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Fantasy football (American)

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Title: Fantasy football (American)  
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Fantasy football (American)

Fantasy football is an interactive online competition in which users compete against each other as general managers of virtual “fantasy” teams built from “drafting” real players. Each of the "drafted" "fantasy" players are professional American football players in the National Football League. Each week general managers of their fantasy team are able to perform different actions simulating a real professional football organization. These actions consist of drafting, trading, adding or dropping players, and changing rosters every week. Due to the growth of the internet, fantasy football has vastly increased in popularity, particularly because fantasy football providers such as ESPN Fantasy Sports, CBS, Yahoo! Fantasy Sports, and the NFL itself are able to keep track of statistics entirely online, eliminating the need to check box scores in newspapers regularly to keep track of players, which is how fantasy football players first had to keep track of stats. Most leagues have a 13 week season, a small playoff bracket, and a single week championship in week 16 of the NFL season.


  • History 1
  • League types 2
    • Head-to-head Leagues 2.1
    • Total points leagues 2.2
    • All play leagues 2.3
    • Keeper leagues 2.4
    • Dynasty "keeper" leagues 2.5
    • Developmental dynasty leagues 2.6
    • Salary cap leagues 2.7
    • Auction leagues 2.8
    • Two quarterback leagues 2.9
    • Daily fantasy sports 2.10
    • Playoff fantasy football 2.11
  • New league types 3
  • Draft 4
  • Team names 5
  • Free agents and trades 6
  • Fantasy trade referees 7
  • Team rosters 8
    • Starters 8.1
    • Scoring configurations 8.2
      • Standard scoring 8.2.1
      • Points-per-reception (PPR) 8.2.2
      • Pure scoring leagues 8.2.3
      • Pure yardage leagues 8.2.4
      • Individual defensive player (IDP) 8.2.5
      • Performance-based bonuses 8.2.6
      • Rollover 8.2.7
    • League manager and gambling 8.3
    • All individual players 8.4
  • Demographics 9
  • Effect on American economy 10
    • Ad revenue 10.1
    • Spending by team managers 10.2
    • Complementary and derivative industries 10.3
    • Effect on spectatorship 10.4
    • Wasted productivity 10.5
  • Notes 11
  • References 12
  • External links 13


Modern fantasy football can be traced back to the late Wilfred "Bill the Gill" Winkenbach, an Oakland area businessman and a limited partner in the Oakland Raiders. In a New York hotel room during a 1962 Raiders eastern cross-country trip, Winkenbach, along with Raiders Public Relations man Bill Tunnel and Tribune reporter Scotty Stirling, developed a system of organization and a rulebook, which would eventually be the basis of modern fantasy football.[1]

The inaugural league was called the GOPPPL (Greater Oakland Professional Pigskin Prognosticators League), and the first draft took place in the rumpus room of Winkenbach's home in Oakland, California in August 1963.[2] The league consisted of eight members, made up of administrative affiliates of the AFL, pro football journalists, or someone who had purchased or sold 10 season tickets for the Raiders’ 1963 season. Each roster consisted of the following in the GOPPPL: two quarterbacks, four halfbacks, two fullbacks, four offensive ends, two kick/punt returners, two field goal kickers, two defensive backs/linebackers and two defensive linemen. The current GOPPPL roster now includes: two quarterbacks, four halfbacks, six wide receivers/tight ends, two kickers, two defensive backs, one return team, and a bonus pick for any position. As of 2012, the GOPPPL will celebrate its 50th season and still maintains its TD-only scoring heritage.

In 1969, Andy Mousalimas, an original creator of GOPPPL and participant in the inaugural draft, brought the game to his sports bar, the King's X in Oakland, California where he added another couple leagues. When the patrons of other Oakland and San Francisco bars visited for trivia contests they soon learned of the game and passed the word about it.[3] Due to the time consuming nature of the game's scoring it was difficult to pick up and spread slowly across the country.

Another early fantasy football league is “The league formerly known as Maria’s”. This league was founded in Spokane, Washington on September 2, 1981, at the now defunct Maria’s pizza parlor.[4] Originally, Maria’s Fantasy Football League had eight franchises drafting from a single player pool. Today, the league boasts twenty-four franchises divided into two conferences each drafting from a separate player pool. The playoff system mirrors the NFL playoffs with weekly live auction redrafts as the player pool diminishes culminating in a Super Bowl between the two conference champions. Like other pre-information age leagues, Maria’s was founded as a TD only league to simplify manual scoring. Since, the rules have been modified by adding “bonus points” for milestone yardage achievements – but otherwise Maria’s franchise owners have opted to maintain the spirit of Maria’s TD-only history.

