World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Emmer

Article Id: WHEBN0000089367
Reproduction Date:

Title: Emmer  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Wheat, Durum, Cereal, Bread, Crop wild relative
Collection: Wheat
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Emmer

Emmer wheat
Spikes (ears) of cultivated emmer wheat
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Triticum
Species: T. dicoccum
Binomial name
Triticum dicoccum
Schrank ex Schübl.[1]
Synonyms[2]
  • Spelta amylea (Ser.) Ser.
  • Triticum amyleum Ser.
  • Triticum armeniacum (Stolet.) Nevski
  • Triticum arras Hochst.
  • Triticum atratum Host
  • Triticum cienfuegos Lag.
  • Triticum dicoccum Schrank.[3]
  • Triticum farrum Bayle-Bar.
  • Triticum gaertnerianum Lag.
  • Triticum immaturatum Flaksb. nom. inval.
  • Triticum ispahanicum Heslot
  • Triticum karamyschevii Nevski
  • Triticum maturatum Flaksb. nom. inval.
  • Triticum palaecocolchicum (Menabde) L.B. Cai
  • Triticum palaeocolchicum Menabde
  • Triticum subspontaneum (Tzvelev) Czerep.
  • Triticum tricoccum Schübl.
  • Triticum volgense (Flaksb.) Nevski

Emmer wheat, also known as farro especially in Italy, or hulled wheat,[3] is a type of awned wheat. Emmer is a tetraploid (2n=4x=28 chromosomes). The domesticated species are Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and Triticum turgidum conv. durum. The wild species is called Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides. The principal difference between the wild and the domestic species is that the ripened seed head of the wild species shatters and spreads the seed onto the ground while in the domesticated emmer the seed head remains intact, thus making it easier for humans to harvest the grain.[4]

Along with Einkorn wheat, Emmer was one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East. It was widely cultivated in the ancient world, but is now a relict crop in mountainous regions of Europe and Asia.

Contents

  • Taxonomy 1
    • Wild emmer 1.1
  • Morphology 2
  • History 3
  • Cultivation 4
  • Food uses 5
  • Etymology 6
  • Notes 7
  • References 8

Taxonomy

Strong similarities in morphology and genetics show that wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides Koern.) is the wild ancestor and a crop wild relative of domesticated emmer. Because wild and domesticated emmer are interfertile with other tetraploid wheats, some taxonomists consider all tetraploid wheats to belong to one species, T. turgidum. Under this scheme, the two forms are recognized at subspecies level, thus T. turgidum subsp. dicoccoides and T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum. Either naming system is equally valid; the latter lays more emphasis on genetic similarities.

For a wider discussion, see Wheat#Genetics & Breeding and Wheat taxonomy

Wild emmer

Wild emmer (Triticum dicoccoides) grows wild in the fertile crescent of the Near East. It is a tetraploid wheat formed by the hybridization of two diploid wild grasses, Triticum urartu (closely related to wild einkorn (T. boeoticum), and an as yet unidentified Aegilops species related to A. searsii or A. speltoides.

Morphology

Cultivated emmer wheat

Like einkorn and spelt wheats, emmer is a hulled wheat. In other words, it has strong glumes (husks) that enclose the grains, and a semi-brittle rachis. On threshing, a hulled wheat spike breaks up into spikelets. These require milling or pounding to release the grains from the glumes.

Wild emmer wheat spikelets effectively self-cultivate by propelling themselves mechanically into soils with their awns. During a period of increased humidity during the night, the awns of the spikelet become erect and draw together, and in the process push the grain into the soil. During the daytime the humidity drops and the awns slacken back again; however, fine silica hairs on the awns act as hooks in the soil and prevent the spikelets from reversing back out again. During the course of alternating stages of daytime and nighttime humidity, the awns' pumping movements, which resemble a swimming frog kick, will drill the spikelet as much as an inch or more into the soil.[5]

History

Wild emmer is native to the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East, growing in the grass and woodland of hill country from modern-day Israel to Iran. The origin of wild emmer has been suggested, without universal agreement among scholars, to be the Karaca Dag mountain region of southeastern Turkey. In 1906, Aaron Aaronsohn's discovery of wild emmer wheat growing in Rosh Pinna (now in Israel) created a stir in the botanical world.[6] Emmer wheat has been found in archaeological excavations and ancient tombs. Emmer was collected from the wild and eaten by hunter gatherers for thousands of years before its domestication. Grains of wild emmer discovered at Ohalo II had a radiocarbon dating of 17,000 BC and at the Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) site of Netiv Hagdud are 10,000-9,400 years old. [7]

The oldest evidence of domesticated emmer wheat has found near Damascus, Syria dating from 7,650 to 8,200 years BC. The dryness of the site, requiring irrigation for agriculture, suggests that the emmer was introduced as an already domesticated plant from elsewhere outside the Damascus Basin. Emmer is found in a large number of Neolithic sites scattered around the fertile crescent. From its earliest days of cultivation, emmer was a more prominent crop that its cereal contemporaries and competitors, einkorn wheat and barley. [8] Small quantities of emmer are present during Period 1 at Mehrgharh on the Indian subcontinent, showing that emmer was already cultivated there by 7000-5000 BC.[9]

In the Near East, in southern Mesopotamia in particular, cultivation of emmer wheat began to decline in the Early Bronze Age, from about 3000 BC, and barley became the standard cereal crop. This has been related to increased salinization of irrigated alluvial soils, of which barley is more tolerant,[10] although this study has been challenged.[11] Emmer had a special place in ancient Egypt, where it was the main wheat cultivated in Pharaonic times, although cultivated einkorn wheat was grown in great abundance during the Third Dynasty, and large quantities of it were found preserved, along with cultivated emmer wheat and barleys, in the subterranean chambers beneath the Step Pyramid at Saqqara.[12] Neighbouring countries also cultivated einkorn, durum and common wheat.[13] In the absence of any obvious functional explanation, the greater prevalence of emmer wheat in the diet of ancient Egypt may simply reflect a marked culinary or cultural preference, or may reflect growing conditions having changed after the Third Dynasty. Emmer and barley were the primary ingredients in ancient Egyptian bread and beer. Emmer recovered from the Phoenician settlement at Volubilis[14] (in present day Morocco) has been dated to the middle of the first millennium BC.

