World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Eugène de Beauharnais

Article Id: WHEBN0000062627
Reproduction Date:

Title: Eugène de Beauharnais  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Joséphine de Beauharnais, Battle of Borodino, Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon, Battle of Piave River (1809)
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Eugène de Beauharnais

Eugène de Beauharnais
French Prince
Prince of Venice
Grand Duke of Frankfurt
Eugène de Beauharnais, portrait by Andrea Appiani, 1810.
Viceroy of Italy
Term 5 June 1805 – 11 April 1814
Monarch Napoleon I
Duke of Leuchtenberg,
Prince of Eichstätt
Tenure 14 November 1817 – 21 February 1824
Successor Auguste de Beauharnais
Spouse Princess Augusta of Bavaria
Issue Josephine, Queen of Sweden
Eugénie, Princess of Hohenzollern-Hechingen
Auguste, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg
Amélie, Empress of Brazil
Théodoline, Countess Wilhelm of Württemberg
Princess Carolina
Maximilian, 3rd Duke of Leuchtenberg
Full name
Eugène Rose de Beauharnais
House House of Beauharnais
Father Alexandre de Beauharnais
Mother Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie
Born 3 September 1781
Paris, France
Died 21 February 1824(1824-02-21) (aged 42)
Munich, Bavaria
Burial St. Michael's Church, Munich
Religion Roman Catholicism

Eugène Rose de Beauharnais (3 September 1781 – 21 February 1824), was the first child and only son of Alexandre de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie, future wife of Napoleon I.

He was born in Paris, France and became the stepson and adopted child (but not the heir to the imperial throne) of Napoleon I. His biological father was executed during the revolutionary Reign of Terror. He commanded the Army of Italy and was Viceroy of Italy under his stepfather.

Historians have looked upon him as one of the ablest of Napoleon's relatives.[1]

Military career

Eugène's first campaign was in the Vendée, where he fought at Quiberon. However, within a year his mother Joséphine had arranged his return to Paris. In the Italian campaigns of 1796–1797, Eugène served as aide-de-camp to his stepfather, whom he also accompanied to Egypt. In Egypt, Eugène was wounded during the Siege of Acre (1799). He returned to France in the autumn of 1799 and helped bring about the reconciliation between Bonaparte and his mother, who had become estranged due to the extramarital affairs of both. When Napoleon became First Consul, Eugène became a captain in the Chasseurs à Cheval of the Consular Guard. With his squadron he took part in the Battle of Marengo.

During the War of the Fifth Coalition, Eugène was put in command of the Army of Italy, with General Étienne-Jacques-Joseph-Alexandre MacDonald as his military advisor. In April 1809 he fought and lost the Battle of Sacile against the Austrian army of the Archduke John, but Eugène's troops decisively won the rematch at the Battle of Raab that June. After the Battle of Aspern-Essling, Napoleon recalled the Army of Italy to Austria. After joining the main army on the island of Lobau in the Danube, Eugène took part in the Battle of Wagram.

During the Russian campaign, Eugène again commanded the Army of Italy (IV Corps) with which he fought in the Battle of Borodino and the Battle of Maloyaroslavets. After Napoleon and then Joachim Murat had left the retreating army, Eugène took command of the remnants and led it back to Germany in 1813.

During the campaign of 1813, Eugène fought in the Mincio until the abdication in 1814. After the fall of Napoleon in 1814, Eugène retired to Munich and at the behest of his father-in-law King Maximilian of Bavaria, did not get involved with Napoleon and France again.

Status and titles

On 14 June 1804 he was made an official member of the imperial family as His Imperial Highness, French Prince (Prince français) Eugène de Beauharnais. By a statute of 5 June 1805 the Emperor added Viceroy of Italy to his titles.

Eugène was adopted by Napoleon on 12 January 1806, though excluded from succession to the French Empire. On 16 February 1806, Eugent was declared heir presumptive to the Kingdom of Italy, in the absence of a second son of Napoleon. On 20 December 1807 he was given the title of Prince de Venise ("Prince of Venice"), a title created on 30 March 1806, when the Venetian Province taken from Austria in 1805 was united to Bonaparte's Kingdom of Italy.

In 1810, Napoleon used his influence over Karl von Dalberg, Archbishop of Regensburg and Grand Duke of Frankfurt to name Eugène as constitutional heir of the grand duchy. Von Dalberg abdicated on 26 October 1813 due to Frankfort's imminent conquest by the allied armies, and Eugene succeeded to the throne until Frankfort was occupied by the allies in December of that same year.

A further imperial sinecure was Archichancelier d'Etat de l'Empire de France ("Archchancellor of State of the Empire of France").

He was an active Freemason and was involved in setting up the Grand Orient of Italy and its Supreme Council.[2]

Heraldry

Family

On 14 January 1806, two days after his adoption by Napoleon, Eugène married Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria. On 14 November 1817, his father-in-law made him Duke of Leuchtenberg and Prince of Eichstätt.

Eugène and Augusta had seven children:

Eugène de Beauharnais died on 21 February 1824 in Munich.

A biography by Carola Oman, Napoleon's viceroy, Eugène de Beauharnais, appeared in 1966.

Ancestry

References

Citations
  1. ^ Caulaincourt 1933, p. 403.
  2. ^ le Premier Empire
Bibliography

External links

  • Napoleon & Empire La franc-maçonnerie sous le Consulat et le Premier Empire (French)
  • Genealogy of the Ducal Family of Leuchtenberg at the Wayback Machine (archived October 28, 2009)
  • Heraldica.org - Napoleonic titles outside France
  •  
  •  
Eugène de Beauharnais
Born: 3 September 1781 Died: 21 February 1824
Political offices
Preceded by
Office created
Viceroy of Italy
5 June 1805 – 11 April 1814
Succeeded by
Office abolished
Italian royalty
Preceded by
Title created
Heir to the Italian throne
as Prince of Venice
20 December 1807 – 11 April 1814
Vacant
Title next held by
Umberto Rainier
as Prince of Piedmont
German nobility
Title(s) created Duke of Leuchtenberg
14 November 1817 – 21 February 1824
Succeeded by
Auguste de Beauharnais
Prince of Eichstätt
14 November 1817 – 21 February 1824
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.