarian entrepreneur, Rousseff was raised in an upper middle class household in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.[2] She became a socialist during her youth, and following the 1964 coup d'état joined various left-wing and Marxist urban guerrilla groups that fought against the military dictatorship. Rousseff was eventually captured and was jailed between 1970 and 1972, during which time she was reportedly tortured.[2][3]

After her release, Rousseff rebuilt her life in Porto Alegre with Carlos Araújo, who would be her partner for 30 years.[2] Both helped found the Democratic Labour Party (PDT) in Rio Grande do Sul, participating in several of the party's electoral campaigns. She became the Secretary of the Treasury of the City of Porto Alegre in the Alceu Collares Administration, and later the Secretary of Energy of the State of Rio Grande do Sul under both the Collares and Olívio Dutra Administrations.[2] In 2000, after an internal dispute in the Dutra cabinet, she left the PDT and joined the Workers' Party (PT).[2]

In 2002, Rousseff joined the committee responsible for the energy policy of presidential candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who, after winning the election, invited her to become Minister of Energy.[2] In 2005, a political crisis triggered by a corruption scandal led to the resignation of Chief of Staff José Dirceu. Rousseff took over the post, remaining in office until 31 March 2010, when she stepped down in order to run for president.[2] She was elected in a run-off on 31 October 2010, beating Partido da Social Democracia Brasileira (PSDB) candidate José Serra, and re-elected on 26 October 2014 with a narrow second round victory over Aécio Neves, also of the PSDB.[4]


  • Early life 1
    • Childhood and family profile 1.1
      • Education and early political awareness 1.1.1
    • Guerrilla activity, 1968–69 1.2
      • Colina 1.2.1
      • Revolutionary Armed Vanguard Palmares (VAR Palmares) 1.2.2
    • Arrest (1970) 1.3
    • Life in Porto Alegre, 1972–80 1.4
    • Private life 1.5
      • Paula Rousseff 1.5.1
      • Health issues 1.5.2
  • Political positions 2
  • Political career 3
    • Municipal Secretary of Treasury (1985–88) 3.1
    • State Secretary of Energy (1993–94 and 1998–2002) 3.2
    • Minister of Energy (2003–05) 3.3
      • Light for All program 3.3.1
    • Chief of Staff (2005–10) 3.4
  • 2010 and 2014 presidential campaigns 4
  • Presidency (2011–present) 5
    • Inauguration 5.1
    • Cabinet 5.2
    • Popularity 5.3
    • Controversies 5.4
      • Petrobras scandal 5.4.1
      • Amazon Basin hydroelectric dams 5.4.2
      • LGBT controversies 5.4.3
      • Public service strikes 5.4.4
    • International recognition 5.5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Early life

Childhood and family profile

Dilma Rousseff (center) with her parents and siblings.

Dilma Vana Rousseff was born in Belo Horizonte,[5] Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, on 14 December 1947, to Bulgarian lawyer and entrepreneur Pedro Rousseff (born Pétr Rúsеv, Bulgarian: Петър Русев, 1900–1962)[6][7] and schoolteacher Dilma Jane da Silva.[8][9] Her father was born in Gabrovo, Principality of Bulgaria,[10][11] and was a friend of the Nobel Prize-nominated Bulgarian poet Elisaveta Bagryana.[12] An active member of the Bulgarian Communist Party in the 1920s,[13] Petar Rusev fled Bulgaria in 1929 to escape political persecution; he settled in France. He arrived in Brazil in the 1930s, already widowed (he left behind his son Lyuben, who died in 2007), but soon moved to Buenos Aires, Argentina. He returned to Brazil several years later, settling in São Paulo, where he succeeded in business. Pétar Rúsev adapted his first name to Portuguese (Pedro) and the last to French (Rousseff). During a trip to Uberaba, he met Dilma Jane da Silva, a young schoolteacher born in Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro, and raised in Minas Gerais, where her parents were ranchers. The two married and settled in Belo Horizonte, where they had three children: Igor, Dilma Vana, and Zana Lúcia (who died in 1977). Igor Rousseff, Dilma's elder brother, is a lawyer.[13]

Pedro Rousseff was a contractor for Mannesmann steel in addition to building and selling real estate. The family lived in a large house, had three servants, and maintained European habits. The children had a classical education, and both piano and French lessons. After Pedro defeated the initial resistance of the local community to accept foreigners, the family began to attend traditional clubs and schools.

Education and early political awareness

Dilma studied in Nossa Senhora de Sion School (current Santa Doroteia School), in Belo Horizonte.[14]

Rousseff was enrolled in preschool at the Colégio Izabela Hendrix and later received primary education at Colégio Nossa Senhora de Sion, a boarding school for girls run by nuns, where the students primarily spoke French with their teachers. Encouraged by her father, Rousseff acquired an early taste for reading. Pedro died in 1962, leaving behind around 15 properties.[13]

In 1964 Rousseff left the conservative Colégio Sion and joined the Central State High School, a Brazilian Socialist Party. Its members soon found themselves divided over the method to be used for the implementation of socialism; while some supported the struggle for the election of a constituent assembly, others preferred the armed struggle.[15] Rousseff joined the second group, which originated the Command of National Liberation (Portuguese: Comando de Libertação Nacional—COLINA). According to Apolo Heringer, who was the leader of Colina in 1968 and taught Marxism to Rousseff in high school, she chose the armed struggle after reading Revolution inside the Revolution by Régis Debray, a French intellectual who had moved to Cuba and become a friend of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. Heringer says that "the book inflamed everybody, including Dilma".[13]

During that period, Rousseff met Cláudio Galeno Linhares, a brother-in-arms five years her senior. Galeno, who had joined POLOP in 1962, had served in the Army, participating in the uprising of sailors against the military coup, for which he had been arrested in Ilha das Cobras. They married in 1968 in a civil ceremony, after dating for one year.[13]

Guerrilla activity, 1968–69


President Dilma Rousseff and former U.S. president Bill Clinton in Rio de Janeiro, 9 December 2013.

Rousseff participated in the militant activities of the Comando de Libertação Nacional—COLINA (National Liberation Command) and advocated Marxist politics among labour union members and as editor of the newspaper The Piquet. According to the magazine Piauí, she handled weapons.[13] Gilberto Vasconcelos, a former fellow militant, however, has stated that she "has never (...) practiced an act of violence".[16]

In early 1969, the Minas Gerais branch of Colina was limited to a dozen militants, with little money and few weapons. Its activities had boiled down to four bank robberies, some stolen cars and two bombings, with no casualties. On 14 January, however, after the arrest of some militants during a bank robbery, the rest of them gathered to debate what they would do in order to release them from jail. At dawn, the police invaded the group's house and the militants responded by using a machine gun, which killed two policemen and wounded another.[13]

Rousseff and Galeno then began to sleep each night in a different location, since their apartment was visited by one of the leaders of the organization that had been arrested. They had to go back to their home secretly in order to destroy the organization's documents. On March 1969, the apartment was searched by the police, but no documents were found. They stayed in Belo Horizonte for a few more weeks trying to reorganize what was left of Colina, but had to avoid their parents' houses, aware that they were being watched by the military (Rousseff's family had no knowledge of her participation in underground activities). In addition to that, Galeno had to undergo facial plastic surgery or a similar procedure (although he denies this) after a sketch of him was released for participating in a bank robbery. Unable to remain in the city, the organization ordered them to move to Rio de Janeiro. Rousseff was 21 and had just finished her fourth semester at the Minas Gerais Federal University School of Economics.[13]

Dilma Rousseff during an interview in São Paulo.

There were a large number of people from Minas Gerais in the Rio de Janeiro faction of Colina (including former Belo Horizonte mayor Brazilian Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Brasileiro—PCB) and sheltered Galeno in Porto Alegre. The breakup with Galeno was peaceful. As Galeno said, "in that difficult situation, we had no prospect of being a regular couple".[13]

Araújo was the son of a prominent labor defense lawyer and had joined the PCB early. He had traveled through Latin America (having met Castro and Che Guevara) and had been imprisoned for several months in 1964. He joined the armed struggle after the issue of AI-5 by the dictatorship in 1968. On early 1969, he began to discuss the merger of his group with Colina and Popular Revolutionary Vanguard (Portuguese: Vanguarda Popular Revolucionária—VPR), led by Carlos Lamarca. Rousseff attended some meetings about the merger, which was formalized in two conferences in Mongaguá, leading to the creation of Revolutionary Armed Vanguard Palmares (Portuguese: Vanguarda Armada Revolucionária Palmares—VAR Palmares). Rousseff and Araújo attended these conferences, as well as Lamarca, who thought that Rousseff was a "stuck-up intellectual." His perception was based on her defense of a revolution through the political engagement of the working class, in opposition to VPR's military-based sense of revolution.[13]

Revolutionary Armed Vanguard Palmares (VAR Palmares)

Carlos Araújo was chosen as one of the six leaders of VAR Palmares, which claimed to be a "political-military organization of Joan of Arc of subversion", saying that she led strikes and advised bank robberies.[18] She was also dubbed as "the she-pope of subversion", "political criminal" and "female figure of sadly notable aspect".[13] Rousseff ridicules such comparison, stating that she does not even remember many of the actions attributed to her.[19] According to her former comrade and current colleague, Environment Minister Carlos Minc, her role in the group was sensationalized. "Because she is a very important person, they'll say anything about her."[20]

Carlos Minc, who was also a VAR Palmares militant, denied Rousseff's role as head of the clandestine organization.