Emmer wheat is mentioned in ancient rabbinic literature as one of the five grains to be used by Jews during Passover as matzah (that is, without leavening agents of any kind). It is often incorrectly translated as spelt in English translations of the rabbinic literature but spelt did not grow in ancient Israel, and emmer was a significant crop until the end of the Iron Age. Likewise, references to emmer in Greek and Latin texts are traditionally translated as "spelt," even though spelt was not common in the Classical world until very late in its history.

In northeastern Europe, emmer (in addition to einkorn and barley) was one of the most important cereal species and this importance can be seen to increase from 3400 BC onwards. Pliny the Elder, notes that although emmer was called far in his time formerly it was called adoreum (or "glory"), providing an etymology explaining that emmer had been held in glory (N.H. 18.3), and later in the same book he describes its role in sacrifices.

Cultivation

Today emmer is primarily a relict crop in mountainous areas. Its value lies in its ability to give good yields on poor soils, and its resistance to fungal diseases such as stem rust that are prevalent in wet areas. Emmer is grown in Armenia, Morocco, Spain (Asturias), the Carpathian mountains on the border of the Czech and Slovak republics, Albania, Turkey, Switzerland, Germany, Greece and Italy. It is also grown in the U.S. as a specialty product. A traditional food plant in Ethiopia, this relatively little-known grain has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable landcare.[15]

In Italy, uniquely, emmer cultivation is well established and even expanding. In the mountainous Garfagnana area of Tuscany emmer (known as farro) is grown by farmers as an IGP (Indicazione Geografica Protetta) product, with its geographic identity protected by law. Production is certified by a co-operative body, the Consorzio Produttori Farro della Garfagnana. IGP-certified farro is widely available in health food shops across Europe, and even in some British supermarkets. The demand for Italian farro has led to competition from non-certified farro, grown in lowland areas and often consisting of a different wheat species, spelt (Triticum spelta).

Food uses

Emmer's main use is as a human food, though it is also used for animal feed. Ethnographic evidence from Turkey and other emmer-growing areas suggests that emmer makes good bread (judged by the taste and texture standards of traditional bread), and this is supported by evidence of its widespread consumption as bread in ancient Egypt.[16] Emmer bread is available in Switzerland.[17] In Italy, whole emmer grains can be easily found in most supermarkets and groceries, emmer bread (pane di farro) can be found in bakeries in some areas, and emmer has traditionally been consumed in Tuscany as whole grain in soup. Higher in fiber than common wheat, emmer's use for making pasta is a recent response to the health food market; some consumers, however, judge that emmer pasta has an unattractive texture. Emmer has also been used in beer production.[18] As with most varieties of wheat, however, emmer is probably unsuitable for sufferers from wheat allergies or coeliac disease.[19]

Etymology

First use: 1908 Origin: species of wheat, from German Emmer, variant of Amelkorn, from amel "starch", from Latin amylum.[20]

Notes

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b
  4. ^ Weiss, Ehud and Zohary, Daniel (October 2011), "The Neolithic Southwest Asian Founder Crops, Current Anthropology, Vo 52, Supplement 4, p. S240
  5. ^
  6. ^ http://www.jafi.org.il/education/100/PEOPLE/BIOS/aron.html
  7. ^ Zohary & Hopf 2000, p. 46
  8. ^ Weiss and Zohary, pp. S240-S242
  9. ^ Possehl, Gregory. "The Indus Civilization: An Introduction to Environmental, Subsistence, and Cultural History: (2003)
  10. ^ Jacobsen & Adams 1958
  11. ^ Powell, M. A. (1985) Salt, seed, and yields in Sumerian agriculture. A critique of the theory of progressive salinization. Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Vorderasiatische Archäologie 75, 7-38.
  12. ^ Jean-Phillipe Lauer, Laurent Taeckholm and E. Aberg, 'Les Plantes Decouvertes dans les Souterrains de l'Enceinte du Roi Zoser a Saqqarah' in Bulletin de l'Institut d'Egypte, Vol. XXXII, 1949-50, pp. 121–157, and see Plate IV for photo of ears of both wheats recovered from beneath the pyramid.
  13. ^ Zohary & Hopf 2000, pp. 50f
  14. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2008. , The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy BurnhamVolubilis: Ancient settlement in Morocco
  15. ^
  16. ^ Hulled wheats. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops 4. Edited by S. Padulosi, K. Hammer, and J. Heller, 1996. Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.
  17. ^
  18. ^ Samuel, Delwen. 1996. Archeology of Ancient Egyptian Beer. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists 54(1): 3-12
  19. ^
  20. ^

References

  • Hulled Wheats. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. 4. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats 21-22 July 1995, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Tuscany, Italy[invalid link]
  • Up-to-date reference to cereals in the Biblical world.
  • Wheat evolution: integrating archaeological and biological evidence
  • Alternative Wheat Cereals as Food Grains: Einkorn, Emmer, Spelt, Kamut, and Triticale
  • [1] Oldest domesticated wheat found at Abu Hureyra.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.