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Hurricane Gustav

Hurricane Gustav
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
Gustav nearing its maximum strength while approaching southern Cuba
Formed August 25, 2008
Dissipated September 7, 2008
(Extratropical after September 4, 2008)
Highest winds 1-minute sustained: 155 mph (250 km/h)
Lowest pressure 941 mbar (hPa); 27.79 inHg
Fatalities 112 direct, 41 indirect
Damage $6.61 billion (2008 USD)
Areas affected Lesser Antilles, Leeward Antilles, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Michigan
Part of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season

Hurricane Gustav was the second most destructive hurricane of the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season. The storm was the seventh tropical cyclone, third hurricane, and second major hurricane of the season. Gustav caused serious damage and casualties in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, Cuba and the United States. Gustav caused at least $6.6 billion (2008 USD) in damages.[1]

It formed on the morning of August 25, 2008, about 260 miles (420 km) southeast of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and rapidly strengthened into a tropical storm that afternoon and into a hurricane early on August 26. Later that day it made landfall near the Haitian town of Jacmel. It inundated Jamaica and ravaged Western Cuba and then steadily moved across the Gulf of Mexico.[2][3]

Once into the Gulf, Gustav gradually weakened because of increased wind shear and dry air. It weakened to a Category 2 hurricane late on August 31, and remained at that intensity until landfall on the morning of September 1 near Cocodrie, Louisiana.[4] Weakening continued, and Gustav weakened to a tropical storm that evening and to a tropical depression the next day as it meandered around the south-central US. The weak system became extratropical on September 4 and was absorbed by another low on September 5.[4]

In total, an estimated 153 deaths had been attributed to Gustav in the U.S. and Caribbean. Damage in the U.S. totaled to $4.3 billion (2008 USD)[5] with additional damage of $2.1 billion in Cuba[6] and $210 million in damage in Jamaica.[7]

Contents

  • Meteorological history 1
  • Preparations 2
    • Hispaniola 2.1
    • Jamaica and Cayman Islands 2.2
    • Cuba 2.3
    • United States 2.4
      • Louisiana 2.4.1
        • Local events 2.4.1.1
      • Texas 2.4.2
      • Mississippi and Alabama 2.4.3
      • Multistate agencies 2.4.4
  • Impact 3
    • Hispaniola 3.1
    • Jamaica 3.2
    • Cayman Islands 3.3
    • Cuba 3.4
    • United States 3.5
      • Louisiana 3.5.1
      • Mississippi and Alabama 3.5.2
      • Florida 3.5.3
      • Arkansas 3.5.4
      • Texas 3.5.5
  • Political implications 4
    • United States 4.1
    • Cuba 4.2
  • Retirement 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Meteorological history

Gustav formed out of a

  • National Hurricane Center's Archive for Hurricane Gustav
  • FEMA Hurricane Gustav Page
  • Images of Hurricane Gustav

