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Edward G. Robinson

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Title: Edward G. Robinson  
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Subject: Soylent Green, Our Vines Have Tender Grapes, Scarlet Street, Five Star Final, Flesh and Fantasy
Collection: 1893 Births, 1973 Deaths, 20Th-Century American Male Actors, Academy Honorary Award Recipients, Actors from Palm Springs, California, American Academy of Dramatic Arts Alumni, American Art Collectors, American Male Film Actors, American Male Silent Film Actors, American Male Stage Actors, American People of Romanian-Jewish Descent, California Democrats, Cancer Deaths in California, City College of New York Alumni, Deaths from Bladder Cancer, Hollywood Blacklist, Jewish Activists, Jewish American Male Actors, Male Actors from Bucharest, Male Actors from New York City, Male Actors from Palm Springs, California, New York Democrats, People from Bucharest, People from the Lower East Side, Romanian Emigrants to the United States, Romanian Jews, Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award, Townsend Harris High School Alumni, Warner Bros. Contract Players, Yiddish-Speaking People
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Edward G. Robinson

Edward G. Robinson
1930s publicity photo
Born Emanuel Goldenberg
(1893-12-12)December 12, 1893
Bucharest, Romania
Died January 26, 1973(1973-01-26) (aged 79)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Cause of death Bladder cancer
Resting place Beth-El Cemetery, Queens, New York City
Occupation Actor
Years active 1913–73
Home town Lower East Side, Manhattan, New York City
Spouse(s) Gladys Lloyd (m. 1927–56)
Jane Robinson (m. 1958–73)
Awards Honorary Academy Award (1973)
Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award (1969)

Edward Goldenberg Robinson (born Emanuel Goldenberg, Yiddish: עמנואל גאָלדנבערג‎; December 12, 1893 – January 26, 1973) was a Romanian American actor.[1] A popular star during Hollywood's Golden Age, he is best remembered for his roles as a gangster, such as Rico in his star-making film Little Caesar, and as Rocco in Key Largo.

Other memorable roles include insurance investigator Barton Keyes in the film noir Double Indemnity, Dathan (adversary of Moses) in The Ten Commandments, and his final performance as Sol Roth in the science-fiction story Soylent Green.[2]

Robinson was selected for an Honorary Academy Award for his work in the film industry, which was posthumously awarded two months after the actor's death in 1973. He was included at #24 in the American Film Institute's list of the 25 greatest male stars of Classic American cinema.


  • Early years and education 1
  • Career 2
    • Radio 2.1
  • Personal life 3
  • Legacy 4
  • Filmography 5
  • Radio appearances 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Further reading 9
  • External links 10

Early years and education

Robinson was born as Emanuel Goldenberg to a Yiddish-speaking Romanian Jewish family in Bucharest, the son of Sarah (née Guttman) and Morris Goldenberg, a builder.[3]

After one of his brothers was attacked by an antisemitic mob, the family decided to emigrate to the United States. Robinson arrived in New York City on February 14, 1903. He grew up on the Lower East Side,[4] had his Bar Mitzvah at First Roumanian-American Congregation,[5] and attended Townsend Harris High School and then the City College of New York. An interest in acting led to him winning an American Academy of Dramatic Arts scholarship, after which he changed his name to Edward G. Robinson (the G. standing for his original surname).


Robinson in his breakout role, Little Caesar (1931)
With Lynn Bari in Tampico (1944)
All My Sons: Louisa Horton, Robinson, Chester Erskine (producer) and Burt Lancaster, 1948

He began his acting career in the Yiddish Theater District[6][7][8] in 1913 and made his Broadway debut in 1915. He made his film debut in a minor uncredited role in 1916; and in 1923 made his named debut as E. G. Robinson in The Bright Shawl. He played a snarling gangster in the 1927 Broadway police/crime drama The Racket, which led to his being cast in similar film roles. One of many actors who saw his career flourish in the new sound film era rather than falter, he made only three films prior to 1930, but left his stage career that year and made 14 films between 1930–1932.

Robinson went on to make a total of 101 films in his 50-year career. An acclaimed performance as the gangster Caesar Enrico "Rico" Bandello in Little Caesar (1931) led to being further typecast as a "tough guy" for much of his early career, in works such as Five Star Final (1931), Smart Money (1931; his only movie with James Cagney and Boris Karloff), Tiger Shark (1932), Kid Galahad (1937) with Bette Davis and Humphrey Bogart, and, in a sendup of his gangster roles, A Slight Case of Murder.

