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Gurgum

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Title: Gurgum  
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Subject: Syro-Hittite states, Pazarcık Stele, Maraş lion, Sargon II, Kizzuwatna
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Gurgum

Gurgum
Kurkuma

Unknown–711 BC
Gurgum and its capital Marqas(i) among the Neo-Hittite states
Capital Marqas
Languages Hieroglyphic Luwian
Religion Luwian religion
Government Monarchy
Historical era Iron Age
 •  Established Unknown
 •  Disestablished 711 BC
Today part of  Turkey

Gurgum was a Neo-Hittite state. It was only named Gurgum in Assyrian sources.[1] Its native name seems to have been Kurkuma for the reason that the capital of Gurgum, Marqas in Assyrian sources (today Maraş), was named "the Kurkumaean city"[2] (ku+ra/i-ku-ma-wa/i-ni-i-šà(URBS)[3]) in local Hieroglyphic Luwian inscriptions.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Rulers 2
  • Literature 3
  • References 4

History

The first historical event in the history of Gurgum is known for the reign of Larama I in ca. 950 BC. This Gurgumaean king undertook a program of reconstruction including the replanting of crops and vineyards.[4]

In 858 BC, during the first Western campain of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III, king Muwatalli II of Gurgum submitted the Assyrians and paid tribute. This tribute consisted of gold, silver, oxen, sheep, wine, and his own daughter with her dowry.[5]

King Ḫalpa-Runtiya II undertook several military expiditions. He attacked the city (land?) Ḫirika (probably to be identified with the land of Ḫilakku or a Melidian border city named Ḫiliki) and captured the city Iluwaši. In 853 BC he paid tribute to the Assyrians as his father did before.[6]

In 805 BC, Ḫalpa-Runtiya III invaded the neighbouring kingdom of Kummuḫ for territorial reasons. The king of Kummuḫ, Šuppiluliuma (Assyrian Ušpilulume), searched asked the Assyrian king Adad-nirari III for help and the Assyrian fixed the border between Gurgum and Kummuḫ.[7]

In ca. 800 BC, Gurgum was part of a coalition of numerous Neo-Hittite and Aramean states hostile to the Hamathite king Zakkur.

In the reign of Tarḫulara in 743 BC, Gurgum also took part in an anti-Assyrian military alliance led by Sarduri II of Urartu and Mati-Ilu of Arpad. When defeating the hostile alliance, the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser III also invaded Gurgum and destroyed 100 Gurgumaean cities. Tarḫulara submitted and beseched the Assyrian king to spare the capital Marqas. Tarḫulara was allowed to stay at the throne and henceforth was an Assyrian tributary.[8] He payed tribute to the Assyrian king in 738 and 732 BC.[9]

In 711 BC, Tarḫulara was assassinated by his son Muwatalli III who then seized the throne of Gurgum. The Assyrian king Sargon II reacted by deposing Muwatalli III and deporting him to Assyria. Gurgum was annexed to the Assyrian empire and renamed as Marqas using the capital's name.[10]

Rulers[11]

Name Reign Dynastic Placement Assyrian Name Sources
Aštuwaramanza late 11th century BC Luwian
Muwatalli I early 10th century BC son of Aštuwaramanza Luwian
Larama I ca. 950 BC son of Muwatalli I Luwian
Muwizi later 10th century BC son of Larama I Luwian
Ḫalpa-Runtiya I earlier 9th century BC son of Muwizi Luwian
Muwatalli II 858 BC son of Ḫalpa-Runtija I Mutallu Luwian, Assyrian
Ḫalpa-Runtiya II ca. 853 BC son of Muwatalli II Qalparunda Luwian, Assyrian
Larama II later 9th century BC son of Ḫalpa-Runtiya II Palalam Luwian, Assyrian
Ḫalpa-Runtiya III 805 - ca. 800 BC son of Larama II Qalparunda Luwian, Assyrian
Tarḫulara 743 - ca. 711 BC Tarḫulara Assyrian
Muwatalli III ca. 711 BC son of Tarḫulara Mutallu Assyrian

Literature

  • Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms; A Political and Military History. Oxford University Press, Oxford/ New York 2012, ISBN 978-0-19-921872-1.
  • Annick Payne: Iron Age Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions. Society of Biblical Literature, Atlanta 2012, ISBN 978-1-58983-269-5.

References

  1. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 122.
  2. ^ Annick Payne: Iron Age Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions. Atlanta 2012, p. 7.
  3. ^ Annick Payne: Iron Age Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions. Atlanta 2012, p. 52.
  4. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 125.
  5. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 219.
  6. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 126.
  7. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 246.
  8. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 128.
  9. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 267.
  10. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 128.
  11. ^ Trevor Bryce: The World of the Neo-Hittite Kingdoms: A Political and Military History. Oxford, New York 2012, p. 125-128.
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