External links

  1. ^ "Jindal,, Landrieu Urge Congress Aid For Hurricanes Gustav, Ike". Bayoubuzz.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  2. ^ Weissert, Will. "Gustav swells to dangerous Cat 3 storm off Cuba". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  3. ^ "Hurricane Gustav reaches Category 4 as it nears Cuba". CNN.com. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Gustav". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2009-01-26. 
  5. ^ "Tropical Weather Summary".  
  6. ^ "Report on 2008 Hurricane Season in Cuba". RA IV Hurricane Committee Thirty First Session. World Meteorological Organization's RA IV Hurricane Committee. Retrieved September 13, 2014. 
  7. ^ a b "'"Cuban storms damage 'worst ever. BBC. 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2008-09-16. 
  8. ^ a b c Pasch/Roberts (2008-08-25). "Tropical Depression Seven Discussion Number 1". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  9. ^ Pasch (2008-08-25). "Tropical Depression Seven Wind Speed Probabilities Number 1". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  10. ^ Pasch (2008-08-25). "Tropical Storm Gustav Tropical Cyclone Update". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  11. ^ Pasch (2008-08-25). "Tropical Storm Gustav Discussion Number 3". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  12. ^ Franklin (2008-08-25). "Tropical Storm Gustav Discussion Number 3". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  13. ^ Blake/Avila (2008-08-26). "Tropical Storm Gustav Intermediate Advisory Number 4A". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  14. ^ Blake/Avila (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Gustav Tropical Cyclone Update". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  15. ^ a b Blake/Avila (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Gustav Discussion Number 5". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  16. ^ Brown/Pasch (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Gustav Discussion Number 6". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  17. ^ a b Pasch (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Gustav Discussion Number 7". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  18. ^ Pasch/Brown (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Gustav Intermediate Advisory Number 6A". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  19. ^ Stewart/Franklin (2008-08-26). "Tropical Storm Gustav Advisory Number 8". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  20. ^ Stewart/Franklin (2008-08-26). "Tropical Storm Gustav Discussion Number 8". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  21. ^ Blake/Avila (2008-08-27). "Tropical Storm Gustav Discussion Number 9". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  22. ^ Rhome/Pasch (2008-08-27). "Tropical Storm Gustav Advisory Number 11". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  23. ^ Franklin (2008-08-27). "Tropical Storm Discussion Number 12". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  24. ^ Blake/Avila (2008-08-28). "Tropical Storm Gustav Special Advisory Number 14". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  25. ^ a b Knabb (2008-08-30). "Hurricane Gustav Public Advisory #23 1100 AM EDT SAT AUG 30, 2008". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  26. ^ Knabb (2008-08-30). "Hurricane Gustav Public Advisory #25 500 PM EDT SAT AUG 30, 2008". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  27. ^ Beven (2008-08-30). "Hurricane Gustav Public Advisory #25A 800 PM EDT SAT AUG 30, 2008". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  28. ^ a b Weissert, Will (2008-08-31). "Powerful Gustav heads for U.S. after hitting Cuba". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  29. ^ Blake/Pasch (2008-08-31). "Hurricane Gustav Public Advisory #26 200 AM EDT SUN AUG 31, 2008". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  30. ^ Beven (2008-08-31). "Hurricane Gustav Public Advisory #28 100 PM CDT SUN AUG 31, 2008". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  31. ^ Beven (2008-09-01). "Hurricane Gustav Advisory Number 32 (10am)". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  32. ^ Brown/Franklin (2008-09-01). "Hurricane Gustav Public Advisory #34 1000 PM CDT MON SEP 01, 2008". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  33. ^ Pasch (2008-09-02). "Hurricane Gustav Public Advisory #35 400 AM CDT TUE SEP 02, 2008". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  34. ^ Pasch (2008-08-25). "Tropical Depression Seven Forecast/Advisory Number 1". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  35. ^ Brown (2008-08-25). "Tropical Storm Gustav Special Advisory Number 2". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
  36. ^ a b c Anahad O'Connor (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Heads for Haiti". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  37. ^ a b c d Staff Writers (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Gustav heads for Haiti". Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  38. ^ a b Joseph Guyler Delva (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Gustav takes aim at Haiti". Reuters UK. Archived from the original on 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  39. ^ Staff Writer (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Watch in effect for JA". Radio Jamaica. Retrieved 2008-08-26.  Emergency shelters were open across the island with several schools converted into shelters.
  40. ^ DPA (2008-08-30). "Strengthening Gustav rips through Cuba". Environment News.  Summary
  41. ^ Rivas, Ronald Suárez; AIN (2008-08-30). "Prepared to confront Gustav". Granma International (Granma International Online). 
  42. ^ Will Weissert (2008-08-30). "Gustav now Category 4, winds of 145 mph". BlueRidgeNow. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  43. ^ Reuters 9-2-08
  44. ^ Mark Schleifstein (2008-08-26). "Louisiana gears up for Gustav as it makes landfall in Haiti". The Times-Picayune. Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  45. ^ a b c "New Orleans: Evacuate, or face Gustav alone". MSNBC.MSN.com. Associated Press. 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  46. ^ "New Orleans told to flee Gustav". BBC News. 2008-08-31. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  47. ^ Staff writer (2008-08-31). "Bush tells Gulf Coast residents to flee 'dangerous' storm". CNN. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  48. ^ Anderson, Ed (2008-08-31). "1.9 million people evacuate south Louisiana". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  49. ^ "Gov. Jindal Gustav Update".  
  50. ^ Mark Schleifstein and Michelle Krupa (2008-08-26). "Gustav has state on alert". The Times-Picayune. Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  51. ^ a b Staff Writer (2008-08-26). "Gustav weakens to tropical storm". CNN. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  52. ^ Mike von Fremd and Ashley Phillips (2008-08-27). "NOLA Residents Skittish as Gustav Heads to Gulf". ABC News. Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  53. ^ Barrow, Bill (2008-08-27). "Gov. Bobby Jindal declares pre-storm state of emergency (and Lake Charles' dominance)". New Orleans Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  54. ^ Associated Press (2008). "Louisiana Declares State of Emergency Ahead of Possible Hurricane". VOA News. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  55. ^ "Beaumont Enterprise". 
  56. ^ Staff writer (2008-08-31). "Plaquemines makes 'all out effort' to save parish from flooding".  
  57. ^ Staff writer (2008-09-01). "Plaquemines Parish wins race to finish levee; hopes surge not too strong".  
  58. ^ "New Orleans ports brace for Hurricane Gustav". Reuters. August 30, 2008. 
  59. ^ Tulane University (2008-08-28). "Tulane Evacuation Plans". Tulane University. Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  60. ^ "Xavier, Loyola cancel classes". The Daily Advertiser. 2008-08-28. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  61. ^ Christine Payton (2008-08-29). "University Closure: Tuesday, Sept. 2".  
  62. ^ Ernie Ballard (2008-08-29). "LSU Closed Tuesday, Sept. 2".  
  63. ^ Office of Public Relations (2008-08-31). "BRCC Closed Thru Wednesday".  
  64. ^ Staff writer (2008-09-01). "Plaquemines Parish President tells residents to evacuate".  