Rousseff has sometimes been described as the mastermind of the theft of a

Political offices
Preceded by
Francisco Luiz Sibut Gomide
Minister of Mines and Energy
Succeeded by
Silas Rondeau
Preceded by
José Dirceu
Chief of Staff of the Presidency
Succeeded by
Erenice Guerra
Preceded by
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
President of Brazil
Party political offices
Preceded by
Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva
Workers' Party nominee for President of Brazil
2010, 2014
Most recent
  • (Portuguese) Official website of the Presidency of Brazil
  • (Portuguese) Official website of Dilma Rousseff
  • (Portuguese) Official Twitter account
  • (Portuguese) Official YouTube account
  • (Portuguese) Official Facebook page
  • (English) Biography at Portal Brasil at the Wayback Machine (archived 4 December 2011)

External links

  1. ^ EFE. "Dilma, 1ª mulher presidente e única economista em 121 anos de República". BOL. 31 October 2010.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Bennett, Allen."Dilma Rousseff biography", Agência Brasil, 9 August 2010.
  3. ^ a b c d Ex-Guerrilla to be Brazil's First Female President at the Wayback Machine (archived 4 November 2010) by Bradley Brooks, Associated Press, 31 October 2010. Retrieved from Internet Archive 11 January 2014.
  4. ^ "Dilma Rousseff re-elected Brazilian president".  
  5. ^ Daniel Schwartz (31 October 2010). "Dilma Rousseff". CBC News  
  6. ^ PIZZETTO, Renato. "Nunca vou falar não para o Lula, diz Dilma sobre 2010". Folha da Bahia, 20 April 2008.
  7. ^ United States Consulate document about Dilma Rousseff, sent to the U.S. Department of State.
  8. ^ Who Is Who: Bulgarian Origins and Relatives of Brazil's Dilma Rousseff
  9. ^ LEITÃO, Matheus; RAMOS, Murilo (10 November 2006). "Dilma, a poderosa".  
  10. ^ "Габровци пожелаха успех на Дилма Русеф" (in Bulgarian).  
  11. ^ Инджов, Момчил (1 September 2004). "Братът инж. Любен Русев: Тайно получавах пари от Бразилия" (in Bulgarian). Труд. Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  12. ^ ДИЛМА РУСЕФ Е ДЯСНАТА РЪКА НА ПРЕЗИДЕНТА ИГНАСИО ЛУЛА ДА СИЛВА at the Wayback Machine (archived 29 June 2007) Retrieved from Internet Archive 11 January 2014.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Carvalho, Luiz Maklouf (April 2009). "As armas e os varões: A educação política e sentimental de Dilma Roussef".  
  14. ^ Eliane Cantanhêde (2013-03-31). "Dilma Roussef, Marina Silva e Cármen Lúcia foram educadas em colégios de freiras" [Dilma Roussef, Marina Silva e Cármen Lúcia studied in Catholics schools ruled by nuns] (in Português).  
  15. ^ Constituent assembly vs. Armed struggle
  16. ^ Dilma Rousseff concede a entrevista da vitória na bancada do JN
  17. ^ O'shaughnessy, Hugh (26 September 2010). "Former guerrilla Dilma Rousseff set to be the world's most powerful woman – Americas, World". London: The Independent. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  18. ^ 04-05-2009. "Ex-guerrilheira é elogiada por militares e vista como "cérebro" do grupo." Folha de S.Paulo (29.222): Caderno A – Brasil.
  19. ^ 04-05-2009. "Aos 19, 20 anos, achava que eu estava salvando o mundo." Folha de S.Paulo (29.222): Caderno A – Brasil.
  20. ^ a b "Minc: Dilma não roubou 'cofre do Ademar' em 1969". O Globo. 18 February 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  21. ^ 01-15-2003. "O cérebro do roubo ao cofre", Veja.
  22. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei. "The health of a likely presidential candidate comes under Brazil's microscope", The New York Times
  23. ^ a b "Aos 19, 20 anos, achava que eu estava salvando o mundo" (5 April 2009). Folha de S.Paulo (29.222): Caderno A – Brasil.
  24. ^ a b "Grupo de Dilma planejava sequestrar Delfim" (5 April 2009). Folha de S.Paulo (29.222): Caderno A – Brasil.
  25. ^ "Painel do Leitor" (8 April 2009). Folha de S.Paulo (29.225): Caderno A – Opinião.
  26. ^ "Para ficar ao abrigo de desmentidos" (12 April 2009). Folha de S.Paulo (29.229): Ombudsman.
  27. ^ Nassif, Luis (6 April 2009). "Fonte acusa Folha de manipulação". Último Segundo. Página visitada em 13 August 2009.
  28. ^ "Espinosa denuncia fraude da "Folha" contra Dilma". Jornal Hora do Povo.
  29. ^ "A fraude da Folha(*) e o sequestro de Delfim: Dilma não sabia de nada e não tem do que se defender", Conversa Afiada (6 April 2009).
  30. ^ "ISTOÉ Independente – informação não encontrada". Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  31. ^ Samarco, Christiane (3 August 2008)."Revoltados com Tarso, militares discutem punir 'terroristas'", O Estado de S. Paulo
  32. ^ "Folha Online – Brasil – Dilma diz não ter a mesma cabeça da época em que era guerrilheira; veja a íntegra da entrevista – 05/04/2009". Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  33. ^ a b "Folha Online – Brasil – Presa durante a ditadura, Dilma pediu indenização a 3 Estados – 09/06/2009". 31 August 2010. Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  34. ^ Portal G1 (7 February 2007). Torturada na ditadura, Dilma será indenizada.
  35. ^ "É simples saber se a ficha é falsa" (5 July 2009). Folha de S.Paulo (29.313): Ombudsman.
  36. ^ "Franklin critica Folha no caso da suposta ficha sobre Dilma" (7 May 2009). Folha de S.Paulo (29.254): Caderno A – Brasil.
  37. ^ "Autenticidade de ficha de Dilma não é provada" (25 April 2009). Folha de S.Paulo (29.242): Caderno A – Brasil.
  38. ^ "Erramos" (25 April 2009). Folha de S.Paulo (29.242): Caderno A – Opinião.
  39. ^ Magalhães, Luiz Antonio. "Folha publicou ficha falsa de Dilma". Observatório da Imprensa. 25 April 2009.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Carvalho, Luís Maklouf (July 2009). "Mares nunca dantes navegados: Como e por que Dilma Rousseff se tornou a candidata de Lula à sucessão presidencial." Revista Piauí, nº 34, pp. 26–33.
  41. ^ Kattah, Eduardo (16 September 2008). "Dilma se emociona em homenagem a vítimas da ditadura", O Estado de S. Paulo.
  42. ^ "Site da Casa Civil dizia que Dilma tinha feito mestrado em teoria econômica. Unicamp nega". O Globo (in Português). 3 July 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  43. ^ "Dilma admite erro em currículo". O Globo (in Português). 7 July 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  44. ^ a b
  45. ^ "Biography of Dilma". Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  46. ^ Procuradoria Geral do Trabalho. "Procuradores". Porto Alegre: Procuradoria Geral do Trabalho. Retrieved 8 October 2010. 
  47. ^ Zero Hora (18 April 2008). "Filha de Dilma entra na igreja para seu casamento em Porto Alegre". Porto Alegre: Zero Hora. Retrieved 8 October 2010. 
  48. ^ "Birth to Dilma's first grandchild during the presidential campaign" (in Português). Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  49. ^ "Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in Dilma" (in Português). 25 April 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  50. ^ "Lula diz que vinha pedindo para Dilma tirar peruca; Alencar afirma que visual está moderno – BOL Notícias". 21 December 2009. Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  51. ^ "The hair of Dilma". 21 December 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  52. ^ Barnes, Taylor. "Waiting for the Dilmismo to Begin". Foreign Policy. 1 November 2010.
  53. ^ (Portuguese) "Dilma entende aborto como questão de saúde pública, afirma presidente do PT". Zero Hora. 14 October 2010.
  54. ^ (Portuguese) Borges, Altamiro. "O aborto da "revista" Veja". Blog do Miro. 10 October 2010.
  55. ^ Latin American Herald Tribune: Controversy Over Abortion Sparks Tension in Brazil Elections
  56. ^ MercoPress: Abortion debate in Brazilian campaign has both candidates on the defensive
  57. ^ a b (Portuguese) Sobrinho, Wanderley Preite. "Dilma pede “punição exemplar” a envolvidos na morte de Eliza Samudio e classifica crime como "bárbaro"". R7. 8 July 2010.
  58. ^ a b c (Portuguese) ""Sou a favor da união civil gay", diz Dilma Roussef". A Capa. 29 June 2010.
  59. ^ (Portuguese) Araújo, Rosa. "Dilma defende união civil entre gays e se diz contra a legalização da maconha". R7. 21 July 2010.
  60. ^ Kenneth Rapoza. "Brazil's First Lady". The Nation. 3 November 2010.
  61. ^ a b (Portuguese) AFP. "Nos EUA, Dilma se manifesta contra privatização de empresas do setor elétrico e da Petrobras". Zero Hora. 21 April 2010.
  62. ^ Portal 2014. . 3 January 2011.Portal 2014"Governo Dilma vai privatizar aeroportos paulistas, diz jornal".
  63. ^ (Portuguese)Após debate, Dilma defende criminalização da homofobia
  64. ^ 'Veja''"'". 6 June 2001. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  65. ^ 'Veja''"'". 17 November 2004. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  66. ^ "Folha Online – Dinheiro – Plataformas com conteúdo nacional devem gerar 30 mil empregos – 31/03/2003". Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  67. ^ "ANP: ConteĂşdo nacional pesa mais que lance de preços em leilĂŁo / 2003-03-10 12:22:13 – 1779975 / Investimentos e NotĂcias". 10 March 2003. Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  68. ^ "Folha Online – Especial – 2003 – Petrobras 50 anos". 1 January 1970. Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  69. ^ "Petrobras anuncia contratos para quatro plataformas – Paraná-Online – Paranaense como você". Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  70. ^ a b Marcelo Cabral do G1, em São Paulo. "G1 > Economia e Negócios – NOTÍCIAS – Petrobras empurra retomada dos estaleiros no Brasil". Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  71. ^ Folha de S.Paulo, 29 November 2009, "Indústria naval renasce e já é 6ª do mundo"