He volunteered for military service during World War II but was disqualified due to his age.[9] However, Robinson did become an outspoken public critic of fascism and Nazism, and donated more than US$250,000 to 850 political and charitable groups between 1939 and 1949. He was host to the Committee of 56 who gathered at his home on December 9, 1938, signing a "Declaration of Democratic Independence" which called for a boycott of all German-made products.[10] He played FBI agent Turrou in Confessions of a Nazi Spy, the first American film which showed Nazism as a threat to the United States in 1939, and in 1940 played Paul Ehrlich in Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet and Paul Julius Reuter in A Dispatch from Reuter's, both biographies of prominent Jewish public figures.

Meanwhile, throughout the 1940s Robinson also demonstrated his knack for both Larceny, Inc. (1942) with Jane Wyman and Broderick Crawford, Billy Wilder's Double Indemnity (1944) with Fred MacMurray and Barbara Stanwyck, Fritz Lang's The Woman in the Window (1944) with Joan Bennett and Scarlet Street (1945) with Joan Bennett and Dan Duryea, and Orson Welles' The Stranger (1946) with Welles and Loretta Young. He appeared for director John Huston as gangster Johnny Rocco in Key Largo (1948), the last of five films he made with Humphrey Bogart and the only one in which Bogart did not play a supporting role.

On three occasions in 1950 and 1952, he was called to testify in front of the American Legion Magazine.[13] In spite of this, he was once again called to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee in January 1954.[14]

His career rehabilitation received a boost in 1954, when noted anti-communist director Cecil B. DeMille cast him as the traitorous Dathan in The Ten Commandments. The film was released in 1956, as was the psychological thriller Nightmare. After a subsequent short absence from the screen, Robinson's film career—augmented by an increasing number of television roles—restarted for good in 1958/59, when he was second-billed after Frank Sinatra in the 1959 release A Hole in the Head. The last-ever scene Robinson filmed was a euthanasia sequence in the science fiction cult film Soylent Green (1973); it is sometimes claimed that he told friend and co-star Charlton Heston that he, Robinson, had in fact only weeks to live at best. As it turned out, Robinson died only twelve days later.


From 1937 to 1942, Robinson starred as Steve Wilson, editor of the Illustrated Press, in the newspaper drama Big Town.[15]

Personal life

Robinson and his son in a 1962 episode of Dick Powell's Zane Grey Theatre.

Robinson married his first wife, stage actress Gladys Lloyd, born Gladys Lloyd Cassell, in 1927; she was the former wife of Ralph L. Vestervelt and the daughter of Clement C. Cassell, an architect, sculptor and artist. The couple had one son, Edward G. Robinson, Jr. (a.k.a. Manny Robinson, 1933–1974), as well as a daughter from Gladys Robinson's first marriage.[16] In 1956 he was divorced from his wife. In 1958 he married 38-year-old Jane Bodenheimer, a dress designer known as Jane Arden. Thereafter he also maintained a home in Palm Springs, California.[17]

In noticeable contrast to many of his onscreen characters, Robinson was a sensitive, softly-spoken and cultured man, who spoke seven languages.[2] Remaining a liberal Democrat despite his difficulties with HUAC, he attended the 1960 Democratic Convention in Los Angeles, California.[18] He was a passionate art collector, eventually building up a significant collection and partnering with Vincent Price to run a gallery. In 1956, however, he sold his collection to Greek shipping tycoon Stavros Niarchos to raise cash for his divorce settlement with Gladys Robinson; his finances had suffered due to underemployment in the early 1950s. Another of his chief pastimes was collecting records of the world's leading concerts.

Robinson died of bladder cancer[19] in 1973, and is buried in a crypt in the family mausoleum at Beth-El Cemetery in the Ridgewood area of the borough of Queens in New York City.[20]



Robinson has been the inspiration for a number of animated television characters, usually caricatures of his most distinctive 'snarling gangster' guise. An early version of the gangster character Rocky, featured in the Bugs Bunny cartoon Racketeer Rabbit, shared his likeness. This version of the character also appears briefly in Justice League, in the episode "Comfort and Joy", as an alien with Robinson's face and non-human body, who hovers past the screen as a background character. Similar caricatures also appeared in The CooCooNut Grove, Thugs with Dirty Mugs and Hush My Mouse. Another character based on Robinson's tough-guy image was The Frog from the cartoon series Courageous Cat and Minute Mouse. The voice of B.B. Eyes in The Dick Tracy Show was based on Robinson, with Mel Blanc and Jerry Hausner sharing voicing duties.