  65. ^ a b c d e f Michael Kunzelman & Mary Foster (2008-09-01). "Hurricane Gustav hits land southwest of New Orleans". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  66. ^ Associated Press (2008-08-30). "Scott runs for 160 yards (150 m) as No. 7 LSU overwhelms Appalachian St.". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  67. ^ "Nicholls State, NMSU football game postponed (6:05 pm)".  
  68. ^ (2008-08-29). "Zephyrs Alter Schedule Ahead Of Gustav".  
  69. ^ Chappell, Mike (2008-08-30). "NFL's Saints to practice at Lucas Oil Stadium".  
  70. ^ Kider, Teddy (2008-09-02). "Saints' opener will be at Superdome".  
  71. ^ Southern Decadence Official Website
  72. ^ Douglas-Brown, Laura (2008-08-28). "Hotel Closures may impact Southern Decadence".  
  73. ^ Jay Root (2008-08-29). "National Guard troops activated as Gustav grows". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  74. ^ "National Guard troops activated as Gustav grows". Associated Press. 
  75. ^ "Tyler preps for Gustav evacuees". KTLV. 
  76. ^ Courtney Zubowski (2008). "Astrodome not open for evacuees if Gustav hits New Orleans". KHOU CBS Channel 11. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
  77. ^ Austin American-StatesmanWard, Mirk "Texas mandatory evacuations to start Sunday"
  78. ^ Staff Writer (2008-08-29). "Gov. Perry Pre-deploys Assets in Preparation for Hurricane Gustav".  
  79. ^ [2]
  80. ^ "Harrison County Public Schools Closed Tuesday".  
  81. ^ Jervis, Rick; Swanson, Bob (2008-08-31). "Gulf Coast residents flee Gustav". USAToday. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  82. ^ a b Gustav School/Business Closings
  83. ^ "Regional response activated to support Louisiana Rural Water".  
  84. ^ "Rural Water Associations prepare for Gustav".  
  85. ^ Sonja Isger (2008-08-26). "Gustav goes from tropical depression to hurricane in possible record time". Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  86. ^ "Canada to help with Gustav air evacuation".  
  87. ^ "Canada sends 2 more planes to help with Gustav relief".  
  88. ^ "Navy ships help after hurricane". BBC. 2008-08-31. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  89. ^ "Anheuser-Busch Pre-Stages Drinking Water In Advance Of Hurricane Gustav".  
  90. ^ "Russia to send humanitarian aid to hurricane-hit Cuba".  
  91. ^ Staff Writer (2008-08-27). "Gustav floods Haiti, kills 11".  
  92. ^ Staff Writer (2008-08-27). "Tropical Storm Gustav OCHA Situation Report No. 3".  
  93. ^ a b Katz, Jonathan M.; Andrew O. Selsky and Alex Kennedy (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Gustav hits Haiti, drives up oil prices". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  94. ^ WPTV Staff (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Gustav claims first death".  
  95. ^ AFP (2008-08-26). "Hurricane Gustav kills five in Haiti, aims at Cuba".  
  96. ^ Staff Writer (2008-09-02). "Haiti: IOM aids hurricane Gustav victims".  
  97. ^ "AFP: Deadly Gustav lashes Jamaica, eyes Cuba, US". AFP (Google). August 29, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-29. 
  98. ^ "Painful recovery — Gustav victims struggle to put lives back together". Jamaica Gleaner. August 31, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  99. ^ "$3b damage — Gustav devastates road network — Full assessment pending". Jamaica Gleaner. September 1, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  100. ^ Axelrod, Maura (2008-08-30). "Gustav swells to dangerous Cat 3 storm off Cuba". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  101. ^ Staff Writer for  
  102. ^ "Cuba: Gustav the worst hurricane in 50 years". Miami Herald. August 31, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  103. ^ Robles, Francis (2008-09-03). "Losses in Cuba from Gustav are enormous". Miami Herald. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  104. ^ Staff writer (2008-09-02). "Hurricane Gustav brings devastation to Cuba". Miami Herald. Retrieved 2008-09-02. 
  105. ^ "Report on 2008 Hurricane Season in Cuba".  
  106. ^ Pablo Gorondi; Alex Kennedy and Matt Moore (2008-08-26). "Oil prices spike as Hurricane Gustav nears Gulf". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  107. ^ Aaron Clark and Margot Habiby (2008-08-27). "Oil, Natural Gas Evacuations Start as Gustav Advances (Update2)". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  108. ^  
  109. ^ "Hurricane Gustav's eye reaching Louisiana coast". McClatchy. 2008-09-01. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  110. ^ a b "Oriskany's Shift Endangers Pensacola Scuba Divers". FirstCoastNews.com. Associated Press. 2008-11-11. Retrieved 2009-02-23. 
  111. ^ a b "Bush to visit beleaguered Louisiana as Gustav fizzles". CNN.com. 2008-09-03. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  112. ^ a b c d e f Matthew Pleasant & Robert Zullo (2008-09-01). "Picture begins to emerge of Gustav's damage".  
  113. ^ NWS Lake Charles (2008-09-03). "Preliminary Local Storm Report".  
  114. ^ Rowland, Michael (2008-09-02). "Louisiana cleans up after Gustav".  
  115. ^ a b Steve Alexander, Reporter (2008-09-02). "Gustav Evacuees Drive Through Mobile". WKRG.com (WKRG TV). Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  116. ^ a b Kitty Bean Yancey and Barbara De Lollis (2008-09-02). "Gustav left hotels in New Orleans in good shape". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  117. ^ Abbey Brown (2008-09-02). "2 Gustav-related deaths reported in Cenla; part of J.C. Penney store roof collapses".  
  118. ^ Town Talk staff (2008-09-02). "Rapides Parish schools to be closed until Monday, Sept. 8; water situation still critical".  
  119. ^ News Star Staff (2008-09-02). "Power outages pass 66,000 in northern Louisiana, most since Katrina".  
  120. ^ CoCoRaHS. Total Precipitation Summary for Louisiana: September 1-3, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-09-03.
  121. ^ MesoWest. Location of EGIL1. Retrieved on 2008-09-03.
  122. ^ Climate Prediction Center. U. S. Rainfall from September 1. Retrieved on 2008-09-03.
  123. ^ Climate Prediction Center. U. S. Rainfall from September 2. Retrieved on 2008-09-03.
  124. ^ "Regional response activated to support Louisiana Rural Water".  
  125. ^ "More relief moves into Louisiana as other states brace for more storms".  
  126. ^ "Regional LRWA’s relief efforts applauded by security committee".  
  127. ^ Martel, Brett (2008-09-03). "LSU postpones game against Troy in wake of Gustav". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-09-04. 
  128. ^ Staff writer (2008-09-02). "Authorities Report at least Seven Deaths Related to Gustav". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  129. ^ "Sixteen deaths connected to Gustav".  
  130. ^ a b c d Jene' Young, Meteorologist (2008-09-02). "Dauphin Island's Berm Wiped Out".  
  131. ^ a b Associated Press reporters (2008-09-01). "Dangerous Rip Currents At Fla. Panhandle Beaches — Florida". WKRG.com (WKRG TV). Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  132. ^ MacDonald, Mary (2008-09-01). "Storm evacuees head to Georgia; 4 die in identcrash".  
  133. ^ Michael Brennan. PUBLIC ADVISORY NUMBER 41 FOR TROPICAL DEPRESSION GUSTAV. Retrieved on 2008-09-03.
  134. ^ David M. Roth. Tropical Cyclone Rainfall for the Gulf Coast. Retrieved on 2008-09-03.
  135. ^ Balz, Dan (2008-09-01). "The Hurricane In Question Is Still Called Katrina". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  136. ^ Staff writer (2008-09-01). "President Bush to skip convention as Gustav scuppers Republican plans". The Times. 
  137. ^ Hughes, Siobhan (2008-08-30). "Hurricane Gustav Forces Some Changes in GOP Convention". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  138. ^ Espo, D. (2008-08-31). "McCain orders convention curtailed for Gustav". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  139. ^ Allen, Mike & Jonathan Martin (2008-08-30). "Storm scrambles GOP convention".  
  140. ^ Marquardt, Alexander (2008-08-31). "Obama and Biden urge Gulf Coast evacuation". CNN. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  141. ^ Charles Babington (2008-09-01). "Obama to Ask His Donors to Help Storm Victims". Associated Press via ABC News. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  142. ^ Pershing, Ben (2008-09-03). "Louisiana Primary Delayed After Hurricane".  
  143. ^ Pérez Pizarro, Renata (2008-09-03). "Is Jaled 'newsier' than Gustav?, Fidel asks".  
  144. ^ "Retired Hurricane Names Since 1954". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. April 22, 2009. Retrieved September 4, 2011. 