  72. ^ "". Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  73. ^ a b "Folha Online – Dinheiro – Subsídio para universalização será para o consumidor, diz ministra – 19/09/2003". Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  74. ^ "Folha Online – Dinheiro – Governo estuda mais ajuda ao setor elétrico – 20/09/2003". Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  75. ^
  76. ^ "What Lies Beneath". The Economist. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  77. ^ Estadão (26 de outubro de 2008). "Pedro Simon prevê aliança entre PT e PMDB em 2010".
  79. ^ Do G1, em São Paulo. "G1 > Política – NOTÍCIAS – EUA fizeram dossiê sobre Dilma, diz jornal". Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  80. ^ "WRS – Bem-vindo ao cadastro". Retrieved 3 October 2010. 
  81. ^ Giraldi, Renata and Lourenço, Iolando (Agência Brasil). "PT homologa candidatura de Dilma à Presidência e a indicação de Temer para vice". Exame. 13 June 2010.
  82. ^ Wheatley, Jonathan. "Brazil's election: all over bar the voting?". Financial Times. 24 August 2010.
  83. ^
  84. ^ Wheatley, Jonathan. "Brazil’s election: who’s your choice?". Financial Times. 18 August 2010.
  85. ^ (Portuguese) Campanerut, Camila. "Pesquisa CNT/Sensus: Dilma tem 46% das intenções de voto; Serra, 28,1%". BOL. 24 August 2010.
  86. ^ (Portuguese) Leal, Cláudio. "Dilma paparica Del Toro: "Sem dúvida, ele é muito bonito..."". Terra Magazine. 18 September 2010.
  87. ^ (Portuguese) "PS francês anuncia apoio à candidatura de Dilma Rousseff". AFP. 16 June 2010.
  88. ^ "Full interview with Oliver Stone, after meeting with Dilma Rousseff" on YouTube. Posted by on 1 June 2010.
  89. ^ "Alcione – Veja quem já está com Dilma". 7 August 2010.
  90. ^ "Maria da Conceição Tavares – Veja quem já está com Dilma". 12 August 2010.
  91. ^ "Hildegard Angel – Veja quem já está com Dilma". 7 August 2010.
  92. ^ Toptweets for 15 October 2010.
  93. ^ "Dilma in Rio – 2010 Presidential Election". 18 October 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  94. ^ a b (Portuguese) "Militantes verdes franceses lançam manifesto de apoio a Dilma". Carta Maior. 21 October 2010.
  95. ^ "É preciso derrotar Serra" (in Portuguese).  
  96. ^   Retrieved from Internet Archive 11 January 2014.
  97. ^ "Dilma Rousseff Becomes First Woman President in Brazil Election". Retrieved 1 November 2010. 
  98. ^ Dilma Rousseff profile: former guerrilla primed to become Brazil's first female president, Daily Telegraph, 31 October 2010
  99. ^ (English)Dilma Rousseff re-elected Brazilian president
  100. ^ Bulgaria-Descended Dilma Rousseff Said to Outshine Merkel, Clinton Sofia News Agency. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  101. ^ a b Eleição no Brasil provoca 'febre Dilma' na Bulgária Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved 2010-10-02. Portuguese: icon.
  102. ^ Dilma Rousseff: I Feel Like I Am Partly Bulgarian Sofia News Agency. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
  103. ^ Jornal do Brasil – Internacional – Bulgária faz exposição sobre origens de Dilma Rousseff
  104. ^ a b (Portuguese) EFE. "Primeiro-ministro búlgaro assistirá à posse de Dilma Rousseff". Terra. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  105. ^ Descendente de búlgaros, Dilma recebe cartas e presentes do país – Brasil – R7
  106. ^ Morning Briefing: Polish Rate Call, Slovakia in View The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2011-10-05.
  107. ^ Dilma Rousseff Visits Grave of Her Bulgarian Brother in Sofia
  108. ^ There has been extensive controversy regarding Rousseff's preference for presidenta in lieu of presidente. Nonetheless, this article reflects the official usage.
  109. ^ (Portuguese) Londres, Mariana. "Equipe de Dilma marca dois ensaios para garantir “perfeição” na posse". R7. 19 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  110. ^ (Portuguese) Redação. "Posse de Dilma vai destacar o papel das mulheres na história do Brasil". Correio da Bahia. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  111. ^ G1 – Para saudar Dilma e se despedir de Lula, 30 mil enfrentam chuva – notícias em Política
  112. ^ a b (Portuguese) Folha Online. "Congresso espera 2.000 convidados para cerimônia de posse de Dilma". Agora MS. 21 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  113. ^ a b c d (Portuguese) "Posse de Dilma tem 14 chefes de Estado e governo confirmados". Terra. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  114. ^ (Portuguese) Severino Motta. "Hillary e 17 líderes internacionais estarão na posse de Dilma". Último Segundo. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  115. ^ (Portuguese) Madeira, Sara (Lusa). "José Sócrates vai estar presente na posse de Dilma Rousseff – oficial". Google News. 17 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  116. ^ (Portuguese) AFP. "Hillary confirma presença na posse de Dilma". Google News. 21 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  117. ^ a b (Portuguese) Andrade, Claudia (Terra). "Festa da posse custará R$ 1,5 mi". Blog do Noblat. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  118. ^ a b c d Posse de Dilma terá festa com shows de cantoras – Brasil – R7
  119. ^ "Diplomada presidenta, Dilma exalta Lula e condição de mulher". Último Segundo. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  120. ^ Lima, Maria (13 December 2010). "Dilma será diplomada com Ministério incompleto". O Globo. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  121. ^ a b (22 December 2010). "Dilma anuncia últimos dois nomes e fecha ministério; confira". Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved 22 December 2010.
  122. ^ Dilma projeta 30% de mulheres à frente de ministérios – Política – Zero Hora
  123. ^ Dilma divulga novos ministros e amplia participação das mulheres – Portal Vermelho
  124. ^ a b c d e f G1 – Dilma teve mais alterações em ministérios do que FHC e Lula – notícias em Política
  125. ^ a b c Jornal do Brasil – País – Jobim deixa a Defesa e Celso Amorim assume a pasta. "O copo encheu", diz líder do governo
  126. ^
  127. ^ [5]
  128. ^ [6]
  129. ^ "Brazil Stays Populist". World Affairs Journal. Retrieved 2015-10-28. 
  130. ^ "The return of populism". The Economist.  
  131. ^ "Millones de brasileños salieron a la calle para gritar "fuera Dilma" (Fotos)".  
  132. ^ a b "Rousseff Approval Rating Plummets After Mass Brazil Protest".  
  133. ^ "Avaliação positiva do governo Dilma cai para 9%". Carta Capital. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2015. 
  134. ^
  135. ^ Magalhaes, Luciana; Kiernan, Paul (16 March 2015). "Brazilian President Faces More Heat After Protests; Prosecutors file more charges in widening graft scandal as public anger grows against government".  
  136. ^ Darlington, Shasta (12 April 2015). "Protesters in Brazil push to impeach President Dilma Rousseff".  
  137. ^ Hundreds of Indigenous Protest Belo Monte Dam, Brazilian Government Boycotts Talks Indian Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  138. ^ Brazil set to cut forest protection Nature. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  139. ^ Belo Monte Dam Project (slideshow) Greenpeace International official site. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  140. ^ Stop the Belo Monte Monster Dam! Amazon Watch official site. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  141. ^ Belo Monte Dam: A spearhead for Brazil’s dam-building attack on Amazonia? International Rivers official site. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  142. ^ Brazil's Belo Monte dam: a history of celebrity opposition The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  143. ^ Amid Brazil’s Rush to Develop, Workers Resist The New York Times. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  144. ^ "Brazil court refuses to stop work on Amazon dam". AFP. 9 November 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  145. ^ "Brazil furious with Human Rights Commission decision cuts all relations". MercoPress / South Atlantic News Agency. 30 April 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  146. ^ (Portuguese)Kit Homofobia
  147. ^ "Brazil's supreme court recognizes gay partnerships". Reuters. 5 May 2011. 
  148. ^ Brazil sex education material suspended by President
  149. ^ (Portuguese)Dilma defende a criminalização da homofobia
  150. ^ Government will not "make a propaganda for sexual options," says Dilma on kit
  151. ^ [7]
  152. ^ [8]
  153. ^ "The World's 100 Most Powerful Women". Forbes. Forbes. Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  154. ^ Merkel, Dilma Rousseff top Forbes powerful women list Retrieved 2013-22-05.
  155. ^ Power Women Forbes Magazine
  156. ^ BBC Brasil – Notícias – Dilma é 3ª mulher mais poderosa do mundo, segundo 'Forbes'
  157. ^ Em ranking da 'Forbes', Dilma é a 16ª pessoa mais poderosa do mundo Retrieved 2010-11-06. Portuguese: icon.
  158. ^ Dilma Rousseff Forbes magazine. Retrieved 4 November 2010.
  159. ^ Brazilian leader is first-ever woman to open U.N. speeches CNN. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  160. ^ Brazilian president Dilma Rousseff officially welcomed to Bulgaria The Sofia Echo. Retrieved 5 October 2011.