A first rotisserie fantasy football league was formed in 1983 by Scott Frank, Frankie Doherty, Chris Decherd, Mark Wesley, Jay Dowlen, Chris Daniel,and David Gansereit in Atlanta, Georgia based on an article in Sports Illustrated. The Fantasy Football League (FFL) as it was originally named still exists with more than 12 owners. The first starting rosters included 1 QB, 2 RB, 3 WR, 1 K, and 1 Team Defense with the same number of backups at each position. The league scoring system was that the QB got 5 points for TD (run or pass) under 40 yards and 10 points for 40+ yards. RB and WR got 7 and 12 respectively. K got 5 points for 35 yards or less, 7 points for 36-45 yards, and 10 for 46 or more yards. Defense got 10 points for a touchdown, including special teams, and 15 points for a shutout. Points were cumulative throughout the season with the champion being the team owner with the total cumulative points at the end of the season.

One of the first rotisserie fantasy football leagues was formed in 1985 by Jim Boullion and Lee Fanshaw in Madison, Wisconsin. The Capital Football League included 10 owners most were employees with the Wisconsin State Legislature and the league was based at the Capital in Madison. The league still has six of the original owners Jim, Lee, Charlie Garnett, Scott Adrian, Jon Mielke, and Jeff Renk. The first rosters included both offensive and defensive players, but changed to just 17 offensive players only after the first year. All players are eligible for the round robin games, but only 2 QB, 3 RB, 3 WR, 1 TE, 1 K count in the statistical scoring. The league scoring system included four categories. The first was basic scoring for round robin games in which the winners received 6 points and ties awarded 3 points. The next included statistical team categories in passing yards, rushing yards, receiving yards, receptions, total yards (rushing+receiving), total scoring. Each of these categories received points from 25 to 0 in descending order of placement. The third category is individual statistical in passing yards, passing TDs, rushing yards, receiving yards, receptions, and kicking points. The player leading the NFL in each received 5 points, 2nd received 3 points and 1 point for third. The fourth category is playoff points similar to the round robin, includes bonus points for finishing first in the playoffs. The team with the most total points from these four categories was declared the league champion.

In 1988, the G-League was formed by 8 player who drafted from the control room of GTech, an information technology company who serviced the lottery terminals for New Jersey Lottery in Trenton, NJ. The league was a TD-only scoring and used USA-Today as the source for all their data. Some of the players continue to participate with the league renamed as Brick City Football League, launching their first live draft in 1994 in the Newark NJ conference room of York Hunter, a construction management company. The Brick City League is still active today, 24 years later, with players in NY, NJ, FL, and Turkey.

Digital Trends Magazine, Pro Sports Daily, and others note that it wasn’t until 1989 when telecommunications and ultimately the internet made tracking players easier when leagues grew to the point that games could be followed from almost any location, then the idea really caught on. There were other factors as well, including the push by Robert Barbiere and Brad Wendkos of Phoneworks, who helped popularize the fantasy idea in 1989 with what they called the “Pigskin playoff”, an open fantasy football league that was picked up by several major newspapers and participated in by over 100,000 players nationally. Trading and other game interactions took place via DTMF (touchtone) phone technologies.

For years, the popularity of fantasy football grew slowly. In 1997, CBS launched the beta version of the first publicly available free fantasy football website.[5] The game immediately became widely popular. Within three years, all major sports media websites launched competing fantasy football hosting websites. The NFL released their own official game in 2010, Fantasy Football, further driving industry growth. Fantasy football is now the single most important marketing tool for the NFL. Today, it is estimated over 19 million people compete in public and private leagues online nationally.[6]

In 2009, fantasy football was christened mainstream with a fantasy football based sitcom, The League. The League was created by the husband-and-wife team of Jeff Schaffer (Curb Your Enthusiasm, Seinfeld) and Jackie Marcus Schaffer (Disturbia, EuroTrip) who serve as executive producers and directors. The series is produced by FX Productions.[7]

League types

There are several different types of fantasy football leagues. The two most popular types are: head-to-head and total points leagues. Type of league is the first category in which a manager must designate to participate.

Head-to-head Leagues

In head-to-head leagues, a team matches up versus a different team each week. The team who receives the most points of the two receives a win for that particular week. Points are dictated by the scoring system that is either standard set by the website or custom set by the commissioner. A team’s total is the sum of all players' points in the starting lineup. The win-loss record is the most important statistic in head-to-head leagues, as it directly correlates with the league champion. Teams with the best win-loss record advance to the playoffs. If two teams have the same record, the tie-breaker is then decided by the total points scored in the regular season of the two (or more) tied teams. Further tie-breakers can be added based on league preference.