References

See also

Because of the damage and deaths, on April 22, 2009, the name Gustav was retired by the 2014.[144]

Retirement

El Nuevo Herald, which broke the news of Jaled's arrival in Miami.) "What a patriot! What a democrat! What a brilliant example," wrote Castro. "This way, the world is informed about a character a lot less known and important than Hurricane Gustav. They want to make a sacred cow out of him."[143]

Cuba

Louisiana's Congressional primary election, originally scheduled for September 6, was delayed to October 4, which then delayed the general election for two races that required a runoff vote to December 6, 2008.[142]

Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama and Vice Presidential nominee Joe Biden, monitoring the situation in the Gulf Coast, encouraged New Orleans residents to evacuate.[140] Obama also announced that he would ask his large network of donors and volunteers to contribute money, goods and work to assist victims of the storm according to what was most needed after the storm hit.[141]

On August 30, President Dick Cheney canceled their planned attendance at the 2008 Republican National Convention.[136] Because of the expected U.S. landfall, governors and some other political leaders from Louisiana and other states chose to stay home from the 2008 Republican National Convention.[137] As the hurricane approached the coast, presumptive Republican presidential nominee John McCain canceled all non-essential opening-day festivities at the convention[138] and said that he might give his acceptance speech via satellite from the affected area.[139]

Hurricane Gustav was expected to make landfall near New Orleans almost exactly three years after Hurricane Katrina struck the same region. It also arrived in the midst of the campaign for the 2008 U.S. presidential elections and during the week the 2008 Republican National Convention was scheduled to start. The federal and state administrations, as well as the candidates for the 2008 presidential election were sensitive that Gustav was likely to remind U.S. voters of the "botched response" by state and local municipalities and subsequent federal aid authorities to the earlier storm.[135]

United States

Political implications

Especially affected was the small southeast Texas coastal town of Bridge City where nearly the entire town received heavy water damage.

Texas

Because of Gustav's slow motion across northwest Louisiana and Arkansas on September 4 and September 5, significant rainfall accumulation was seen statewide. The maximum amount in Arkansas was at Hamburg, where 11.25 inches (286 mm) had fallen,[133] making Gustav the third wettest tropical cyclone to affect the state since 1972.[134]

Arkansas

[132] Four people died in a car accident on Interstate 20 near

The USS Oriskany (CV-34), now an artificial reef off the coast of Pensacola, shifted 10 feet deeper leaving the flight deck at 145 feet (44 m) following Gustav.[110]

The state of Florida was affected by both the Cuba landfall, with Gustav traveling past the Florida Keys, and the Louisiana landfall (September 1), affecting the Florida panhandle, with storm surge and outer band tornadoes and thunderstorms. Several tornado warnings were issued around the Pensacola area. Panhandle beaches had rip currents,[131] and officials in Pensacola Beach had been passing out pamphlets warning of deadly rip currents that could continue for days.[131] Four people died in rip currents on Florida beaches.[4]

Florida

In Alabama, scattered damage already reached multi-million dollar levels, with the destruction of the Dauphin Island berm (sand dune barrier) by storm surge waves,[130] flood damage to island roads & homes,[130] and extensive flooding around Bayou La Batre. The manmade sand berm took about two years to complete, and there is no official plan yet to construct another berm for Dauphin Island,[130] which acts as a barrier island for the western Alabama coastline at Mobile Bay.[130] A fuller assessment of damage can be expected when more residents return to the coastal areas and further insurance claims are filed.