Award or decoration Country Date
Cordon of the Order of Stara Planina  Bulgaria 5 October 2011[160]
Knight of the Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic  Spain 1 April 2014

On 20 September, she received a Woodrow Wilson Public Service Award at the Pierre Hotel in New York City, a distinction which was also given to her predecessor in 2009. On the following day, she became the first woman to open a session of the United Nations General Assembly.[159] Rousseff was featured on the cover of Newsweek magazine on 26 September 2011.

In August 2011, Rousseff was included in the Forbes list of the most powerful women in the world, at the 3rd position, behind Merkel and U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton.[155][156] In October 2010, she was included in the Forbes list of the most powerful people in the world, at the 16th position.[157][158] She was the third highest placed woman on the list, after Angela Merkel and Sonia Gandhi, President of the Indian National Congress.

Rousseff was ranked fourth in Forbes' 2014 list of the most powerful women in the world.[153] This was down from the second most powerful woman in the world in 2013.[154]

President Rousseff is awarded the Woodrow Wilson Award in New York City, 21 September 2011.

International recognition

Since 25 May 2012, Rousseff's government has been facing a number of strikes of public service employees, especially University Professors. Rousseff has been inflexible, and the strike has left millions of students without classes for months.[151] According to O Globo, a Rio de Janeiro newspaper, Dilma believes private sector jobs should be prioritized by her government's policies.[152]

Public service strikes

They were directed at high school classes, so that the average age of the Brazilian students presented to the kit would be between 14 and 18. Rousseff further said in May 2011 that "the government supports education as well the struggle against homophobic practices. However, it will not be allowed for any government body to make propaganda for sexual options", using the common albeit less educated and politically correct Portuguese term for sexual orientations.[150]

Rousseff is less popular with the Brazilian LGBT social movements than expected from a left-wing president, and an often cited reason is that there are many instances in the government's balance of power where disagreements with the right-wing factions may have side effects.[146] For example, despite the fact that Brazil is a secular state, religion in politics is openly discussed, with the best example being the bancada evangélica, a collective for the Evangelical and Pentecostal Congressmen. While LGBT rights in Brazil are developing faster in the last ten years, including the Brazilian Supreme Federal Court's May 2011 ruling in a unanimous 10–0 decision, with one abstention, to legalise same-sex civil unions,[147] in the same month a spokesperson for President Dilma Rousseff announced that she has suspended an upcoming distribution of sex education videos through the ministries of health and education, saying that the "anti-homophobia kits", as they are known, are "inappropriate for children" and do not offer an objective view of homosexuality.[148] Most of it were stories about teenagers accepting their own transexualidade, as transsexualism is called in Brazil, or bisexuality, and it included a guide for teachers. However, in 2014 during the presidential elections, President Dilma Rousseff supported the criminalization of homophobia.[149]

LGBT controversies

[145] Meanwhile, multiple courts, offices and state governments continue to pursue judicial means of halting dam projects, with the status of the Belo Monte project having been reversed so many times via injunctions and appeals that only the Brazilian

Working conditions for laborers involved in these projects (which Rousseff has insisted should continue, and even be accelerated, with some sites seeing multiple work shifts so that construction can continue more than twenty hours per day) are harsh, while pay is low despite high cost of living at the remote construction sites. This has led to strikes and other worker actions at the sites of several hydroelectric projects. In spring of 2012, 17,000 workers at the Jirau Dam site went on strike for over three weeks, and later some began setting fire to dam structures and looting company stores, and even destroying some worker housing. Military troops were eventually deployed to quell the rioting and end the labor strike.[143]

Rousseff's presidency has seen a concerted push to complete a number of hydroelectric dam projects in the Amazon River Basin, despite appeals from residents of areas that would be flooded, drained or otherwise adversely affected, including indigenous tribes, and pressure from both domestic and international groups to abandon such projects. Opposition to the dam projects, especially the Belo Monte Dam project, is driven by environmental, economic and human rights concerns, the latter concerning both the people to be displaced by the projects and the workers brought in from other parts of Brazil to build the dams. Xingu (Kayapo) Chief Raoni Metuktire, along with members of other tribes that will be affected by hydroelectric dam projects proposed or already under construction;[137] NGOs based both in Brazil[138] and internationally, including Greenpeace,[139] Amazon Watch[140] and International Rivers;[141] and international celebrities including director James Cameron, actress Sigourney Weaver, and musician Sting[142] are all calling for the Amazon Basin hydroelectric projects to be halted.

Amazon Basin hydroelectric dams

In March and April 2015 millions of protesters took to the streets during the 2015 protests in Brazil against Rousseff's alleged involvement in the Petrobras scandal which involved kickbacks and corruption. When the allegations that graft occurred while President Rousseff was part of the board of directors of Petrobras, between 2003 to 2010; Brazilians became upset with the government and called for Rousseff's impeachment.[135] No evidence that Rousseff herself was involved in the scheme has been found, and she denies having any prior knowledge of it.[136]

Petrobras scandal


In July of the same year, her approval rating reached a new low (9%), while her disapproval rating reached 64%.[133] By late 2015, thousands of Brazilians began to protest, demanding Rousseff's impeachment. [134]

In early 2015, Rousseff's popularity began to decline and in February 2015, a month before the 2015 protests in Brazil began, Rouseff's approval rating dropped 19 points to 23% with 44% disapproving of her.[131][132] Following the 15 March protests, Rouseff's approval rating fell even further to only 13% with a 62% disapproval rating, one of the highest disapproval ratings in the past 20 years of any president.[132]

Rousseff maintained a majority approval rating throughout her first term.[126] In late March 2013, her government was approved by 63% of Brazilians, while her personal approval rating was at 79%, a personal high. Rousseff was also cited as the preferential candidate for 58% of the voters in the 2014 presidential election, in which she was reelected. Rousseff's popularity is attributed to popular measures of her government, such as the reduction of the federal tax in the energy bill and the exemption of federal tax in the products of the consumer basket (meat, milk, beans, rice, flour, potatoes, tomatoes, bread, sugar, coffee powder, cooking oil, butter, bananas and apples).[127] The lowering of the overnight rate conducted by the Central Bank of Brazil is also mentioned as a cause for Rousseff's high popularity.[128] This has caused some to consider her "populist", a consideration shared by her predecessor Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva.[129][130]

Rousseff graffiti in Saint-Romain-au-Mont-d'Or, France.


