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Gray matter

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Gray matter

For other uses, see Grey Matter (disambiguation).
Grey matter
The formation of the spinal nerve from the dorsal and ventral roots. (Gray matter labeled at center right.)
Micrograph showing grey matter, with the characteristic neuronal cell bodies (right of image - dark shade of pink), and white matter with its characteristic fine meshwork-like appearance (left of image - lighter shade of pink). HPS stain.
Latin Substantia grisea
Code Template:TerminologiaAnatomica
Dorlands/Elsevier Gray matter

Grey matter (or gray matter) (lat. Substantia grisea) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astroglia and oligodendrocytes) and capillaries. Grey matter contains neural cell bodies and, unlike white matter, does not contain myelinated axon tracts.[1] The color difference arises mainly from the whiteness of myelin. In living tissue, grey matter actually has a grey-brown color, which comes from capillary blood vessels and neuronal cell bodies.[2]

Function

Grey matter is made up of neuronal cell bodies. The grey matter includes regions of the brain involved in muscle control, sensory perception such as seeing and hearing, memory, emotions, and speech. While 20% of all oxygen taken in by the body goes to the brain, 95% of that goes specifically into the grey matter.[3]

Distribution

Grey matter is distributed at the surface of the cerebral hemispheres (cerebral cortex) and of the cerebellum (cerebellar cortex), as well as in the depths of the cerebrum (thalamus; hypothalamus; subthalamus, basal ganglia - putamen, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens; septal nuclei), cerebellar (deep cerebellar nuclei - dentate nucleus, globose nucleus, emboliform nucleus, fastigial nucleus), brainstem (substantia nigra, red nucleus, olivary nuclei, cranial nerve nuclei) and spinal grey matter (anterior horn, lateral horn, posterior horn). Gray matter undergoes development and growth throughout childhood and adolescence.[4]

Research

Volume and cognition in elderly people

Significant positive correlations have been found between grey matter volume in elderly persons and measures of semantic and short-term memory. No significant correlations with white matter volume were found. These results suggest that individual variability in specific cognitive functions that are relatively well preserved with ageing is accounted for by the variability of gray matter volume in healthy elderly subjects.[5]

Volume associated with bipolar disorder

Some structural differences in grey matter may be associated with psychiatric disorders. There was no difference in whole-brain grey matter volume between patients with bipolar I disorder and healthy controls. Subjects with bipolar I disorder had smaller volumes in the left inferior parietal lobule, right superior temporal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left caudate. Only the volume of the right middle frontal gyrus was correlated with duration of illness and the number of episodes in patients.[6]

Effects of smoking

Older smokers lose grey matter and cognitive function at a greater rate than non-smokers. Chronic smokers who quit during the study lost fewer brain cells and retained better intellectual function than those who continued to smoke.[7]

Effects of child abuse

Adolescents who were subjected to abuse and neglect appear to have decreased grey matter in the prefrontal cortex.[8]

Additional images

See also

References

External links

  • eMedicine Dictionary
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