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Extropianism, also referred to as the philosophy of Extropy, is an evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the human condition. Extropians believe that advances in science and technology will some day let people live indefinitely. An extropian may wish to contribute to this goal, e.g. by doing research and development or volunteering to test new technology.

Extropianism describes a pragmatic consilience of transhumanist thought guided by a proactionary approach to human evolution and progress.

Originated by a set of principles developed by Dr. Max More, The Principles of Extropy,[1] extropian thinking places strong emphasis on rational thinking and practical optimism. According to More, these principles "do not specify particular beliefs, technologies, or policies". Extropians share an optimistic view of the future, expecting considerable advances in computational power, life extension, nanotechnology and the like. Many extropians foresee the eventual realization of indefinite lifespans, and the recovery, thanks to future advances in biomedical technology or mind uploading, of those whose bodies/brains have been preserved by means of cryonics.


  • Extropy 1
  • The Extropy Institute 2
  • Extropism 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


The term 'extropy', as an antonym to 'intelligence, functional order, vitality, energy, life, experience, and capacity and drive for improvement and growth." Extropy is not a rigorously defined technical term in philosophy or science; in a metaphorical sense, it simply expresses the opposite of entropy.

A more recent definition of Extropy has been provided by Kevin Kelly, senior maverick at Wired magazine.[5] "Extropy is neither wave, nor particle, nor pure energy. It is a non-material force that is very much like information. Since Extropy is defined as negative entropy-the reversal of disorder-it is, by definition, an increase in order." Kelly gives this definition of extropy in his research on the evolution of technology.

In the philosophy of digital probabilistic physics, the extropy of a physical system is defined to be the self-information of the Markov chain probability of the physical system at a moment in time. This was to distinguish the probability of the Markov state of the physical system from the probability defined by entropy which creates ensembles of equivalent microstates.

The Extropy Institute

In 1987, Max More moved to Los Angeles from University of Southern California.

In 1988, Extropy: The Journal of Transhumanist Thought was first published. (For the first few issues, it was "Extropy: Vaccine for Future Shock.) This brought together thinkers with interests in

The Extropy Institute's email list was launched in 1991 (and, as of April 2015, continues to exist as "Extropy-Chat"), and in 1992 the institute began producing the first conferences on transhumanism. Affiliate members throughout the world began organizing their own transhumanist groups. Extro Conferences, meetings, parties, on-line debates, and documentaries continue to spread transhumanism to the public.

The Internet soon became the most fertile breeding ground for people interested in exploring transhumanist ideas, with the availability of websites for such organizations that have joined the Extropy Institute in developing and advocating transhumanist (and related) ideas. These include Humanity+, the Alcor Life Extension Foundation, the Life Extension Foundation, Foresight Institute, Transhumanist Arts & Culture, Betterhumans, the Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence, and the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.

In 2006, the board of directors of the Extropy Institute made a decision to close the organisation, stating that its mission was "essentially completed."[6]


Extropism is a modern derivative of the transhumanist philosophy of Extropianism. It follows in the same tradition, hence the similarity of name, but has been revised to better suit the paradigms of the 21st century. As introduced in The Extropist Manifesto,[7] it promotes an optimistic futuristic philosophy that can be summed up in the following five phrases, which spell out the word "EXTROPISM":

  • Endless eXtension
  • Transcending Restriction
  • Overcoming Property
  • Intelligence
  • Smart Machines

These five key points, when taken together, formulate a philosophy and world view which embraces bio-ethical abolitionism, life extension, singularitarianism, technogaianism, freedom of information and several other related disciplines and philosophies. While it does not make a firm political stance, it is most closely related to libertarian socialism (given that it supports the abolition of money and property). Philosophically, it draws from the philosophy of Jeremy Bentham and utilitarianism.

Extropists desire to prolong their life span to a near-immortal state and exist in a world where artificial intelligence and robotics have made work irrelevant. As in utilitarianism, the purpose of one's life should be to increase the overall happiness of all creatures on Earth through cooperation.

The Extropist Manifesto, written by Breki Tomasson and religiosity.

See also


  1. ^ Max More (2003). "Principles of Extropy (Version 3.11) : An evolving framework of values and standards for continuously improving the human condition". Extropy Institute. Archived from the original on 2013-10-15 
  2. ^ Cryogenics, IPC Science and Technology Press, vol. 7, pg. 225 (1967)
  3. ^ Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Cybernetics & Systems: "Current Topics in Cybernetics and Systems", pg. 258 (1978)
  4. ^ Duane, Diane. "The Wounded Sky" (1983)
  5. ^ Kelly, Kevin (April 2011). "Understanding Technological Evolution and Diversity". The Futurist 45 (2): 44–48.  
  6. ^  
  7. ^ The Extropist Manifesto. The Extropist Examiner (blog).
  8. ^ Max More (1998). "The Extropian Principles (Version 3.0) : A Transhumanist Declaration". Extropy Institute. 

External links

  • Kevin Kelly on Extropy - Kevin Kelly at The Technium, August 29, 2009
  • "Transhumanism's Extropy Institute - Transhumanism for a better future". Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
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