Since she took office, Rousseff has changed the members of her cabinet members four times.[124] She has become the president which promoted the highest number of cabinet changes in the first six months of government.[124] On 7 June 2011, Rousseff's then Chief of Staff and influential PT leader, Antonio Palocci resigned from office due to a scandal involving his personal wealth evolution.[124] On the same day, Paraná Senator Gleisi Hoffmann (also from PT) replaced him.[124] Three days later, Ideli Salvatti – former Santa Catarina Senator for PT and Minister of Fishing and Aquaculture up until then – traded office with Luiz Sérgio – former mayor of Angra dos Reis and licensed federal deputy for Rio de Janeiro (both for PT) and Secretary of Institutional Relations up until that moment.[124] On 6 July, Alfredo Nascimento, then Minister of Transportation, left office after allegations that public works were being overbilled.[124] On 4 August, Nelson Jobim left the Ministry of Defense after an interview he gave to the Piauí magazine criticizing both Hoffmann and Salvatti.[125] Rousseff named Celso Amorim to replace him.[125] Jobim had previously declared to have voted on José Serra for president.[125] With the changes, the female presence in the cabinet increased to 26%, while the PT presence increased to almost 45%.

On 17 December 2010, Rousseff received from the Supreme Electoral Court a diploma attesting her victory in the 2010 presidential election, becoming the first woman in the history of Brazil to receive it.[119] She was unable to name all members of her cabinet until that ceremony, as she had desired.[120] Rousseff completed the appointment of all 37 members of her cabinet on 22 December 2010.[121] Although she had projected that 30% of her cabinet would be composed of women,[122][123] the females appointed eventually made up 24% of her cabinet. Rousseff's own Workers' Party (PT) comprised 43% of her cabinet, with 16 members, while 12 other offices were handed out to six out of ten political parties that formed her winning electoral coalition. The remaining 9 cabinet offices, among which were key offices such as the Presidency of the Central Bank of Brazil, the Ministry of External Relations and the Ministry of the Environment, were handed out to non-partisan technical names.[121]

Cabinet of Brazil in Brasília.


In addition to the formal ceremony, Rousseff's inauguration also featured concerts by five female Brazilian singers: reais (around 0.8 million U.S. dollars) for it.[117] The concerts started at 10:00 am and stopped at 2:00 pm, with the start of the official inauguration ceremony.[118] The concerts continued from 6:00 to 9:00 pm.[118] Rousseff did not attend, as she held a reception at the Itamaraty Palace for foreign authorities attending her inauguration.[118] Each foreign authority had the opportunity to talk to her for 30 seconds.[118]

Until 21 December 2010, the publishing house of the Senate had printed 1,229 invitations for Rousseff's inauguration.[112] The National Congress expected a total of 2,000 guests for the ceremony.[112] As reported by the press, between 14 and 17 heads of state and government had confirmed their presence.[113][114] Among them were José Sócrates,[115] Juan Manuel Santos, Mauricio Funes, Alan García, José Mujica, Hugo Chávez, Álvaro Colom, Alpha Condé, Sebastián Piñera, Evo Morales,[113] (later canceled due to last minute protests in his country) and Boyko Borisov.[104] U.S. President Barack Obama sent Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton to represent him.[113][116] Former Japanese Prime Minister Taro Aso also attended.[113]

Dilma Rousseff was inaugurated as President of Brazil on 1 January 2011. The event – which was organized by her transitional team, the Ministries of External Relations and Defense and the Presidency of the Republic[109] – was awaited with some expectation, since she became the first woman ever to preside over the country. Important female figures in Brazilian history were honored with panels spread across the Monumental Axis.[110] According to the Military Police of the Federal District, around 30,000 people attended.[111]

Dilma Rousseff receiving the presidential sash from Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, 1 January 2011.
Dilma Rousseff takes the oath of office of the President of Brazil, 1 January 2011.
Presidential styles of
Dilma Rousseff
Reference style Excelentíssima Senhora Presidenta[108] da República
"Her Most Excellent Madam President of the Republic"
Spoken style Presidenta da República
"President of the Republic"
Alternative style Senhora Presidenta
"Madam President"


Presidency (2011–present)

On 4 October 2011, President Rousseff visited Bulgaria for the first time ever for a state visit as well as for an emotional back-to-the-roots visit to the homeland of her late emigrant father.[106] She paid a visit to the grave of her Bulgarian half-brother, Lyuben-Kamen Rusev, whom she never met and who died in 2007 at the age of 78.[107]

After Rousseff's election, Bulgarian Prime Minister Boyko Borisov promptly invited her for an official visit to the country. During her inauguration, he reiterated the invitation.[104] Since her inauguration, Rousseff has received 21 letters from Bulgarian citizens.[105]

According to Bulgarian media, Bulgaria experienced "Dilma fever."[100][101] The local media followed the presidential race in Brazil closely, interested in the election of a half-Bulgarian to rule over the world's 5th most populous nation and 7th largest economy.[101] In an interview for the 24 Hours newspaper, Rousseff said that she "feel[s] tenderness and love for Bulgaria. I can even say that to a certain extent I do feel like I am Bulgarian, even though I have never been in the country where my father was born. My father died when I was only fifteen years old and I did not have the chance to learn Bulgarian."[102] On November 2010, an exhibition was held in Gabrovo about Rousseff's origins.[103]

President Rousseff meets with Sofia, October 2011
Bulgarian reaction

On 26 October 2014, Dilma Rousseff has been re-elected president of Brazil, after securing more than 51% of votes in the closest election race since 1989. An official count showed her rival, center-right candidate Aécio Neves, taking just over 48% of the vote.[99]

During her presidential campaign, Rousseff underwent a makeover, replacing glasses with contact lenses, undergoing plastic surgery and adopting a different hairstyle.[98]

Brazilian newspaper Brasil de Fato, as well as magazine CartaCapital both declared support for Rousseff's candidacy.[95][96] Rousseff won the Presidency by an approximate margin of 56% to 44%, and took office on 1 January 2011, as the first woman president of the country.[97] She became the third female head of government ever in the history of Brazil, and the first de jure female head of state since the death of Maria I, Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves in 1816.

On 18 October 2010, Brazilian artists and intellectuals held an event in the Oi Casagrande theatre in Leblon, Rio de Janeiro, in order to show their support to Rousseff's candidacy. Among them were Chico Buarque, Beth Carvalho, Alceu Valença, Elba Ramalho, Emir Sader, Oscar Niemeyer, Leonardo Boff, and Marilena Chaui.[93] That same day, she received a letter of support by prominent members of the European Green Party, such as Daniel Cohn-Bendit, Dominique Voynet, Monica Frassoni, Philippe Lamberts, Noël Mamère, José Bové, and Yves Cochet.[94] According to the letter, Serra represents "the worst in our society: gender bias, sexism and homophobia, along with the most shady and myopic economic interests."[94]

Rousseff gives her first public speech after being elected Brazil's first female president.

Rousseff's candidacy was also supported by notable international figures, such as Puerto Rican actor Benicio del Toro,[86] First Secretary of the French Socialist Party Martine Aubry,[87] and American filmmaker Oliver Stone, who recorded a message on her behalf.[88] Singer Alcione,[89] Portuguese Brazilian economist Maria da Conceição Tavares,[90] and journalist Hildegard Angel (daughter of Zuzu Angel and sister of Stuart Angel)[91] also recorded messages on Rousseff's behalf. On 15 October, Tom Morello posted a message on his Twitter account supporting her candidacy, seen by him as representing "the poor, the working class and the youth."[92]

Rousseff's coalition, For Brazil to keep on changing, was initially formed by nine political parties, which gave her the largest amount of time for advertisement on television. This was the first time that PT got more television time than its main rival, the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB). However, according to electoral law, television time had to be equal on the run-off. Rousseff's ads were noted for their professionalism and production quality,[84] being rated as the best electoral program by 56% of voters.[85]

On 13 June 2010, after more than two years of widespread speculation, Rousseff launched her campaign as the official presidential candidate for the Workers' Party in the 2010 presidential election.[81] At that time, former São Paulo State Governor José Serra, candidate for the center-right opposition bloc, had been at the top of the polls for over two years. With promises of maintaining Lula's popular policies, Rousseff was able to surpass Serra in all the polls by late July.[82] In spite of maintaining a wide margin over him, she did not receive 50% of valid votes in the first round and had to face a run-off against Serra on 31 October, when she was elected with over 56% of the valid votes.[83]

Dilma Rousseff in the 2010 Workers' Party National Convention.