In Mississippi, damage from Gustav was far less severe than that caused by Hurricane Katrina, with its 2005 storm surge of 27 ft (7 m); however, Gustav's storm surge was high as 15 feet (4.5 m) in places on the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Sections of U.S. Route 90 (including Gulfport and Biloxi) were flooded and some houses were flooded.[128] Two people from Metairie, Louisiana died near Vicksburg in an automobile accident while evacuating from the storm.[129]

The National Weather Service reported 14 confirmed tornadoes spun by Gustav from Biloxi to Mobile. All during September 1, numerous tornado warnings (more than 100) were issued from Mobile all the way to Natchez, based on radar-rotation patterns that indicated strong circulating winds.

Wind damage to the landmark Eola Hotel in Natchez, Mississippi.
Waves crash against a stop sign in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, as Hurricane Gustav hits the Gulf Coast.

Mississippi and Alabama

The LSU football team postponed their game, scheduled for September 6, against Troy University and rescheduled it for November 15 after damage was caused to Tiger Stadium. The swirling wind in the stadium tore awnings, threw team benches from the sidelines of the playing field into the stands and littered the stadium with debris.[127]

[126] Rural water teams provided 771 on-site technical assistance visits to 370 affected water and wastewater systems. Later, the LRWA efforts received applause from the Louisiana Joint Select Committee on Homeland Security.[125] On Wednesday, September 3, field staff and emergency supplies from the

President Bush declared 34 Louisiana parishes as disaster areas and visited the area on September 3.[111]

Damage and significant power outages were reported as far north as northern Louisiana, in the Interstate 20 corridor.[119] Highest rainfall totals received thus far across the state include 16.37 inches (416 mm) near Bunkie, Louisiana,[120] and 19.17 inches (487 mm) at Barataria Bay Pass.[121][122][123]

Central Louisiana was also hard hit. Many trees and power lines were knocked down in that region as well, and many houses sustained damage from the winds and localized flooding. Part of the roof at the Alexandria Mall collapsed. Two people died in the region — one was electrocuted and one had a tree crush her trailer.[117] The area's water supply was also hampered as power was knocked out to most of the water wells in the Alexandria and Pineville areas.[118]

Flooding in front of a sign in New Iberia, Louisiana.

The community of Houma, Louisiana and the surrounding area in south-central Louisiana sustained extensive wind damage. The winds blew off many roofs, blew windows out of houses and knocked down many trees and left much of the region without power.[112] Shingles and awnings were scattered throughout downtown Houma.[112] At Ellender High in Houma, the school's new gym was heavily damaged, with a rear wall collapsed.[112] The roof of the Houma-Terrebonne Chamber of Commerce was also blown away. Overall, the area was considered to have dodged a bullet. Had the storm come ashore farther west, the Intracoastal Waterway would have been a highway for storm surge to penetrate into the heart of Houma.[112] However, flooding was relatively minor in the region.[112]

The city of New Orleans had the official reopening date on Thursday (Sept. 4),[115] after crews had restored most electric power and other services.[115] Damage assessments came as residents returned to inspect their properties. Damage included numerous trees down in various locations, such as around some Marriott hotels,[116] and large tree limbs were broken from oak trees along St. Charles Avenue.[65] Millions of smaller branches were scattered throughout neighborhoods, blown by the strong winds. Area hotels planned to reopen the week of September 8, some by Saturday, September 6 (such as the InterContinental & 16 area Marriotts, which already had electricity restored).[116] The Associated Press[65] reported on the floodwall along the Industrial Canal (the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal), which connects Lake Pontchartrain to the Mississippi River, and is susceptible to surges via the Gulf Outlet. High water splashed over the floodwalls onto new splash guards (designed to prevent foundation erosion), but the walls were not breached.[65] Minor street flooding began in the upper Ninth Ward of New Orleans.

Around 1.5 million people were without power in Louisiana on September 1.[114] The state reported about 100,000 people remained on the coast, after evacuation.[65] Nearly 2 million people had evacuated from south Louisiana in the days before Gustav's arrival.[65]

In Baton Rouge, wind damage from Gustav was the worst of any storm in memory. The damage was severe enough to effectively shut the city down for over a week. While most residents chose not to evacuate further inland due to the minuscule threat of major flooding, large numbers of people fled the city after the storm due to the crippled power system in the city. Because most storms dissipate to below tropical-storm levels by the time they reach Baton Rouge, many trees that survived weaker storms in the past fell onto homes, cars, and power lines. In many of the more heavily wooded sections of Baton Rouge, large trees and fallen power lines blocked streets, causing relief to come slowly to those living in residential areas. Nearly all businesses remained closed through September 5, five days after landfall. Power lines along Baton Rouge's tree-lined streets were easily brought down as thousands of trees were uprooted and snapped in half by Gustav's fierce winds. Entire sections of the city were cut off by the mountains of debris. Few homes escaped roof damage as the storm passed over the capital city. Most schools were closed for at least one week, and many for two or three while power was restored to the area around the school. Many signs were blown down, including a large portion of the Interstate 10 Highland Road/Nicholson Drive exit sign, which blew off of the Bridge and into the Mississippi River. It would be three weeks before power was restored to all residents. Debris cleanup was still ongoing at the end of 2008, four months after the storm had passed.

Hurricane Gustav just after U.S. landfall.

After Gustav weakened to a tropical depression, several tornadoes were spawned including one (rated EF2) that killed two near Mamou during the early hours of September 3. The tornado also injured two others.[113]

48 deaths in the state of Louisiana were blamed on Hurricane Gustav. Five were due to falling trees, two due to a tornado and the rest were indirect deaths.[4]

In the state of Louisiana, 34 parishes were declared as disaster areas.[111] Hurricane Gustav reached the Louisiana coast on the morning of September 1, making landfall near Cocodrie, Louisiana (see rainfall map); however, at 9 am wind speed at Grand Isle had been 115 mph (185 km/h),[112] the highest eyewall speed, indicating the eyewall had traveled over 4 hours along the coast. The center of the storm continued northwest across the state, so damage and deaths were widespread in many areas.

