World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Dipterocarp

Article Id: WHEBN0000939050
Reproduction Date:

Title: Dipterocarp  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Lampang Province, Laurel forest, Gabai Falls, Namdapha National Park, Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests, Phu Kradueng
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Dipterocarp

The Dipterocarpaceae are a family of 17 genera and approximately 500 species of mainly tropical lowland rainforest trees. The family name, from the type genus Dipterocarpus, is derived from Greek (di = two, pteron = wing and karpos = fruit) and refers to the two-winged fruit. The largest genera are Shorea (196 species), Hopea (104 species), Dipterocarpus (70 species), and Vatica (65 species).[2] Many are large forest emergent species, typically reaching heights of 40–70 m tall, some even over 80 m (in the genera Dryobalanops,[2] Hopea[3] and Shorea),[3] with the tallest known living specimen (Shorea faguetiana) 88.3 m tall.[3] The species of this family are of major importance in the timber trade. Their distribution is pantropical, from northern South America to Africa, the Seychelles, India, Indochina, Indonesia and Malaysia. The greatest diversity of Dipterocarpaceae occurs in Borneo.[4] Some species are now endangered as a result of overcutting, extensive illegal logging and habitat conversion. They provide valuable woods, aromatic essential oils, balsam, resins and are a source for plywood.

Classification

The dipterocarp family is generally divided into three subfamilies:

Phylogeny of the Dipterocarpaceae[4]
 Dipterocarpaeae  
Dipterocarpoideae
Dipterocarpeae

Anisoptera



Cotylelobium



Dipterocarpus



Stemonoporus



Upuna



Vateria



Vateriopsis



Vatica



Shoreae

Dryobalanops'



Hopea



Neobalanocarpus



Parashorea



Shorea




Monotoideae
    

Marquesia



Monotes



Pseudomonotes




Pakaraimoideae
    

Pakaraimaea





  • Dipterocarpoideae: the largest of the subfamilies, it contains 13 genera and about 475 species. Distribution includes the Seychelles, Sri Lanka, India, Southeast Asia to New Guinea, and a large distribution in Borneo, where they form the dominant species in the lowland forests. North Borneo (Brunei, Sabah and Sarawak) is the richest area in the world for dipterocarp species.[2] The Dipterocarpoideae can be divided morphologically into two groups,[4][5] and the tribe names Shoreae and Dipterocarpeae are sometimes used, but genetic evidence so far does not support this division:[6][7]
    • Valvate-Dipterocarpi group (Anisoptera, Cotylelobium, Dipterocarpus, Stemonoporus, Upuna, Vateria, Vateriopsis, Vatica). The genera of this group have valvate sepals in fruit, solitary vessels, scattered resin canals, and basic chromosome number x = 11.
    • Imbricate-Shoreae group (Balanocarpus, Hopea, Parashorea, Shorea). The genera of this group have imbricate sepals in fruit, grouped vessels, resin canals in tangential bands, and basic chromosome number x = 7. A recent molecular study suggest that the genus Hopea forms a clade with Shorea sections Anthoshorea and Doona, and should be merged into Shorea.[8]
  • Monotoideae: 3 genera, 30 species. Marquesia is native to Africa. Monotes has 26 species, distributed across Africa and Madagascar. Pseudomonotes is native to the Colombian Amazon.
  • Pakaraimoideae: contains a single species, Pakaraimaea roraimae, found in the Guaianan highlands of South America.

A recent genetic study found that the Asian dipterocarps share a common ancestor with the Sarcolaenaceae, a tree family endemic to Madagascar.[9] This suggests that ancestor of the Dipterocarps originated in the southern supercontinent of Gondwana, and that the common ancestor of the Asian dipterocarps and the Sarcolaenaceae was found in the India-Madagascar-Seychelles land mass millions of years ago, and were carried northward by India, which later collided with Asia and allowed the dipterocarps to spread across Southeast Asia and Malaysia. The first dipterocarp pollen has been found in Myanmar (which at that time was part of the Indian plate) and it dates from the upper Oligocene.[10] The sample appears to slowly increase in terms of diversity and abundance across the region into the mid-Miocene[10] Chemical traces of dipterocarp resins have been found dating back to the Eocene of India.

Fossilized arthropods

52-million-year-old amber found in the Gujarat province, India, containing a large amount of fossilized arthropods, was identified as sap from the Dipterocarpaceae family.[11]

Ecology

Dipterocarpaceae species can be either evergreen or deciduous.[12] Species occurring in Thailand grows from sea level to c. 1300 m elevation. Environments in which the species of the family occur in Thailand include: Lowland dipterocarp forest 0–350 m; Riparian fringe; Limestone hills; and Coastal hills.

References

External links

  • Dipterocarpaceae Data Base
  • http://delta-intkey.com
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.