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Earth Charter


Earth Charter

The Earth Charter is an international declaration of fundamental values and principles considered useful by its supporters for building a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. Created by a global consultation process, and endorsed by organizations representing millions of people, the Charter "seeks to inspire in all peoples a sense of global interdependence and shared responsibility for the well-being of the human family, the greater community of life, and future generations."[1] It calls upon humanity to help create a global partnership at a critical juncture in history. The Earth Charter's ethical vision proposes that environmental protection, human rights, equitable human development, and peace are interdependent and indivisible. The Charter attempts to provide a new framework for thinking about and addressing these issues. The Earth Charter Initiative organization exists to promote the Charter.


  • History 1
  • Drafting 2
  • Contents 3
    • Preamble 3.1
    • Principles 3.2
  • Reaction 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7


The idea of the Earth Charter originated in 1968, by Maurice Strong and Mikhail Gorbachev as members of The Club of Rome, when the Earth Council and Green Cross International respectively), restarted the Earth Charter as a civil society initiative, with the help of the government of the Netherlands.[2]

Strong, no longer in charge of any organization related to the charter, still gives advice and support.[2]

"The Ark of Hope was created for a celebration of the Earth Charter held at Shelburne Farms, Vermont on September 9, 2001." [1]


The drafting of the text was done during a six-year worldwide consultation process (1994–2000), overseen by the independent Earth Charter Commission, which was convened by Strong and Gorbachev with the purpose of developing a global consensus on values and principles for a sustainable future. The Commission continues to serve as the steward of the Earth Charter text.

One of the principle creators of the Earth Charter was Steven Clark Rockefeller, who, among other things is professor emeritus of Religion at Middlebury College and an advisory trustee of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund. According to text with a 2001 interview with Rockefeller, he "chaired the Earth Charter international drafting committee. He is also a member of the Earth Charter Commission and Steering Committee..."

The final text of the Earth Charter was approved at a meeting of the Earth Charter Commission at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris in March 2000. The official launch was on 29 June 2000 in a ceremony at The Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands. Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands attended the ceremony.


The approximately 2,400 word document is divided into sections (called pillars), which have sixteen main principles containing sixty-one supporting principles.[3] The document opens with a preamble and ends with a conclusion entitled “The Way Forward”.



The four pillars and sixteen principles of the Earth Charter are:[4]

I. Respect and Care for the Community of Life

1. Respect Earth and life in all its diversity.
2. Care for the community of life with understanding, compassion and love.
3. Build democratic societies that are just, participatory, sustainable and peaceful.
4. Secure Earth's bounty and beauty for present and future generations.

II. Ecological Integrity

5. Protect and restore the integrity of Earth's ecological systems, with special concern for biological diversity and the natural processes that sustain life.
6. Prevent harm as the best method of environmental protection and, when knowledge is limited, apply a precautionary approach.
7. Adopt patterns of production, consumption and reproduction that safeguard Earth's regenerative capacities, human rights and community well-being.
8. Advance the study of ecological sustainability and promote the open exchange and wide application of the knowledge acquired.

III. Social and Economic Justice

9. Eradicate poverty as an ethical, social and environmental imperative.
10. Ensure that economic activities and institutions at all levels promote human development in an equitable and sustainable manner.
11. Affirm gender equality and equity as prerequisites to sustainable development and ensure universal access to education, health care and economic opportunity.
12. Uphold the right of all, without discrimination, to a natural and social environment supportive of human dignity, bodily health and spiritual well-being, with special attention to the rights of indigenous peoples and minorities.

IV. Democracy, Nonviolence, and Peace

13. Strengthen democratic institutions at all levels, and provide transparency and accountability in governance, inclusive participation in decision-making, and access to justice.
14. Integrate into formal education and lifelong learning the knowledge, values and skills needed for a sustainable way of life.
15. Treat all living beings with respect and consideration.
16. Promote a culture of tolerance, nonviolence and peace.