Louisiana

Although the storm was still in its formative stages on August 26,[15] fears that Hurricane Gustav might eventually disrupt oil production in the Gulf of Mexico caused oil prices to rise.[36][93][106] On August 27, U.S. oil and natural-gas companies began evacuating personnel from their oil rigs in the Gulf of Mexico amid continued forecasts that Gustav would strengthen and move into the gulf.[107] By August 30, 76.77% of oil production and 37.16% of natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico had been shut in.[108] By mid-day August 31, 96% of oil production had stopped.[109] Out at sea, one death was reported.[4] Sunk in the Gulf as an artificial reef in 2004, the USS Oriskany (CV-34) shifted and was buried 10 feet deeper in the ocean floor after Gustav passed over.[110]

Tipped and flooded home, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana.
Total rainfall from Gustav in the United States

United States

According to Pinar del Río civil defense authorities, 86,000 homes were damaged, 80 electric towers and 600 electric posts fell. Cuba's electric company, indicated that a total of 136 electric towers toppled over and that the electrical grid on Isla de la Juventud was 100% damaged.[104] In all, damage from Hurricane Gustav totaled $2.1 billion in Cuba.[105]

By September 3, Cuba's President Raul Castro said that 20,000 of the 25,000 houses on Isla de la Juventud were damaged. More than 90,000 homes were damaged in the western province of Pinar del Río according to government news agency AIN. 3,306 tobacco houses were destroyed, with 906 tons of tobacco leaves wet. More than 32,000 acres (130 km2) of crops were ruined, including 7,239 acres (29.30 km2) of grain and nearly 1,500 of fruit. 42,000 cans of coffee were destroyed, and 3,100 tons of grapefruit lost. 930,000 chickens had to be euthanized.[103]

Cuban Civil defense authorities initially stated that there were "many people injured" on Isla de la Juventud, an island of 87,000 people south of the mainland. Nearly all the island's roads were washed out and some regions were heavily flooded. No fatalities have been reported in Cuba, despite the extreme damage.[4][28]

At least 300,000 people were evacuated from Gustav's path as 140 mph (220 km/h) winds toppled telephone poles and fruit trees, shattered windows and tore off the tin roofs of homes. Cuban authorities declared that Gustav is the worst hurricane to hit the country in 50 years. Authorities called the storm damage the worst since 1956. The 211 mph (341 km/h) wind gusts registered in the city of Paso Real de San Diego were the highest in Cuba's history, according to the provincial newspaper, the Guerrillero. Winds were so strong that the weather station instruments broke.[102] Gustav is considered Cuba's worst hurricane in 45 years, the last hurricane that was worse than Gustav for Cuba was Hurricane Flora in 1963, which was the deadliest Cuban storm since the 1932 Cuba Hurricane.

On Saturday August 30, 2008, Gustav made landfall on mainland Cuba near the community of Los Palacios in Pinar del Río—a region that produces much of the tobacco used to make the nation's famed cigars. In Los Palacios some 7,000 homes were roofless and many with their walls collapsed. The rice and banana farms sustained much damage.[101]

Waters churned up by Hurricane Gustav off the coast of Northern Cuba

Cuba

In the Cayman Islands, Gustav's heavy rains and storm surge flooded the streets of Cayman Brac and Little Cayman, the smaller easternmost "Sister Islands" in the chain. More than 1,100 people spent the night in government shelters in the three islands as high waves and heavy winds battered the chain, the National Emergency Operations Center said in a statement. Most people waited out the storm in private homes or hotels.[100]

Cayman Islands

[4] Total damage in Jamaica was estimated at $210 million.[99] The banana sector in the parishes of [97] Flash flooding was also reported on the island as a result of Gustav's heavy rains.[4] In Jamaica, 15 deaths were reported after Gustav swept through the area as a tropical storm.

Jamaica

According to Haiti's National Director of Civil Protection, 77 people died as a result of the hurricane.[4] Some 2,100 houses were destroyed and another 8,150 damaged, causing an estimated 7,200 people to live in temporary shelters, including churches, community centers and schools.[96]

Gustav made landfall in Haiti at approximately 1 pm EDT on August 26, about 10 miles (16 km) west of the city of Jacmel.[93] While inland, Gustav's rains triggered a landslide in the community of Benet which killed one person.[94] Two more were killed in southwestern Haiti when their house collapsed. Another two deaths were caused by an explosion inside a house, thought to be possibly related to Hurricane Gustav.[95] The southern town of Jacmel, where the hurricane made landfall, was bisected by floodwaters.[51]

In the Dominican Republic, a landslide in a rural area killed eight people.[91] Two people were injured. Government authorities said that some 67,255 persons were evacuated and more than 1,239 homes were damaged with 12 destroyed. 50 communities were isolated by the flooding.[92]

A truck buried under rubble in Haiti

Hispaniola

In the aftermath, the Canadian government sent a C-17 airlifter, with a medical team, from CFB Trenton to assist in the evacuation of New Orleans.[86] and two C-130 Hercules airlift planes from Greenwood, Nova Scotia and from Winnipeg, Manitoba.[87] The United Kingdom sent HMS Iron Duke and RFA Wave Ruler to provide emergency assistance and assess the damage caused by Gustav.[88] Anheuser-Busch provided canned water to affected residents.[89] Russia announced it would send 4 cargo planes with tents, construction materials, food, and essential supplies to Cuba.[90]