2010 and 2014 presidential campaigns

After Rousseff took office, the U.S. Consulate General in São Paulo sent a long profile of her to the workaholic and a great ability to listen, but lacking political tact, turning directly to technicians rather than her superiors.[79][80]

According to Gilberto Carvalho, the President's private secretary, Rousseff caught the attention of Lula for her courage to face difficult situations and for her technical skills. Franklin Martins, another guerrilla fighter-turned-minister, said Lula was very impressed with Rousseff's management of the Ministry of Energy, where she prevented another blackout. "Lula realized that she kept things moving," he said. By choosing Rousseff, Lula also prevented the political dispute between Palocci and Dirceu to succeed him, while Rousseff did not have such ambition for being a new member of the Workers' Party, and not belonging to any party faction, she moved about well in all of them. Rousseff said to Carvalho that being appointed as Chief of Staff was a much bigger surprise for her than being appointed as Minister of Energy.[40] In the opinion of Rio Grande do Sul Senator and former Governor Pedro Simon, since Rousseff took office, "seriousness is being imposed" in the Presidential Staff.[77]

As Minister of Energy, Rousseff had the support of two key ministers of the Lula administration: Antonio Palocci and José Dirceu. After Dirceu resigned as Chief of the Presidential Staff due to his involvement in the so-called "Mensalão" scandal, instead of being weakened, Rousseff was chosen by Lula to be the new Chief of Staff. She took office on 21 June 2005, becoming the first female to assume the position.[40] As a former Energy Minister, she also holds a seat on the board of directors of Petrobras.[76]

Dilma Rousseff and Barack Obama at the White House, April 2012.

Chief of Staff (2005–10)

The program was launched in November 2003, under the name Luz para Todos (Electricity for All), focused in regions with a low Human Development Index and toward families with total incomes equaling, up to, three times the minimum wage. The goal of the program was to provide electricity for 2.5 million rural households (approximately 12 million people) by the end of 2008. In October 2008, Rousseff acknowledged that the government would not be able to fulfill its goal in time, leaving 100,000 households behind. In April 2008, the government extended the program until 2010, in order to benefit another 1.17 million families. 49% of the program's connections are concentrated in the Northeastern region of Brazil, which represented, from January 2005 to May 2008, 37.8% of all new wiring in the region, making the Northeast surpass the Southern region in power consumption for the first time. Despite being initially advertised as being funded by the Federal Government, 90% of its cost is actually paid for by electricity consumers, through several tariffs on energy prices.[75]

Rousseff proposed to accelerate the goals of universalizing the access to electricity, which had a deadline of 2015, suggesting that 1.4 million rural households would get electricity access by 2006. She argued that it was a social inclusion goal that should be a part of Fome Zero, (Zero Hunger) and that it was not possible to assume that such a program would provide a financial return. During the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration, a similar program, called Luz no Campo (Rural Electrification), was created to encourage agribusiness providing the funding by the recipient. The goal of the program was to provide electricity to over a million households, but as of early 2003 only half of them had been electrified.[72] According to Rousseff, the results of this program were higher in states where local governments subsidized it for the population.[73] She defended, then, a program heavily subsidized by the federal government, which should not only subsidize, but cover the costs for the universalization of electricity.[74] The subsidy, however, should be for the consumer, and not for the electric companies.[73]

Luz para Todos program.

Light for All program

After becoming a Minister, Rousseff defended a new industrial policy from the government, ensuring that Petrobras' platforms had a minimum domestic content, what could generate 30 thousand new jobs in the country. She argued that it was unthinkable that a billion dollar building was not being made in Brazil.[66] The bids for the P-51 and P-52 platforms were then the first in the country to require a minimum domestic content.[67] The requirement was heavily criticized, on the grounds that it would increase the costs of Petrobras,[68] but Rousseff defended the country's ability to produce ships and platforms, stating that the nationalization rates of the platforms, which varied between 15% and 18% rose to more than 60% after the requirement.[69] Lula acknowledged that, from the perspective of the company, the costs did in fact go higher, but that Petrobras should not only target the immediate costs, but also the strengthening of national science and technologies.[70] In 2008, the shipbuilding industry as a whole employed 40 thousand people, compared to 500 people in the mid-90s, in part because of the nationalization requirement.[70] Brazil now has the 6th largest shipping industry in the world.[71]

A close friend of Lula, Pinguelli was appointed as president of Eletrobrás, and found himself at odds with Rousseff on several occasions, considering an early resignation once. He was ironic about Rousseff's alleged mood swings, being quoted as saying that "this lady formats her disk every week." Pinguelli eventually left the federal government in 2004. Mauricio Tolmasquim, a member of the transition government which shared a vision of the energy sector similar to Rousseff's, was invited by her to be the executive secretary of the ministry. He stated that once they got to know each other better, Rousseff started shouting with him occasionally. "It's her way. It's not personal. And in five minutes everything is okay," he said. Sauer, who took over the gas and energy department of Petrobras, also clashed with the minister, who repulsed his ideas of a statist model. Sometimes the clashes between them were so serious that Lula's intervention was necessary. Sauer left the state oil company in 2007. Another one which had disagreements with the minister on energy issues was the former Congressman Luciano Zica. For him, "Dilma is the most democratic person in the world, as long as you agree 100% with her."[40] He recently left PT and joined the Green Party along with Marina Silva.

Dilma and Lula during the Growth Acceleration Program.

Her management of the Ministry was marked by the respect of contracts made by the previous administration, by her efforts to prevent further blackouts and by the implementation of an electric model less concentrated in the hands of the state, differently from what Rosa and Sauer desired. Regarding the free market of energy, Rousseff not only kept it as she expanded it as well. José Luiz Alquéres, president of Light S.A., praised the approach taken by Rousseff, which is, accordind to him, helping the segment as a whole. He criticized, however, the delay in the implementation of the new model, but said that this is the fault of the bureaucratic government machinery. Convinced that urgent investments in power generation were required so that the country would not face a general blackout in 2009, Rousseff entered in a serious clash with then Minister of Environment, Marina Silva, which defended the embargo on several construction sites, concerned with the ecological imbalance that they could cause. Dirceu had to create a team of mediators between the two ministers in order to try to resolve their disputes.[65]

It was a great surprise for everyone that, after elected, Lula chose Rousseff as the incumbent Minister. The President elect declared: "Already near 2002, it appears there a comrade with a little computer in her hand. We started debating and I realized she had a differential characteristic from the others who were there, because she came in with the practicality of the assignment of running the Secretary of Energy of Rio Grande do Sul. Then I was like: I think I found my Minister here."[40] Another factor which would have weighed heavily on Lula's choice was the sympathy that Antonio Palocci had for Rousseff, recognizing that she would have a much easier dialogue with the private sector than Pinguelli, in addition to her support of the Carta aos Brasileiros (Letter to the Brazilian People), agreeing with several market friendly changes in the Workers' Party. Dutra said he was consulted by Lula, and praised Rousseff's technical merits while Secretary of Energy during his administration. "I could have weighted the scale in her favor at that time, but from the transition government forward the merit is all hers," he recalled. After her appointment, she became very close to José Dirceu, appointed by Lula as the new Chief of Staff of Brazil.[40]

The issues related to the area of energy on the government plan of candidate Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva were discussed in meetings coordinated by physicist and nuclear engineer Luiz Pinguelli Rosa. Another highlighted member of the group was Ildo Sauer. Both of them were completely opposed to the privatization of the sector, which was, in their opinion, responsible for the energy problems that the country was facing. Pinguelli invited Rousseff to join the group meetings in June 2001, where she arrived as a shy participant in a team formed by several professors, but soon stood out with her objectivity and good knowledge of the area. However, it was clear for everyone in the group that Pinguelli would become the Minister of Energy if Lula won the election.[40]

Dilma Rousseff in Brasília, March 2009.