Total points leagues

Total points leagues are leagues in which teams accumulate points on an ongoing basis. The league standings are determined by the teams’ total points rather than their win-loss record. The teams who accrue the highest total of points throughout the duration of the NFL-regular season advance to the playoffs.

All play leagues

All play leagues are leagues in which all teams play each other each week. For example, if there are 14 teams in the league, the top scoring team that week would post a 13-0 record, 2nd highest scoring team would post a 12-1 record and so on. The lowest scoring team would post a 0-13 record for that week. This type league combines the advantages of both Head to head leagues and total points leagues while eliminating their disadvantages. Scheduling which plays a significant part in H2H leagues now becomes irrelevant.

Keeper leagues

A Keeper style fantasy football league allows teams to keep players from one year to the next. Traditionally, league rules dictate the number of players that can be kept from year to year, as well as the 'penalty' for keeping a player. The standard 'penalty' for keeping a player is the forfeiture of a draft pick two rounds earlier than the player was selected (ex. a team would lose a 4th round pick if the player they are keeping was drafted in the 6th round. Furthermore, if this player is kept the following year, the team would forfeit a 2nd round pick).

Dynasty "keeper" leagues

A dynasty "Keeper" style fantasy football league is a league where you retain most or all of your players from year to year. This creates an environment which is very different from that of a redraft league. In such leagues, the type of players available in the yearly draft is focused more towards rookies with long-term potential.

Developmental dynasty leagues

A developmental dynasty style fantasy football league is a league where you not only retain most or all of your players from year to year, but you also draft college players into a developmental squad or college farm system. These types of leagues focus on scouting the college game as well as the pro game for future fantasy football stars. Each year there are generally two drafts. One draft is for incoming NFL rookies and the other is for drafting college players. Developmental Dynasty Leagues were created in 1999 by Scott Fish, a long time fantasy industry member and now a Senior Writer for Dynasty League Football.

Salary cap leagues

The salary cap football league is a particular type of dynasty league which adds another factor of realism similar to the NFL: the salary cap. Just like in the NFL, this means each player has an associated salary and the total spent on all the players on a team has a maximum - the "salary cap." This can have many levels of complexity, e.g. a player may be signed for multiple years, etc.

Auction leagues

GMs nominate players (in order) to be bid on by all GMs in the league. Each franchise has a cap (standard is $200) that they can spend on their entire roster. This is the fastest growing format of fantasy football. There are websites and podcasts devoted to this specific method of playing fantasy football. The first website and podcast dedicated to this type of fantasy football is the Fantasy Football Auctioneer.

Two quarterback leagues

Two quarterback leagues, similar to points-per-reception leagues, were created as an effort to make Quarterbacks more relevant to fantasy scoring. In this alternate scoring system, a team has the ability to start two quarterbacks in their weekly lineup. This changes the value of the Quarterback position, as it doubles the number of Quarterbacks able to start in any given week. It also reduces the depth of available players, making the position more important for effective roster building.

Daily fantasy sports

Daily fantasy sports is like traditional fantasy sports where players draft a team of real world athletes who then score fantasy points according to set scoring rules. However, instead of being stuck with the same team through a whole season, daily fantasy sports contests last just one day (or in the case of NFL, one weekend). Users can play head-to-head or in larger field tournaments. Both cash leagues and free contests are available for play.Many sites offer data and strategies to build lineups.

Playoff fantasy football

Typically, the regular season of fantasy football[8] ends after Week 13 of the regular NFL season. This allows for either 3 or 4 weeks for fantasy playoffs before the NFL's 17-week regular season ends. Most fantasy leagues seed their teams based upon their overall records during the regular season. Some leagues award a bye week to the top teams who then remain idle in Week 14. Teams that do not make the fantasy playoffs compete in a consolation bracket for the duration of the playoff period. With the exception of the championship game, all teams losing in the single elimination format continue to play for the duration of the playoff period to determine who finishes third, fifth, seventh, etc.

Several websites, including, offer a fantasy football league during the NFL's playoffs. Participants choose players from several different positions and receive points each week for their performances. The league lasts until the Super Bowl. Players who are on a fantasy roster for consecutive weeks earn double, triple, and finally quadruple points.[9] Scoring is usually the same as in most season-long leagues.

New league types

A new style of fantasy football is modeled after the popular "survivor pool" or "knock out pool" style of weekly NFL wagering that allows each pool member to pick one NFL team to win each week, but he or she can only pick that team once all year.

Similarly, survivor fantasy leagues allow owners to draft a fresh team of seven players each week, with each player only available to each owner one week per year. This added level of strategy places an emphasis on weekly NFL match ups, while at the same time diminishing the negative consequences of injuries.