Operationally, Gustav went from a tropical depression to a hurricane in 14 hours, tying Hurricane Humberto's record of 14 hours, although this may be disputed in post-season analysis.[85]

Deaths by country
Haiti 77
Dominican Republic 8
Jamaica 15
United States 53
Total 153

Impact

On Friday, August 29 several state rural waters associations activated their Water Agency Response Networks to prepare for Gustav’s landfall.[83] WARN systems are agreements between rural water associations and government agencies in neighboring states that coordinate the response to large water emergencies. Water technicians and trailers of portable generators, pumps, spare parts and testing equipment were readied along the gulf coast and neighboring states to respond to the emergency.[84]

Multistate agencies

[82], closed on August 31.Alabama, Mobile in Bankhead Tunnel The [82] closed on August 31, and remained closed September 1. It is reopened September 2.Mobile Regional Airport The [81] Much of the

On August 27, requests and orders began for evacuations along the Mississippi Gulf Coast.[79] All schools in Harrison County's five public school districts were closed until September 2.[80] Several schools in Pearl River County were also confirmed closed until September 2. The University of Southern Mississippi was closed on September 2, as well as the Alcorn State University.

Mississippi and Alabama

Voluntary evacuations of Jefferson and Orange Counties started on August 30 with mandatory evacuations in the two counties started on August 31.[77] Also, the Texas Governor deployed other assets to help handle the oncoming disaster.[78]

In Harris County, Texas, the administrative County Judge Ed Emmett said that the Reliant Astrodome will not be used as a shelter for evacuees if Hurricane Gustav hits New Orleans because Houston is also vulnerable to Hurricane Gustav. Emmett said that it would make more sense to evacuate to a more inland area.[76]

Texas Governor Rick Perry activated 5,000 members of the Texas Military Forces on August 29 in response to the possible crisis, in addition to preparations made by other agencies.[73] As of August 29, other preparations in Texas to deal with Gustav and its effects were implemented.[74] Some evacuees were being placed in Northeast Texas, including in Dallas County, Tarrant County, and Tyler, Texas.[75]

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Administrator David Paulison (center) with various United States' federal officials and other response leaders on August 30.

Texas

After the lessons from Katrina the main hospitals remained open. Non critical patients were evacuated but serious cases remained with full support. As an example Tulane had installed an independent power system. This allowed them to continue critical care. At the height of the crisis only 4 patients remained in ICU but had full support, even to the extent that a liver transplant was successfully performed during Gustav.

Hotel and business closures related to Gustav had impact on New Orleans' Southern Decadence celebrations, which were scheduled for August 27 through September 1, 2008.[71][72]

One major sporting event was directly affected by the disaster preparations. On August 30, Louisiana State University (LSU) opened its 2008 football season against Appalachian State. The originally scheduled kickoff time of 4 pm CDT would have conflicted with the start of contraflow lane reversal, and Interstate 10 is a key evacuation route through Baton Rouge. Accordingly, LSU moved kickoff to 10 am CDT.[66] A college football game between Nicholls State University and New Mexico State University, scheduled for September 4, was canceled.[67] The Triple-A baseball New Orleans Zephyrs cancelled the final three games of their season because of the impending approach of Gustav and evacuation preparations.[68] The New Orleans Saints of the National Football League (NFL) proceeded with plans to evacuate from New Orleans and headed to Indianapolis, where they practiced at Lucas Oil Stadium.[69] The Saints returned to New Orleans to play their first home game as scheduled on Sunday, September 7, defeating the Tampa Bay Buccaneers 24–20.[70]

Local events

On September 1, Plaquemines Parish officials asked the residents of Braithwaite, Louisiana to leave, as levee failure was considered imminent.[64] FEMA had estimated there were only about 10,000 people left in New Orleans on September 1.[65]

The Mississippi River was shut to all ship traffic between the Gulf of Mexico and New Orleans on August 30. Pilots at Lake Charles in west Louisiana, and Sabine Pass in east Texas, also were making plans as of August 30 to halt traffic.[58] Tulane University, Loyola University New Orleans, the University of New Orleans, and Xavier University of Louisiana all closed their campuses for the entire week but resumed classes on the following Monday of September 8, 2008.[59][60] The University of Louisiana at Lafayette also canceled classes for September 2 and 3,[61] as did Louisiana State University[62] and Baton Rouge Community College.[63]

Mayor of New Orleans Ray Nagin shortened his appearance at the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, to assist in preparations.[54] The residents of low-lying Grand Isle, Louisiana, were under a voluntary evacuation order beginning August 29. Traditionally, the community is one of the first to vacate when tropical storms threaten.[45] Residents of lower Cameron Parish, Louisiana, were also given a voluntary evacuation order on August 29.[55] Mandatory evacuation orders have since been given. In Plaquemines Parish, Parish President Billy Nungesser flew in a helicopter counting the number of vessels and barges that potentially would be a safety issue to people, property, and the levee system during a hurricane. Parish officials called the owners of about 150 vessels and told them to move the vessels or the parish would sink them. 70 of the 150 were sunk, some by the parish, some by the owners. [1] Also, parish officials started a last-ditch effort to save Belle Chasse by constructing a sand levee across Louisiana Highway 23.[56] Approximately eight hours later, the parish government announced the completion of the levee.[57]

Maj. Gen. Bennett C. Landreneau (center), adjutant general of the Louisiana Army National Guard, speaks to reporters about the Guard's preparation for Gustav in Louisiana on August 28.

