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El Mozote massacre

El Mozote Massacre
The memorial at El Mozote
Date December 11, 1981
Target Civilian residents of Mozote and neighbouring villages
Attack type
Shooting, grenades, decapitation
Deaths 733–900
Perpetrator Salvadoran Army, Atlacatl Battalion

The El Mozote Massacre took place in and around the village of El Mozote, in Morazán department, El Salvador, on December 11, 1981, when the Salvadoran Army killed more than 800 civilians[1] during the Salvadoran Civil War.

In December 2011, the El Salvador government apologized for the massacre.[2]


  • Background 1
  • Mark Danner reconstruction of events 2
    • December 10 2.1
    • December 11 and 12 2.2
  • Initial reports and controversy 3
  • Later investigation 4
  • Subsequent follow-up 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Bibliography 8
  • Further reading 9
  • External links 10


In 1981, various left-wing guerrilla groups coalesced into the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front to battle El Salvador's right-wing government.[3] Prior to the massacre, unlike many villages in the area, El Mozote had a reputation for neutrality. While many of its neighbors were largely Roman Catholic, and therefore often influenced by liberation theology and sympathetic to the guerrillas, El Mozote was largely Evangelical Protestant. The village had sold guerrillas supplies on occasion, but was also "a place where the guerrillas had learned not to look for recruits".[4]

Prior to the massacre, the town's wealthiest man, Marcos Díaz, had gathered the citizens to warn them that the army would soon pass through the area in a counterinsurgency operation, but that he had been assured that the town's residents would not be harmed if they remained in place. Concerned that fleeing the town would cause them to be mistaken for guerrillas, the townspeople elected to stay, and extended an offer of protection to peasants from the surrounding area, who soon flooded the town.[4]

Mark Danner reconstruction of events

In his 1994 book, The Massacre at El Mozote, US journalist Mark Danner compiled various reports to reconstruct an account of the massacre:

December 10

On the afternoon of December 10, 1981, units of the Salvadoran army's Atlacatl Battalion (named after an indigenous fighter who fought the Spanish in the 16th century) arrived at the remote village of El Mozote after a clash with guerrillas in the vicinity.[5] The Atlacatl was a "Rapid Deployment Infantry Battalion" specially trained for counter-insurgency warfare. It was the first unit of its kind in the Salvadoran armed forces and was trained by United States military advisors.[6] Its mission, Operación Rescate ("Operation Rescue"), was to eliminate the rebel presence in a small region of northern Morazán where the FMLN had a camp and a training center.

El Mozote consisted of about twenty houses situated on open ground around a square. Facing onto the square was a church and, behind it, a small building known as "the convent", used by the priest to change into his vestments when he came to the village to celebrate mass. Near the village was a small schoolhouse.

Upon arrival, the soldiers found not only the residents of the village but also campesinos who had sought refuge from the surrounding area. The soldiers ordered everyone out of their houses and into the square. They made them lie face down, searched them, and questioned them about the guerrillas. They then ordered the villagers to lock themselves in their houses until the next day, warning that anyone coming out would be shot.[5] The soldiers remained in the village during the night.

Victims Of The Mozote Massacre, Morazán, El Salvador, January 1982

December 11 and 12

Early the next morning, the soldiers reassembled the entire village in the square. They separated the men from the women and children and locked them in separate groups in the church, the convent, and various houses.[7]

During the morning, they proceeded to interrogate, torture, and execute the men in several locations.[8] Around noon, they began taking the women and older girls in groups, separating them from their children and machine gunning them after raping them.[9] Girls as young as 10 were raped, with soldiers reportedly heard bragging how they especially liked the twelve-year-old girls.[10] Finally, they killed the children at first by slitting their throats, then by hanging them from trees, with one child as young as two years old.[11] After killing the entire population, the soldiers set fire to the buildings.

The soldiers remained in El Mozote that night but the next day went to the village of Los Toriles, some 2 km away and carried out a further massacre. Men, women and children were taken from their homes, lined up, robbed and shot and their homes then set ablaze.[12]

The site of the old church.

Initial reports and controversy

News of the massacre first appeared in the world media on January 27, 1982, in reports published by The New York Times[13] and The Washington Post. Raymond Bonner wrote in the Times of seeing "the charred skulls and bones of dozens of bodies buried under burned-out roofs, beams, and shattered tiles."[13] The villagers gave Bonner a list of 733 names—mostly children, women, and old people—all of whom, they claimed, had been murdered by government soldiers.[13][14]

Alma Guillermoprieto of the Post, who visited the village separately a few days later, wrote of "dozens of decomposing bodies still seen beneath the rubble and lying in nearby fields, despite the month that has passed since the incident ... countless bits of bones—skulls, rib cages, femurs, a spinal column—poked out of the rubble."[15]

Both reporters cited Rufina Amaya, a witness who had escaped into a tree during the attack. She told the reporters that the army had killed her husband and her four children, the youngest of whom was eight months old, and then lit the bodies on fire.[13]

Ruins of a burned building.