Another type of league that allows for year round fantasy football is called Simulation Football. Simulation Football uses a computer to simulate the games with simulated players, instead of relying on the NFL for its players and stats. The most basic type is a GM league, where all the player has to do is put together a team and the computer does most of the work. A much more involved type of simulation football is called a "Create-a-Player" or CAP league. In a CAP league, top players vie for the chance to be a GM and put together a team using players that are created by other people. There are different types of scoring for determining who is a "top player" but the people are charged with making their player as good as possible using the league's scoring system.

The popularity of fantasy football has filtered down into the collegiate level as well. Fantasy College Football is gaining in popularity as diehard fantasy players and college football fanatics combine two of their favorite passions into one. The most popular leagues involve only schools in the so-called "Power Five" conferences[n 1] while other leagues incorporate all FBS schools or even just the "Group of Five" schools.[n 2]


Just like in real football, each year fantasy football leagues have a draft (note: in dynasty leagues, this normally consists of NFL rookies only), in which each team drafts NFL players. These players are kept unless they are traded or dropped, whereby they enter a pool of unowned players that any team may claim. In most leagues, no player may be owned by more than one team, although some leagues do allow for this.

There are essentially two types of drafts. In a traditional "serpentine" or "snake" draft, owners take turns drafting players in a "serpentine" method, i.e. the owner who picks 1st in the odd rounds picks last in the even rounds, in the interests of fairness.

In an auction draft, each owner has an imaginary budget which he must use to purchase all his players in an auction format. Owners take turns nominating players for open bid. The owner who bids the highest on each player receives that player, reducing their remaining budget accordingly. Auction drafts are viewed as the more fair method since every owner begins on equal ground.[10] A few leagues use a hybrid of the two styles, selecting a portion of their roster via auction, with the remainder selected through a serpentine method.

As the NFL has evolved, so have fantasy football draft strategies.[11] The most commonly used strategies are value based drafting and opinion based drafting. Value base drafting entails projecting the total fantasy point value for each player in the draft and then figuring their value with respect to other players at their position, while standard cheat sheet based drafting requires ranking each player based on your opinion of worth, or other people’s opinion of said player's worth.

Because of the influx of new league types and new players, many content sites have emerged. In addition to the major publications, prominent sites such as DraftSharks and Pro Football Focus have been recognized in recent years as having the most accurate player projections.[12]

Drafts can be conducted in "live" or "auto" formats. Live drafts involve players utilizing real-time strategy and reactionary measures to acquire specific available players. Auto-drafts use preliminary draft rankings set by each team to automate the draft cycle and establish the teams. Live drafts are often preferred to automated as they are believed to require more skill.

The location of fantasy football drafts depend on the geographic location of each team manager. With the rise of the internet, all Fantasy football providers have made online drafting an option for leagues in which the managers are too far away to meet up in person. Other leagues make a tradition of meeting up to draft, and in some leagues, managers travel cross-country to attend annual league drafts. Group drafts conducted in-person are typically scheduled many weeks in advance. Common locations include boardrooms, offices, bars, or dining establishments.

Team names

Each owner assigns his/her team a name, which can be based on anything. Some names are based on the owner's life or personality, while many are based on current events or a pun or word play using the name of a favorite player. Choosing an especially clever or funny team name can win an owner accolades from other owners including digital league trophies for the best name, and sports writers who cover fantasy football often compile their own lists of their favorite fantasy football team names from a given year.[13][14][15] There are even entire sites focused exclusively on fantasy football team names where the community can add their own team name ideas as well as vote on team names proposed by others.

Free agents and trades

Free agents and trades are important components to maintaining a competitive roster throughout the duration of a season. Free agents exist in fantasy leagues that do not allow multiple teams to have any one professional athlete. In these leagues, free agents are professional players that are not currently on any league member's roster. You can add, or claim, players anytime during the season.

Some leagues do not allow you to drop high profile players who may not be performing well (in fantasy scoring terms). This can be very challenging as an owner's only option to get this player off their team is to find another owner who is willing to make a trade for the under performing player.

At the beginning of every week, after the Monday night football game, team owners can claim free agents. The waiver claims are processed later on in the week. If more than one team owner claims a player, a team's waiver wire position determines who gets the player. A team's waiver wire ranking is determined by things like team record and the number of free agents already added. The worse a team's ranking, the more likely they will get the best free agents. This helps competitiveness as the season wears on. Usually there are several surprise players that are not drafted by any team and yet become some of the best fantasy players.

Some leagues have trade deadlines that are set, and others have a waiver period before free agents can be picked up. This really depends as to how the league is set up. When a trade is proposed and accepted in some leagues there can be a voting period which will allow the league to decide if the trade is acceptable or not, while other leagues have a period in which the league manager can decide to veto the trade.