The Charter has been formally endorsed by organizations representing millions of people, including the

  • Earth Charter Initiative official website
  • Earth Charter Community Network
  • Text of the Earth Charter
  • Earth Charter Future-Actions & Perspectives of an Earth Child
  • American chapter of the Earth Charter Initiative
  • YES! Questions for Students: Earth Charter teaching materials for classrooms.
  • Earth Charter Community Action Tool

External links

  1. ^ Earth Charter Initiative: "What is the Earth Charter?".
  2. ^ a b Maurice Strong: "History of the Earth Charter".
  3. ^ Nigel Dower, University of Aberdeen (2004): "The Earth Charter as a Global Ethic", p. 4.
  4. ^ a b Earth Charter Initiative: "Text of the Earth Charter".
  5. ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization: "Records of the General Conference", 32nd Session, Vol. 1, p.35
  6. ^ Earth Charter Initiative (March 26, 2009): "Universities that have endorsed the Earth Charter".
  7. ^ "One million saplings to be planted by 2010", The Hindu, Apr 21, 2007
  8. ^ "Adopted Resolutions: Energy and Environment, Endorsement of Earth Charter", 69th Annual Conference of U.S. Mayors, June 22–26, 2001
  9. ^ Earth Charter Initiative (March 26, 2009): "Youth Organizations that have endorsed the Earth Charter".
  10. ^ "SGI and the Earth Charter", SGI Resources, May 3, 2000
  11. ^ "Endorse the Earth Charter, 2002 Action of Immediate Witness", Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations
  12. ^ "Baha'is participate in interreligious dialogue on faith and ecology", Baha'i World News Service, September 6, 2001
  13. ^ "World Pantheist Movement’s Help Centre", World Pantheist Movement website, retrieved March 9, 2010.
  14. ^ Leadership Conference of Women Religious (August 24, 2004): "2004 Resolutions" (press release)
  15. ^ Diocese of Newark, "135th Annual Convention Resolutions", p. 7,January 31, 2009
  16. ^ "Mayor Hsu endorsed the Earth Charter with 15 Miss Globalcities", Tainan City Government news bulltetin, January 19, 2007
  17. ^ "Council passes Earth Charter", Rebecca Barrett, Corvallis Gazette-Times, April 17, 2006
  18. ^ "Resolution 61,007-NS", Berkeley City Council, March 27, 2001
  19. ^ "Committee of the Whole Meeting Minutes", City of Pickering, Canada, July 22, 2002
  20. ^ "Earth Charter Supported in Middlebury Meeting",, March 13, 2002
  21. ^ one page organization summary, Engineers Without Borders — International, 2009
  22. ^ Retrieved February 25, 2009.
  23. ^ Partnerships , African Conservation Foundation. Retrieved February 25, 2009.
  24. ^ Earth Charter Initiative. September 2008: The Earth Charter Initiative Handbook, p. 47.


See also

Earth Charter International, the organization responsible for promoting the Charter, states in its literature that the Earth Charter is respectful and inclusive of all religious traditions. They say that the Charter itself makes no statements to support these claims of intent to supplant any of the world's religions or to create a world government. ECI asserts that the Charter is a statement of common ethical values towards sustainability, that recognizes humanity's shared responsibility to the Earth and to each other.[24]

Indigenous Peoples did not endorse the Earth Charter and adopted their own Indigenous Peoples Earth Charter.

The Charter has received opposition from several groups. For example, in the United States, members of religious groups, such as the Religious Right have objected to the document on the grounds that it is secular, and espouses socialism. In addition, some conservatives cite an informal comment by Mikhail Gorbachev that the document is "a kind of Ten Commandments" and point to the fact that at the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa, a copy of the document was placed symbolically in an "Ark of Hope" — an independent project by the American artist Sally Linder. A number of conspiracy theorists claim that the founders of the Earth Charter are attempting to establish a global super-state to enforce the Charter.

In the UK, Bournemouth Borough Council endorsed the Charter in 2008.

Engineers Without Borders, an international association whose mission is to help its member groups assist poor communities in their respective countries and around the world, also endorses the Earth Charter.[21] The Green Party of Botswana supports the plan.[22] The African Conservation Foundation describes the Earth Charter movement as a "partner".[23]

Mayor Hsu of Tainan, a city of 750,000 in Taiwan, endorsed the charter in 2007.[16] The cities of Corvallis (Oregon, USA), Berkeley (California, USA), Pickering (Canada) and 21 towns in Vermont (USA) have endorsed the measure.[17][18][19] Nine other towns in Vermont rejected measures endorsing the Earth Charter.[20]

[15] Various religious groups from a wide range of religions support the Earth Charter. The


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