Minister of Energy (2003–05)

During Rousseff's management of the Secretariat of Energy in the Dutra administration, the service capacity of the electricity sector rose by 46%.[40] due to an emergency program attended by state and private companies. In January 1999, Rousseff traveled to Brasília in order to alert the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration that if the authorities responsible for the power sector did not invest in generation and transmission of energy, the power cuts that Rio Grande do Sul faced early in her administration would take place in the rest of the country.[64] Therefore, the electricity crisis at the end of the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration affected millions of Brazilians, with the exception of those from the three southern states, where no rationing was imposed, as there was no drought. There was a voluntary energy saving, and Rousseff tried to obtain compensation from the federal government, as it was granted to other regions. The federal government did not grant it, and Rousseff had to compromise with the private sector. According to Pedro Parente, Chief of Staff during the Cardoso administration, "she was pragmatic, objective and showed that she had a fluid dialogue with the business sector."[40]

During the first year of the Dutra administration, the PDT had gained some high-ranking offices, but Brizola felt that his party had very little space in the government, responsible for a tiny portion of the budget. Unable to get more space inside the administration, PDT members of the government were pressured by the party leadership to step down. The formation of the political alliance for the 2000 Porto Alegre mayoral election was also a cause of friction among the two parties. They ended up launching each own a different candidate; PDT's was Collares and PT's was Tarso Genro. Rousseff defended the maintenance of the alliance which had elected Dutra, supporting Genro's candidacy, and claiming she would not accept "neoliberal alliances with the right-wing". Her critics said that she was being hypocritical, once she defended an alliance with Marchezan in the 1986 election. Genro defeated Collares in the second round and Rousseff, among other fellow PDT members, joined the Workers' Party. Brizola accused them of being traitors.[40]

In 1995, after the end of Collares' term, Rousseff departed from her political office and returned to the FEE, where she was the editor of the magazine Economic Indicators (Portuguese: Indicadores Econômicos). It was during this break from public offices that she officially enrolled in the Campinas State University PhD program, in 1998. That same year, the Workers' Party won the Rio Grande do Sul gubernatorial election with the support of PDT in the second round. Once again she was appointed Secretary of Energy, this time by Governor Olívio Dutra. As he later recalled, "I already knew and respected her. I also appointed her because she was in a more left-leaning stance inside the PDT, less populist."[40]

Dilma Rousseff in 2009.

In 1990, Alceu Collares was elected Governor, appointing Rousseff as president of the FEE, where she had been an intern in the 1970s. She remained in office until the end of 1993, when she was appointed Secretary of Energy and Communication through the influence of Carlos Araújo and his group. She remained in office until the end of 1994, the same time when her relationship with Araújo had ended, shaken by the discovery that another woman was pregnant with his child, Rodrigo (born in 1995). They later reconciled and remained together until 2000, when Rousseff moved alone to a rented apartment.[40]

State Secretary of Energy (1993–94 and 1998–2002)

Araújo's defeat jettisoned the PDT of the local executive branch. In 1989, however, Rousseff was appointed director-general of the City Council, but was dismissed by councilman Valdir Fraga, president of the local legislature, after arriving late for work. As Fraga later said, "I dismissed her because she had a problem with the time clock."[40]

Rousseff remained as Treasury Secretary until 1988, when she stepped out to dedicate herself in Araújo's campaign for mayor of Porto Alegre. She was replaced by Políbio Braga, which says that Rousseff persuaded him not to take office. She would have said that she could "not control these crazy people" and that she was leaving "before it taints my biography." While Collares remembers Rousseff as an example of competence and public transparency, Braga disagrees, stating that "she did not even leave us a single report, and the Treasury Secretary was a chaos."[40]

In the gubernatorial campaign of fellow PDT member Aldo Pinto in 1986, Rousseff had an advising role. Pinto's running mate was Nelson Marchezan, one of the most prominent civilians during the Brazilian military government. They would be defeated by the PMDB candidate Pedro Simon. Twenty years later, in an interview, Rousseff attempted to justify the controversial alliance: "Marchezan was a leader of the dictatorship, but he was never an enragé (enraged). The Marchezan wing was the wing of the radicalized small (rural) owners. And he was an ethical guy."[40]

Rousseff and Araújo devoted themselves to Alceu Collares' campaign for mayor of Porto Alegre in 1985. Much of his campaign and government plan was prepared at their home. After elected, Collares appointed Rousseff as the Municipal Secretary of Treasury; this was her first job in the Executive branch. According to Collares, Araújo influenced him on Rousseff's appointment, but her competence also contributed on his choice.[40]

Municipal Secretary of Treasury (1985–88)

With the end of the mandatory two-party system, in the early 1980s, Rousseff participated, along with Carlos Araújo, in Leonel Brizola's efforts for restructuring the Brazilian Labor Party (of social-democratic President João Goulart, overthrown by the 1964 coup). After the Supreme Electoral Court gave the name registry to the group linked to Ivete Vargas (Getúlio Vargas' niece), Rousseff and the group linked to Brizola founded the Democratic Labour Party (Portuguese: Partido Democrático Trabalhista—PDT).[40] Araújo was elected state deputy three times for this party, in 1982, 1986, and 1990. He was also the party's candidate for Porto Alegre mayor twice, losing to Workers' Party members Olívio Dutra in 1988, and Tarso Genro in 1992. Rousseff got her second job in the mid-1980s as an adviser for the PDT members of the Rio Grande do Sul Legislative Assembly.[40]

Dilma Rousseff and Leonel Brizola.

Political career

In 2014, during the presidential elections, the President Dilma Rousseff supported the criminalization of homophobia, citing the "high rate" of acts of violence against homosexuals in the country.[63]

She also pledged to deepen the social welfare network inaugurated by the Lula administration, saying that, under her rule, "Brazil will continue to grow, with social inclusion and mobility."[61]

As a member of the Workers' Party, a social-democratic party which opposes Third Way politics, Rousseff was expected to be against privatization and neoliberalism. The Nation, as an example of this rationale, described Rousseff's victory as a defeat for the Washington Consensus.[60] Rousseff, however, has had an ambiguous stance on issues that involve privatization. She is, for instance, "in favor of granting to private enterprises the construction of new power plants and roads, should it be cheaper to do them through grants than through public works."[61] Additionally, she favored the privatization of airports in order to prepare Brazil's infra-structure for the 2014 FIFA World Cup.[62]

Rousseff opposes gay marriage, but supports same-sex civil unions.[58] She said, "Marriage is a religious issue. I, as an individual, would never say what a religion should or should not do. We have to respect them."[58] On the subject of same-sex civil union, Rousseff said that "basic civil rights should be recognized within the civil legal framework."[58] She also opposes the legalization of illegal drugs, stating that "Brazil today is in no condition to propose the decriminalization of any drug."[59]

When asked about the criminal prosecution against Flamengo goalkeeper Bruno Fernandes de Souza, accused of killing his former girlfriend Eliza Samudio, Rousseff said that she opposes the death penalty.[57] According to her, "if it were effective, there would not be such crimes in the United States."[57]

Rousseff's views are mostly pro-life, supporting abortion only for pregnancies which endanger the life of the mother or are the result of rape, cases in which the current Brazilian legislation allows women to terminate their pregnancies.[52][53] However, she was criticized by sectors of the Roman Catholic Church in Brazil and other religious groups, due to her past support for the legalization of abortion. It was also a main target of criticism by José Serra's campaign as well as the newsmagazine Veja, which emphasized Rousseff's past and current positions on its cover.[54] The subject only faded away from the news after the information became public that José Serra's wife, Monica Serra, had reportedly had an abortion in her youth.[55][56]

Although Rousseff states that her political thinking has changed drastically – from Marxism to pragmatic capitalism – she remains proud of her radical roots.[3]

Dilma Rousseff in a meeting with evangelical singers and bishops, at the Planalto Palace.
President Dilma Rousseff in 2014, signing a law that made abuse and sexual exploitation of children and adolescents a heinous crime.

Political positions

After seven months of wearing a wig, Rousseff wore her natural dark brown hair at the launch of the 3rd Human Rights Program on 21 December 2009. She had announced in November that she would be retiring her wig as soon as her hair became more even. According to her, it was still "full of holes", the reason why she "couldn't take [the wig] off there in Copenhagen, Denmark". She first publicly admitted of wearing a wig back in May, when she jokingly referred to it as a "basic little wig".[50][51]

In mid-May 2009, she was hospitalized in the Hospital Sírio-Libanês in São Paulo, with severe pains in her legs. The diagnosis was a myopathy, a muscle inflammation resulting from the cancer treatment. In early September that same year, she revealed she had completed her radiotherapy treatment, claiming to be cured, which was later confirmed by her doctors. She began to wear a wig due to hair loss caused by the chemotherapy.