Fantasy trade referees

Often within fantasy football leagues trades are made that cause controversy and are considered unfair by many other members of the league. These disputes are sometimes settled by fantasy football trade referees. These third party sites feature experienced fantasy players who rule on trades and offer an objective third party opinion.

You may not need to use trade referees if your league uses the voting system in which the league can approve or decline the trade that has been placed. In some leagues if there is a voting period and a trade referee in place, the trade referee can overrule the league voting and this can cause controversy as well. Other leagues give their league manager the power to veto or pass the trade.

Team rosters

Each team is allowed a pre-determined number of players on its team, as well as a specified number at each position that can or must be used in each game (the "starters"). Owners for each team then determine each week which players will start (within the rules) and which will be "benched". Just like in real football, bench players can become starters for various reasons: due to other players' injury, poor performance, or if another player's team has a bye.

Each week, owners choose their starters for a game before a certain deadline. Whether to sit or start a player is usually based on strategic considerations including the player's past and expected performance, defensive match ups, and so on.


Each team owner must designate which players from the team roster will be starters each week - i.e. the only players who will "score" any points. The following example is similar to many common formats required for a starting lineup:

There are many variants on this. Some leagues use individual defensive players (IDPs) (and in some cases a punter) instead of or in addition to a combined Team Defense/Special Teams. Some other leagues use separate Defense and Special Teams. Another variant is the "flex" position, which can be filled by a player in one of several positions. Flex positions are often limited to "WR/TE", "RB/WR", or "RB/WR/TE". Traditionally, this flex was required to be an RB, WR, or TE; however, some leagues allow any position to fill this flex slot as an "OP" (any Offensive Player). Some leagues also have a two-quarterback requirement for a starting lineup, providing yet another twist into the complexity of different scoring systems and lineups (Hendricks, 2007 Fantasy Football Guidebook pg. 21-44).

Scoring configurations

League managers earn their team points based on their starting players' performances in weekly NFL games. Players accumulate points based purely on their statistical output. For example, a touchdown might be worth six points while each yard passed, rushed, or carried may be worth a certain amount of points, and so on. In most cases, players earn points for passing, rushing, and receiving yards.

Although kickers can theoretically score points through touchdowns or yards rushed and received, they accumulate most of their points through field goals and extra points. The Team Defense / Special Teams position earns points through defensive plays (such as turnovers, quarterback sacks, safeties, and blocked kicks) and by limiting the offensive points of the opposing teams. Also, whereas points are awarded to players for positive plays, points are taken away from players for negative plays such as turnovers or missed kicks.

Standard scoring

The standard fantasy football scoring system comprises a well-respected baseline of statistic/point-value pairs designed to promote balance across the various fantasy positions.[16] This is the typical scoring configuration chosen by first time fantasy football commissioners because it is a very basic points system which is fair and intuitive for fantasy novices.

A typical standard scoring format would look very similar to this, although there may be slight discrepancies in points awarded to kickers (depending on your league host's scoring limitations):

  • 1 point for 25 passing yards
  • 1 point for 10 rushing yards
  • 1 point for 10 receiving yards
  • 6 points for a touchdown
  • 4 points for a passing touchdown
  • -2 points for every interception thrown or fumble lost
  • 1 point for each extra point made
  • 3 points for each 0-39 yard field goal, 4 points for each 40-49 yard field goal, and 5 points for each 50+ yard field goal
  • 2 points per turnover gained by defense
  • 1 points per sack by the defense
  • 2 points for a safety by defense
  • 6 points for each touchdown scored by defense
  • 2 points for each blocked kick[17]

Points-per-reception (PPR)

Points-per-reception leagues were created as an effort to make wide receivers and tight ends more relevant to fantasy scoring. In this alternate scoring system, fractional or full points are awarded for every reception tallied by a player. This changes the value of players in standard scoring systems, as running backs who catch many passes become more valuable, those who catch fewer are less valuable, and so on. Certain leagues vary the points respective positions earn for receptions.

Pure scoring leagues

Another scoring system counts only touchdowns, touchdown passes, and field goals for points. Many of the first fantasy football leagues were pure-scoring leagues as this provided for easier tracking of team points throughout the season. As the game matured and moved online, it became easier to track yardage and more sophisticated scoring configurations were adopted.

Pure yardage leagues

An alternate scoring format is the "pure yardage" league, in which touchdowns are ignored, and each player's passing, rushing and receiving yards are totaled. Some yardage leagues also convert defensive stats into yards (ex., 50 yards for an interception, 20 yards for a sack), whether for a team's defense, or individual players.