Salvadoran army and government leaders denied the reports and officials of the Reagan administration called them "gross exaggerations."[15] The Associated Press reported that "the U.S. Embassy disputed the reports, saying its own investigation had found ... that no more than 300 people had lived in El Mozote."[14]

The conservative press-watch organization Accuracy in Media accused the Times and Post of timing their stories to release them just before the congressional debate; five months later, Accuracy in Media devoted an entire edition of its AIM Report to Bonner, in which its editor Reed Irvine declared that "Mr. Bonner had been worth a division to the communists in Central America".[15] Assistant Secretary of State for Inter-American Affairs Thomas Enders attacked Bonner and Guillermoprieto before a Senate committee, stating that though there had been a battle between guerrillas and the army, "no evidence could be found to confirm that government forces systematically massacred civilians." Enders also repeated the claim that only 300 people had lived in Mozote, making it impossible for the death toll to have reached that reported in the Times and Post stories.[16] On February 8, Elliott Abrams, Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs, told the committee that "it appears to be an incident that is at least being significantly misused, at the very best, by the guerrillas".[17]

In February, in an editorial titled "The Media's War", The Wall Street Journal criticized Bonner's reporting as "overly credulous" and "out on a limb". In Time magazine, William A. Henry III wrote a month later: "An even more crucial if common oversight is the fact that women and children, generally presumed to be civilians, can be active participants in guerrilla war. New York Times correspondent Raymond Bonner underplayed that possibility, for example, in a much-protested January 27 report of a massacre by the army in and around the village of Mozote."[15] U.S. Ambassador Deane Hinton called Bonner an "advocate journalist".[18] Bonner was recalled to New York in August and later left the paper.[15]

Although attacked less vigorously than Bonner, Alma Guillermoprieto was also a target of criticism. A Reagan official wrote a letter to the Post stating that she had once worked for a communist newspaper in Mexico, a claim which Guillermoprieto denied.[15]

Later investigation

On October 26, 1990, a criminal complaint was filed against the Atlacatl Battalion for the massacre by Pedro Chicas Romero of La Joya. Romero had survived the massacre himself by hiding in a cave above the town.[19]

In 1992, as part of the peace settlement established by the Chapultepec Peace Accords signed in Mexico City on January 16 of that year, the United Nations-sanctioned Commission on the Truth for El Salvador investigating human rights abuses committed during the war supervised the exhumations of the El Mozote remains by an Argentinian team of forensic specialists beginning November 17. The excavation confirmed the previous reports of Bonner and Guillermoprieto that hundreds of civilians had been killed on the site.[20]

The Salvadoran Minister of Defense and the Chief of the Armed Forces Joint Staff informed the Truth Commission that they had no information that would make it possible to identify the units and officers who participated in Operación Rescate. They claimed that there were no records for the period. The Truth Commission stated in its final report:

"There is full proof that on December 11, 1981, in the village of El Mozote, units of the Atlacatl Battalion deliberately and systematically killed a group of more than 200 men, women and children, constituting the entire civilian population that they had found there the previous day and had since been holding prisoner ... there is [also] sufficient evidence that in the days preceding and following the El Mozote massacre, troops participating in "Operation Rescue" massacred the non-combatant civilian population in La Joya canton, in the villages of La Rancheria, Jocote Amatillo y Los Toriles, and in Cerro Pando canton."[5]
The newly rebuilt church in El Mozote

In 1993, El Salvador passed an amnesty law for all individuals implicated by UN investigations, effectively exempting the army from prosecution.[19] That year, American journalist Mark Danner published an article in the December 6 issue of The New Yorker. His article, "The Truth of El Mozote", caused widespread consternation, for it rekindled the debate regarding the United States' role in Central America during the violence-torn 1970s and 1980s. He subsequently expanded the article into a book, The Massacre at El Mozote (1994). In a prefatory remark, Danner wrote:

"That in the United States it came to be known, that it was exposed to the light and then allowed to fall back into the dark, makes the story of El Mozote—how it came to happen and how it came to be denied—a central parable of the Cold War."[4]

In 1993, a special State Department panel that examined the actions of U.S. diplomats vis-a-vis human rights in El Salvador concluded that "mistakes were certainly made ... particularly in the failure to get the truth about the December 1981 massacre at El Mozote."[21] In his study of the media and the Reagan administration, On Bended Knee, U.S. author Mark Hertsgaard wrote of the significance of the first reports of the massacre:

"What made the Morazan massacre stories so threatening was that they repudiated the fundamental moral claim that undergirded US policy. They suggested that what the United States was supporting in Central America was not democracy but repression. They therefore threatened to shift the political debate from means to ends, from how best to combat the supposed Communist threat—send US troops or merely US aid?—to why the United States was backing state terrorism in the first place."[22]