In more modern terms, voice actor Hank Azaria has noted that the voice of Simpsons character police chief Clancy Wiggum is an impression of Robinson.[21] This has been explicitly joked about in episodes of the show. In "The Day the Violence Died" (1996), a character states that Chief Wiggum is clearly based on Robinson. In 2008's "Treehouse of Horror XIX", Wiggum and Robinson's ghost each accuse the other of being rip-offs. Another caricature of Robinson appears in two episodes of Star Wars: The Clone Wars season two, in the person of Lt. Tan Divo.

Robinson was never nominated for an Academy Award, but in 1973 he was awarded an honorary Oscar in recognition that he had "achieved greatness as a player, a patron of the arts and a dedicated citizen ... in sum, a Renaissance man".[22] He had been notified of the honor, but died two months before the award ceremony, so the award was accepted by his widow, Jane Robinson.[2]


Radio appearances

Year Program Episode/source
1940 Screen Guild Theatre Blind Alley[23]
1946 Suspense The Man Who Wanted to Be Edward G. Robinson[24]

See also


  1. ^ Obituary Variety, January 31, 1973, p. 71.
  2. ^ a b c "Edward G. Robinson, 79, Dies; His 'Little Caesar' Set a Style; Man of Great Kindness Edward G. Robinson Is Dead at 79 Made Speeches to Friends Appeared in 100 Films".  
  3. ^  
  4. ^ Ross, Steven (2011). Hollywood Left and Right. How Movie Stars Shaped American Politics. Oxford University Press. pp. 91–92.  
  5. ^ Epstein (2007), p. 249
  6. ^ Morgen Stevens-Garmon (February 7, 2012). "Treasures and "Shandas" from the Collection on Yiddish theater". Museum of the City of New York. Retrieved March 10, 2013. 
  7. ^ Hy Brett (1997). The Ultimate New York City Trivia Book. Thomas Nelson Inc. Retrieved March 10, 2013. 
  8. ^ Cary Leiter (2008). The Importance of the Yiddish Theatre in the Evolution of the Modern American Theatre. ProQuest. Retrieved March 10, 2013. 
  9. ^ Wise, James: Stars in Khaki: Movie Actors in the Army and Air Services. Naval Institute Press, 2000. ISBN 1-55750-958-1. p. 228.
  10. ^ Ross, pp. 99–102
  11. ^ a b Sabin, Arthur J. In Calmer Times: The Supreme Court and Red Monday, p. 35. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999
  12. ^ Bud and Ruth Schultz, It Did Happen Here: Recollections of Political Repression in America, p. 113. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989.
  13. ^ Ross, Stephen J. "Little Caesar and the McCarthyist Mob", USC Trojan Magazine. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, August 2011 issue. Accessed on Jan 10, 2013. [2]
  14. ^ Ross, pp. 121–123
  15. ^ Dunning, John. (1998). On the Air: The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507678-3. Pp. 88-89.
  16. ^ "Edward G. Robinson, Jr. Is Dead; Late Screen Star's Son Was 40".  
  17. ^ Meeks, Eric G. (2012). The Best Guide Ever to Palm Springs Celebrity Homes. Horatio Limburger Oglethorpe. p. 91.  
  18. ^
  19. ^ Gansberg, p. 246, 252–253.
  20. ^ Edward G. Robinson at Find a Grave
  21. ^ Joe Rhodes (October 21, 2000). "Flash! 24 Simpsons Stars Reveal Themselves".  
  22. ^ "Awards Databases". Oscars (Database). Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Search for Edward G. Robinson in either the Nominee field of the Academy Awards Database or in the Award Winner field of the Acceptance Speech Database. Retrieved 6 January 2015. The Academy's Board of Governors voted to confer this award on January 6, 1973. Mr. Robinson passed away on January 26th, and the award was accepted on his behalf by his wife. 
  23. ^ "Sunday Caller". Harrisburg Telegraph. February 24, 1940. p. 17. Retrieved July 20, 2015 – via  
  24. ^ "The Man Who Wanted to Be Edward G. Robinson". Harrisburg Telegraph. October 12, 1946. p. 17. Retrieved October 1, 2015 – via  
  • Gansberg, Alan L. (2004). Little Caesar: A Biography of Edward G. Robinson. Scarecrow Press.  

Further reading

  • Epstein, Lawrence Jeffrey (2007). Edge of a Dream: The Story of Jewish Immigrants on New York's Lower East Side, 1880–1920.  
  • Robinson, Edward G.; Spigelgass, Leonard (1973). All My Yesterdays; an Autobiography. Hawthorn Books.  

External links

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