Individual defensive player (IDP)

An alternative method for scoring defense is Individual Defensive Players or IDP fantasy football. The main difference being that players typically draft anywhere from 3 to 7 individual defensive players during a draft as opposed to just one team defense. Sometimes there are required positions to fill like 2 Linebackers, 2 Defensive Backs and 2 Defensive Linemen and sometimes it's just 5 defensive players of any position you choose. There are many different ways to draft IDPs and many have found this makes the later part of the fantasy draft more exciting. For instance, instead of drafting a 5th wide receiver in the 16th round that will typically be on your bench or dropped part way through the season, you are instead drafting a "full-time" starting defensive player that can help you win your league.

Performance-based bonuses

Some leagues allow bonuses to be awarded to players for exceptionally good performances, like a QB throwing for over 300 yards. Running backs or wide receivers could similarly be awarded a performance bonus based on accumulating more than 100 yards on the ground or through the air. Kickers could even be awarded for long field goals, generally 50 yards or longer.


In many fantasy football leagues, a player that receives a lot of points in one week may save them to use in a future fantasy game. Specific rules vary from league to league. This ruling has many variations, as does the scoring systems of fantasy football leagues, but the ruling that is considered to be “standard” is defined as follows: Any team that scores in excess of 140 points in any one week is eligible for the rollover rule; provided they won the match-up for that week; and with the score of 140 points would have still won the match-up for the week. If the previous is true than the rollover ruling applies, which states; “any team eligible for the rule may use the points earned in excess of 140 on any future match-up for the remainder of the season”, with the following provisions attached: The team electing to use rollover points must make it publicly known to all other teams, twenty-fours prior to the kickoff of the first game, that they will be using the points that week; rollover points cannot be used for post-season games; rollover points must be used completely and cannot be broken up over multiple weeks, i.e. if a team has 5 rollover points they must be used on one week, not 1 point per week for five weeks; rollover points must be used in the current season; if rollover points have not been used and a team is eligible for additional from another week the points will be added and can only be used in one week.

League manager and gambling

Many leagues are composed of friends, family, co-workers and even strangers that are in the fantasy league to prove who is the greatest couch coach. Millions upon millions of dollars are won and lost each year in fantasy league betting. Some leagues managed by players in the leagues while other leagues are run by independent businesses.[18] The Federal government has determined that fantasy league gambling is not a "game of chance" and as such is not illegal, however, alterations to the rules can cause a fantasy league to skew too far into chance and lose federal protection. At the state level, many states, including Arizona, Iowa, Louisiana, Montana and Vermont have banned certain activities related to fantasy football, such as collection of league fees and payout of winnings, when done so online.[19] Florida has an outright ban on all fantasy football, though how the ban is enforced appears to be unclear. Fantasy football continues unabated in all of these states, so it appears none of these regulations have any effect.[20]

Some Fantasy Football leagues wager things other than money, such as the loser of the league has to get a tattoo, and that tattoo has to be of what the winner of the league wants. The only thing that the loser gets any say in is the location of the tattoo. The owners of the teams have to sign a contract before the season to agree to the punishment if they lose.[21] Other high-stakes leagues offer prizes of US$250,000 to the ultimate champion.

All individual players

There are a few dynasty leagues that follow the NFL's roster model and score all possible NFL players at all individual positions. Offensive linemen (OL) are scored by total yards and points minus sacks given up. Fullbacks are partially scored as offensive linemen because of their blocking duties. Kick and punt returners are scored by yardage and touchdowns. Punters are scored by net average and punts inside the 20 yard line.


According to the FSTA, approximately 33 million people play fantasy football every year. The majority of team managers are between the ages of 25 and 34. 13% of the market is held by teens, an important demographic because over 80% of all users say they are likely to continue playing for at least the next decade and more than 40% say they will play for life.[22] 80% of all team managers are male. 89.8% of them are white and 51.5% are not married. 78% hold a bachelors’ degree or higher, making the majority of team managers an upper middle class earner with a median income between 60-100K.[23]

Effect on American economy

The economic impacts of fantasy football are vast in number and value. Most of the impacts are positive on the economy overall, but there are some relatively minor drawbacks. Growth rates in fantasy football showed no signs of slowing down over the past few years.[23] While team managers are drawn to fantasy football because they can get started and play for free, they are still likely to spend on many of fantasy football's complementary industries.

Ad revenue

One of the largest sources of revenue in fantasy football is ad revenue. Driven mostly by sports sites, revenue generated by ads on fantasy football programming is estimated at $2 to $5 billion annually.[23] Ad rates vary greatly, and many content providers aren’t willing to give specific details on what they charge, but sites can charge an estimated $2–$10 per thousand pageviews.[24] The advertising revenue can be especially lucrative because fantasy team managers are such heavy internet users. They create, on average, 4 times more pageviews than those that don’t play fantasy sports.[25] Advertising isn’t limited to just sports sites and television. Demand for fantasy football information has spread to mobile applications, which carry banner ads at the bottom or top of each screen.