At a press conference on 25 April 2009, Rousseff revealed that she was undergoing treatment to remove an early-stage axillar lymphoma, a cancer in the lymphatic system, which was detected in her left armpit during a routine mammogram. It was diagnosed as a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, an intermediate grade type, but her chances of being cured were up to 90%. She was submitted to curative chemotherapy treatment for four months.[49]

Health issues

On 9 September 2010, Paula Rousseff gave birth to Rousseff's first grandchild, a boy named Gabriel Rousseff Covolo, in the city of Porto Alegre, during the 2010 presidential campaign of her mother. After the last debate with four other candidates, on 30 September 2010, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, which was aired on national TV, Rousseff flew to Porto Alegre for the christening of Gabriel in the Roman Catholic Cathedral on 1 October 2010.[48]

Paula Rousseff married business administrator Rafael Covolo, three years her junior, in Porto Alegre on 18 April 2008.[47]

Paula Rousseff, born on 27 March 1976, in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, is the only daughter of Dilma Rousseff and her former husband, Carlos Araújo. Paula is a law graduate and holds the office of Labor Prosecutor in Porto Alegre.[46]

Dilma Vana Rousseff at the christening of grandson Gabriel, with daughter Paula and son-in-law Rafael Covolo and Dilma Jane Rousseff, the great-grandmother (far left).

Paula Rousseff

According to Rousseff, she enjoys history and is interested in opera. In the early 1990s, she enrolled in a course in Greek theater taught by playwright Ivo Bender. Greek mythology then became an obsession for her, and, influenced by Penelope, she decided to learn how to embroider. Her favorite actress is Fernanda Montenegro. Her website claims she is an avid reader, citing Machado de Assis, Guimarães Rosa, Cecília Meireles, and Adélia Prado as her favorite authors.[45]

Rousseff and Araújo have a daughter named Paula Rousseff de Araújo born in 1976. Rousseff divorced Araújo in 2000.[44]

In 1968 she married journalist Cláudio Galeno de Magalhães Linhares, who introduced 20-year-old Rousseff to the underground resistance movement against the dictatorship. In the early 1970s, Rousseff separated from Galeno and started a relationship with Carlos Franklin Paixão de Araújo. She legally divorced Galeno in 1981.[44] divorce was legalized in Brazil in 1977.

Dilma Rousseff with Lula during the 2010 presidential campaign.

Private life

In 1978, Rousseff attended the Campinas State University, with the intention of receiving a master's degree in Economics. At that time, she began attending a discussion group formed by other VAR Palmares former members, such as Rui Falcão, Antonio Roberto Espinosa, and eventually Carlos Araújo. Meeting once every three months, the group lasted a couple of years. They would read the works of Karl Marx, Nicos Poulantzas, and Louis Althusser, discussing what would be the right moment to resume their political activity. Rousseff declared that she "attended the master's degree program," but did not finish it, failing to present her thesis. "That's why I returned to university to pursue a doctorate. And then I became minister and did not finish the doctorate", she said. Her academic credentials have been the subject of controversy as her official biography listed these master's and doctoral degrees that she had never earned. She was, however, twice enrolled in the graduate program in economics at the State University of Campinas, without ever fulfilling the requirements for those degrees.[42][43]

Her political activism, this time within the law, was resumed at the Institute of Social and Political Studies (Fernando Henrique Cardoso, and Francisco Weffort. In 1976, Rousseff and Araújo worked in the campaign of Glênio Peres, a MDB candidate for the city council. Although elected, Peres' term was revoked for denouncing the regime's torture in a speech. In November 1977, Rousseff was reported by the newspaper O Estado de S. Paulo as one of the 97 "subversives" infiltrated in the public administration. The list was made by resigned Army Minister, Silvio Frota, who had summarized the political background of those he listed. Rousseff, characterized as a Colina and VAR Palmares militant "cohabitating with the subversive Carlos Araújo," was discharged from her job at the FEE, being pardoned later.[40]

[40] Punished for subversion in accordance with the decree number 477, considered the

Rousseff left jail at the end of 1972. She was ten kilograms (22 pounds) thinner and had acquired a thyroid disease.[40] She spent some time with her family in Minas Gerais in order to recover, visited an aunt in São Paulo, and then moved to Porto Alegre, where Carlos Araújo was finishing the last months of his sentence. She stayed in her in-laws' house, from where they could see the prison where Araújo was. Rousseff frequently visited her partner, giving him newspapers and political books disguised as novels. The Presídio da Ilha das Pedras Brancas was deactivated, and Araújo fulfilled the remainder of his sentence in the Presídio Central. The prominent lawyer, Afrânio Araújo, Carlos' father, died in June 1974, prompting his friends to pressure the regime for the release of Carlos, which happened just a week later.[13][40]

Dilma Rousseff after voting in Porto Alegre, in 2010.

Life in Porto Alegre, 1972–80

[39] website which supports the regime.far right-wing The record can be found on a [38][37][36][35] On 5 April 2009,

In December 2006, the Special Commission for Reparation of the Human Rights Office for the State of Rio de Janeiro approved a request for indemnification by Rousseff and eighteen other prisoners in law enforcement agencies of the São Paulo state government in the 1970s.[34] In her request, a pivotal witness was Vânia Abrantes, who was in the same police car that transferred her from São Paulo to Rio de Janeiro (Vânia was Araújo's girlfriend when he and Rousseff began to date).[13] Rousseff also requested compensation in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, since she was arrested in São Paulo but taken for interrogation in the cities of Juiz de Fora and Rio de Janeiro. She also seeks damages from the federal government. The total compensation figure paid to victims of political persecution may be up to 72,000 reais. However, as her advisors have declared, the indemnification has a symbolic value to her, and Rousseff demanded the requests be tried only after her departure from public office.[33]

Carlos Araújo was arrested on 12 August 1970. After Rousseff was captured, he had an affair with actress and fellow militant Bete Mendes. After his arrest, he met Rousseff on some occasions, during displacements regarding the military lawsuits both were being prosecuted for. They were even a few months in the same prison in São Paulo, where during conjugal visits they reconciled, planning to resume married life after being released from jail.[13] Rousseff was convicted in the first instance to six years in prison. She had already served three years when the Supreme Military Court reduced her sentence to two years and a month. She also had her political rights suspended for eighteen years.[33]

Rousseff was taken to the OBAN headquarters, the same place where Vladimir Herzog would be tortured and killed five years later. She was allegedly tortured for 22 days by punching, ferule, and electric shock devices.[30] As Maria Luisa Belloque, a cellmate, said "Dilma was shocked even with car wiring." Some ex-military officers have dismissed Rousseff's account, saying that she could not have survived that extent of torture.[31] Later, Rousseff denounced the torture she suffered in court proceedings, citing even the names of those who tortured her, such as Army Captain Benoni de Arruda Albernaz, mentioned by several other witnesses. Although she revealed the locations of some militants during torture interrogation, Rousseff managed to preserve the identities of Carlos Araújo (who would be arrested several months later) and Maria Celeste Martins.[13] Rousseff's name was on a list found at Carlos Lamarca's home, on a list of the prisoners who would get priority in exchange for hostages, but she was never exchanged and served out her sentence.[32]

José Olavo Leite Ribeiro, who met three times a week with Rousseff, was captured by the military. As Ribeiro reported, after a day of torture, he revealed the place where he would meet with another militant, in a bar on Rua Augusta in São Paulo. On 16 January 1970, he was forced to go to the bar accompanied by undercover policemen, where his colleague was captured and, when they were preparing to leave, Rousseff unexpectedly arrived. Realizing that something was wrong, Rousseff tried to leave the place without being noticed. The officers suspected Rousseff and searched her, discovering that she was armed. "If it was not for the gun, it is possible that she could have escaped," says Ribeiro.[13] Rousseff was considered a big enough catch that a military prosecutor labeled her the "Joan of Arc" of the guerrilla movement.[3]

Gateway of Tiradentes Prison in São Paulo city, where Rousseff was arrested during the military dictatorship.

Arrest (1970)

Even with large amounts of money, the organization failed to maintain its unity. At a conference held in Teresópolis between August and September 1969, there was a major dispute between those who supported the armed struggle and those who advocated working with the masses. Rousseff was in the second group. While the first group split into the paramilitary VPR, led by Lamarca, the second—including Rousseff—continued as VAR Palmares. There was a dispute over the money and weapons.[13] After the split, Rousseff was sent to São Paulo, where she was in charge of keeping her group's weapons safe. She avoided the risk of keeping them in apartments by moving with a friend (Maria Celeste Martins, who would become her Chief of Staff assistant decades later) to a simple boarding house in the eastern zone of the city, where they hid the weapons under their beds.[13]

[29][28][27][26][25] After learning about the quotes that were being attributed to him, Espinosa denied stating that Rousseff knew about the plan, which was vague in any case. He said that Rousseff never participated or planned any paramilitary actions; her role was only political.[24][23] In 1969, VAR Palmares allegedly planned the kidnapping of

[24][23]. Rousseff only remembers purchasing the car, and doubts that she was the one responsible for managing the money.Volkswagen Beetle Testimonials and police reports indicated that Rousseff was responsible for managing the money from the robbery, paying the salaries of the militants, finding a shelter for the group, and buying a [22][20]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.