Though a later court decision overturned the amnesty for defendants suspected of "egregious human rights violations", attempts by Salvadoran lawyers to reopen the case repeatedly failed.[6]

Subsequent follow-up

On March 7, 2005, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights reopened an investigation into the El Mozote massacre based on the evidence found by the Argentine forensic anthropologists.[6] As of December 2011, activists continued to lobby the Inter-American Court of Human Rights to hear the case.[2]

In a January 2007 report in The Washington Post, a former Salvadoran soldier, José Wilfredo Salgado, told of returning to El Mozote several months after the massacre and collecting the skulls of the youngest victims, whose remains were exposed by recent rains, for "candleholders and good-luck charms."[23]

In December 2011, the Salvadoran government formally apologized for the massacre in a ceremony in the town. Foreign Minister Hugo Martinez, speaking on the government's behalf, called the massacre the "blindness of state violence" and asked for forgiveness.[2]

In October 2012, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights ordered El Salvador to investigate the El Mozote massacre and bring those responsible to justice. The court ruled that an amnesty law did not cover the killings.[24]

See also


  1. ^ Ian Urbina (March 8, 2005). "O.A.S. to Reopen Inquiry Into Massacre in El Salvador in 1981". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c "El Salvador sorry for El Mozote massacre in 1981". BBC News. December 10, 2011. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Enemies of War: El Salvador Civil War". Public Broadcasting Service. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c Mark Danner (December 6, 1993). "The Truth of El Mozote". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c "From Madness to Hope: the 12-year war in El Salvador: Report of the Commission on the Truth for El Salvador" (PDF). Commission on the Truth for El Salvador. March 15, 1993. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c Ian Urbina (March 8, 2005). "O.A.S. to Reopen Inquiry Into Massacre in El Salvador in 1981". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  7. ^ Danner 2005, p. 67.
  8. ^ Danner 2005, p. 69–81.
  9. ^ Danner 2005, p. 78.
  10. ^ Danner 2005, p. 71.
  11. ^ Danner 2005, p. 77.
  12. ^ Danner 2005, p. 81.
  13. ^ a b c d Raymond Bonner (January 27, 1982). "Massacre of Hundreds Reported In Salvador Village". The New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 2012. (subscription required)
  14. ^ a b Richard Boudreaux. "Many Die but No Agreement on How Many and Why," Associated Press, February 12, 1982. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Mike Hoyt (Jan–Feb 1993). "The Mozote massacre". Columbia Journalism Review. Archived from the original on November 16, 2007. 
  16. ^ Stanley Meisler. "El Mozote Case Study". Columbia School of Journalism. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  17. ^ Robin Andersen (2006). A Century of Media, a Century of War. Peter Lang. p. 89.  
  18. ^ Bernard Weinraub, "Envoy Says Salvadoran Plan Is Intact," The New York Times, June 12, 1982, 3 (cited in John F. Kirch, "Raymond Bonner and the Salvadoran Civil War - 1980 to 1983" presented at the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication in Toronto, Canada, August 2004)
  19. ^ a b Douglas Martin (March 9, 2007). "Rufina Amaya, 64, Dies; Salvador Survivor". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  20. ^ Tim Golden (October 22, 1992). "Salvador Skeletons Confirm Reports of Massacre in 1981". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  21. ^ George S. Vest; et al. (July 1993). "Report of the US Secretary of State's Panel on El Salvador". US State Department via Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  22. ^ Mark Hertsgaard (1989). On bended knee: the press and the Reagan presidency. Schocken Books. p. 190.  
  23. ^ Manuel Roig-Franzia (January 29, 2007). "Former Salvadoran Foes Share Doubts on War". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2010. 
  24. ^ "El Salvador told to investigate 1981 El Mozote massacre". BBC News. December 11, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. 


  • Danner, Mark (2005). The Massacre at El Mozote: A Parable of the Cold War. Granta.  

Further reading

  • Mark Danner, The Massacre at El Mozote, New York: Vintage, 1994, 303 pages.
  • Amaya, Rufina; Mark Danner; Carlos Enríquez Consalvi (1998). Luciérnagas en El Mozote [Fireflies in El Mozote]. San Salvador, El Salvador: Ediciones de Museo de la Palabra y la Imágen. 
  • Danner, Mark (2005). The Massacre at El Mozote. Granta Books.  
  • Binford, Leigh (1996). The El Mozote Massacre: Anthropology and Human Rights.  

External links

  • The UN Truth Commission report on El Mozote (excerpts)
  • Testimony of Rufina Amaya: Sole survivor of the massacre (in Spanish)
  • "The Dead: Victims at El Mozote and Nearby Villages". SOA Watch. Retrieved January 22, 2012.  - list of names initially compiled by Tutela Legal, a church-run human rights group in El Salvador, and updated by Mark Danner, author of The Massacre at El Mozote

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