Spending by team managers

Additionally, fantasy football team managers pour money into the industry themselves. Many fantasy leagues require an entry fee, which are used to fund prizes for the league winners.[26] These fees and their resulting payoffs are typically small, and represent more of a transfer of wealth between players than contributions to the overall economy. However, fantasy football team managers are also more likely to spend on other industries. When compared to non-fantasy sports fans, team managers are significantly more likely to purchase alcohol, airline tickets, and sports magazines. They are also more likely to purchase fast food and soft drinks.[27]

Complementary and derivative industries

Fantasy football has also created several complementary and derivative industries. Team managers will spend on subscription-based information sites such as, and Football Guys to gain an informational advantage. Fantasy leagues may also engage services to make their things run smoothly and settle disputes. Leagues may deposit collected fees with fantasy football specific escrow companies, and settle disputes regarding trades or scoring by using lawyer-run fantasy football arbitration websites for a flat fee per resolution. The excitement of drafting a team each year has led to a new derivative of fantasy football: Day or week leagues, which offer the opportunity to draft a new team and play a single game each week. Fantasy football has worked its way into pop culture as well. TV sitcoms about groups of friends playing each other in fantasy football, cable networks dedicating blocks of programming specifically to fantasy football, 24/7 satellite radio channels reporting fantasy news, and services designed to provide team managers with alerts about their player’s status to their phones.[24]

Effect on spectatorship

The explosive popularity of fantasy sports, coupled with the availability of venues showcasing numerous live football games via satellite, has had significant effects on football viewing and rooting habits among participants. Fantasy sports players watch more game telecasts, buy more tickets and spend money at stadiums at a much higher rate than general sports fans. For example, 55 percent of fantasy sports players report watching more sports on television since they started playing fantasy sports.[28] Fantasy participants also are reported to attend 0.22 to 0.57 more NFL games in person per season.[29] The NFL entered into a reported five-year, $600 million deal in 2006 with Sprint that was driven at least in part because of fantasy sports, allowing subscribers to draft and monitor their teams with their cellphones. [30] Many sports and football-related sports news shows discuss fantasy-related topics. Besides the fictional The League, multiple TV programs that focus on fantasy football news exist; examples include ESPN's Fantasy Football Now and CBS's Fantasy Football Today.

The way a fantasy owner watches a game is greatly affected if a player on their team is playing. An owner will root for specific things to happen in order for their player(s) to score points. For example, someone who has a running back will root for a goal line situation or for the team the running back plays for to be up by a significant amount of points. If the running back's team is on the goal line, then a running play is more likely to be called. If the running back's team is up by a significant amount of points, his team will call more running plays in order to run out the clock. The more running plays called, the more points for that running back. Different scenarios will provide certain players an opportunity to score points for fantasy owners.

Critics charge that because of the varying interests, some fantasy owners may instead support the players on their fantasy rosters in any one game rather than supporting a favorite team. Players are mixed on the impact of the effects of fantasy football on fans' habits and preferences. Retired NFL QB Jake Plummer told ESPN "I think it's ruined the game", and retired New York Giants RB Tiki Barber said about fantasy fans, "there's an incongruity in the wants."[31] However, former Washington Redskins tight end Chris Cooley plays in four fantasy football leagues himself,[30] and former Indianapolis Colts linebacker Cato June benched New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady from his fantasy team to avoid a conflict of interest when the two teams played in November 2006. Fans frequently ask players on their fantasy rosters to score more often; Peyton Manning reported that only autograph requests exceeded fan requests for "more fantasy touchdowns" from him. Fans often seek inside information on injuries and future stars from coaches,[31] and players have been known to receive harsh criticism from fans in response to unsatisfactory fantasy football performances.[32]

In 2011, the NFL directed teams to show fantasy statistics during games on the stadium video boards.[33] In fact, NFL executives have recognized the importance of fantasy football’s success to the NFL overall.[25]

One of the primary effects on spectatorship includes fans tracking injuries of NFL players throughout the season in order to better manage their starting line ups. Critics charge this translates into fantasy fans becoming more concerned with whether an injury will bench a player, rather than the nature, extent or seriousness of the injury, or sympathy toward the player. For strategy reasons, many teams refuse to disclose the seriousness of a player's injury until game time. This frustrates many fantasy owners trying to determine whether to start or bench a player whose participation is listed as "questionable" or "probable".

Wasted productivity

Despite all of the beneficial impacts to the economy that fantasy football provides, there are some concerns about potential economic drawbacks. The addictive nature and widespread popularity of fantasy football, combined with the relative ease of obtaining information about a manager’s team has led to many hours of lost productivity at work. A rough calculation based estimates regarding the average amount of time team managers spend on their teams, combined with the number of team managers and their average wages puts the estimated impact at about $6 billion in wasted productivity. However, the study admits to being non-scientific and that its estimates are rough. Furthermore, it reports that managers tend to view the impact as a minor distraction. In a poll conducted for the same study asking managers to rate the impact of fantasy football on their workplace from 1-10, about 70% reported a 4 or lower. Less than 8% reported a 7 or 8. No respondents reported a 9 or 10. Additionally, employers can even take advantage of fantasy football by embracing it and starting sanctioned work leagues. This may increase employee morale and loyalty, improving retention rates. This study also reported 40% of respondents considered fantasy football a positive influence in the workplace, with 1 in 5 also saying they’ve made valuable business contacts through fantasy football.[34]


  1. ^ The five conferences that are primary members of the College Football Playoff coalition—the ACC, Big Ten, Big 12, Pac-12, SEC, plus Notre Dame
  2. ^ The five FBS conferences outside of the main CFP coalition—The American, C-USA, MAC, MW, and Sun Belt, plus the other three independents (Army, BYU, Navy).


  1. ^ Hunt, Matt. "How Fantasy Football Works". Retrieved January 19, 2014. 
  2. ^ Fabiano, Michael (November 18, 2008). "Fantasy Football 101".  
  3. ^ "BIRTH OF FANTASY FOOTBALL". Retrieved 23 May 2014. 
  4. ^ Samuel B. Sawyer, "NFL Expands to Your Home", Spokesman Review, October 12, 1993.
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  8. ^ Fantasy Football,, January 30, 2014, retrieved 2014-02-06 
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  10. ^ Wachtel, Kyle. "Auction Draft Tips". Forensic Fantasy. Retrieved 19 January 2013. 
  11. ^ Turner, Kurt (12 July 2012). "Fantasy Football Draft Strategy". 
  12. ^ Campbell, Donnie (24 January 2013) The Fantasy Trade Association Accuracy Awards
  13. ^ Frank, Vincent. "Fantasy Football Team Names: Funny & Clever List of Names for New Season". Bleacher Report. Retrieved October 16, 2012. 
  14. ^ Schutte, Dustin. "6 Components of the Perfect Fantasy Football League". Midwest Sports Fan. Retrieved October 16, 2012. 
  15. ^ Berry, Matthew. "List Crazy". ESPN. Retrieved October 16, 2012. 
  16. ^ Perniciaro, Brad (2011-04-10). "Standard Fantasy Football Scoring & Points System Guide". Retrieved 2014-04-22. 
  17. ^ Remember to start the players you think will have the most "Fantasy Points". Eisenberg, Jamey (2008-07-18). "Draft prep: How to start a Fantasy league". Retrieved 2008-08-11. 
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  19. ^ Chakraborty, Barnini. "Gaming laws could pose risk for fantasy football craze". Newscorp. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  20. ^ Edelman, Mark. "Is it Legal to Play Fantasy Football for Money?". Forbes. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
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  22. ^ "Industry Demographics". FTSA. Retrieved 21 December 2013. 
  23. ^ a b c -of-an-american-obsession/ "Fantasy Football: The Economics of an American Obsession". Krossover. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  24. ^ a b Cade, Jeff. "The Real Money of Fantasy Sports". MSN. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  25. ^ a b Caldwell, Dave. "NFL Sees Real Opportunity in Fantasy Football". CNBC. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  26. ^ Rogers, Kate. "The Finances of a Fantasy Football Player". Newscorp. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  27. ^ Kilzer, Chelsey. "The Economics of Fantasy Sports". Daily Infographic. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  28. ^ "CDM Appeals Court Victory Ensures Continued Fantasy Sports Growth". Fantasy Sports Trade Association. 
  29. ^ Nesbit, Todd; King, Kerry (March 2010). "The Impact of Fantasy Football Participation on NFL Attendance". Atlantic Economic Journal. Springer US. Retrieved 8 February 2013. 
  30. ^ a b La Canfora, Jason (2006-08-13). "Beating Yourself Takes New Meaning". 
  31. ^ a b c Garber, Greg. "Fantasy craze produces awkward moments for players". 
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  33. ^ Leonard, Tod (October 2, 2011). "Scene & Heard: Mr. October makes an appearance".  
  34. ^ . @work Retrieved 20 December 2013. 

External links

  • Fantasy Football at DMOZ
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