Officials had finalized evacuation plans, which proposed assisted evacuations as early as August 29: Contraflow lane reversal on all major highways, and 700 buses to help move evacuees.[50] For those evacuees in need of shelter, the state government secured tens of thousands of shelter beds.[51] Wary of repeating the mistakes of Hurricane Katrina, authorities chose not to use the Louisiana Superdome and New Orleans Convention Center as emergency shelters.[52] The following day, Louisiana governor Bobby Jindal declared a state of emergency, activating between 3,000 and 8,000 members of the Louisiana National Guard.[53]

On the morning of August 26, with Gustav still over Haiti, Louisiana emergency preparedness officials met several times to discuss predictions that Gustav would reach the state as a major hurricane in three to five days.[44] Several areas of Louisiana planned for evacuations.[45] Several parishes in the New Orleans area announced plans for voluntary evacuations beginning Saturday, August 30. New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin said that it was possible thousands of people who need city help could start leaving on Saturday, as the first wave of a full-scale evacuation. Later, he ordered the mandatory evacuation of the whole of New Orleans commencing on the morning of August 31, calling Gustav "the storm of the century ... the mother of all storms."[45][46] On August 31, Nagin also declared a dusk-to-dawn curfew and the cessation of city assistance in evacuations by the afternoon.[47] By that afternoon, 1.9 million people had evacuated southern Louisiana, with 200,000 being residents of New Orleans alone,[48] making it the largest evacuation in the history of Louisiana.[49]

Building being boarded up in Uptown New Orleans, August 28

Louisiana

On August 31, the NHC predicted with 45% probability that Gustav would remain at Category 3 or above on September 1. This influenced preparations, although in fact Gustav had dropped just below the Category 3 threshold to Category 2 by landfall, and Category 1 shortly afterwards.

United States

60,000 were evacuated overnight on August 29 from Cuba's western coasts. Gustav was projected to strike Cuba on the afternoon of August 30.[40][41] Additional evacuations were ordered on the afternoon of August 30 as Gustav strengthened to a strong Category 4 hurricane, particularly in the low-lying Pinar del Río Province where 190,000 were evacuated.[42] On Monday, September 1, Cuban officials reported that Gustav's 155 mph (249 km/h) winds damaged or destroyed 90,000 homes in Pinar del Río, and knocked down 80 high-tension towers.[43] The combined damage estimate from Gustav and the subsequent hurricanes Ike and Paloma is about $9.4 billion (USD), with about 2.1 billion of that from Gustav.[7]

Infrared Satellite loops of Hurricane Gustav crossing western Cuba at as a major category 4 storm.

Cuba

In the Cayman Islands, a hurricane watch was issued at 6 pm August 25 and upgraded that to a warning on 6 pm August 27. Banks and non-essential government services were closed Friday to allow residents to prepare. Extra flights were organized to get tourists off the island and, per usual practice, further visits were banned until the All Clear was given. Stores and gas stations were busy and each district office offered free plywood to protect windows and residents hurried about to secure their business interests and property.

On August 25, Carnival Cruise Lines diverted one of its ships from Montego Bay, Jamaica, to Mexico in order to avoid the storm.[37] Jamaica's Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management (ODPEM) readied response systems in anticipation of Hurricane Gustav affecting the island.[39]

Hurricane Gustav, just after making landfall in Jamaica, August 29, 2008

Jamaica and Cayman Islands

The Haitian government ordered emergency shelters to prepare.[37] The country is particularly vulnerable to floods and landslides as rainfall runs off its largely deforested mountains.[36][38] The government issued a red alert[38] and advised the population to take precautions, but few Haitians took heed. Fair weather led many to doubt whether a hurricane was even approaching.[37] American Airlines canceled all of its flights into and out of Port-au-Prince on August 26, stranding travelers hoping to escape the storm.[37]

Immediately upon the storm's designation as a tropical depression it was expected to strengthen into a tropical storm and strike the island of Hispaniola,[8] shared by the Dominican Republic on the east and Haiti on the west. Tropical storm warnings were issued from the coast of the Dominican Republic south of Santo Domingo to the Haitian coast south of Port-au-Prince. A tropical storm watch was issued for the Haitian coast, north of Port-au-Prince to the northern border with the Dominican Republic.[34] Hours later, when Gustav was upgraded to a tropical storm, the tropical storm warning was upgraded to a hurricane warning and the tropical storm watch was upgraded to a hurricane warning.[35][36]

Hispaniola

Preparations

On August 30 Gustav made landfall twice on Cuba: first, on Isla de la Juventud and then on the mainland near the community of Los Palacios in Pinar del Río Province.[28] By the early hours of August 31, Gustav entered the Gulf of Mexico with maximum sustained winds of 135 mph (217 km/h) and minimum central pressure of 958 millibars.[29] During August 31, the storm moved in a northwest direction slightly losing its strength (despite passing over a shortened Loop Current) with sustained winds at 115 mph.[30] On the evening of August 31, Gustav weakened to a Category 2 hurricane and remained at such intensity until landfall.[4] Gustav made landfall along the Louisiana coast with 105 mph (170 km/h) winds near Cocodrie,[31] at about 9:30 a.m CDT (1430 UTC). By 10 pm CDT, Gustav had been downgraded to a Tropical Storm with winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) about 20 miles (30 km) southwest of Alexandria, Louisiana[32] and by 4 am CDT on September 2 Gustav had diminished to a Tropical Depression with a threat of severe flooding in the lower Mississippi Valley and eastern Texas.[33]

Hurricane Gustav in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico as a 120 mph (195 km/h) storm

Hurricane Gustav regained a pronounced eye as it made landfall on Haiti, with 75 mph (121 km/h) winds,[17] near the town of Jacmel.[18] As the hurricane moved over Haiti's mountainous terrain its circulation was disrupted[17] and it lost a little strength.[19] Although downgraded to a tropical storm, it still had a pronounced eye in its mid- and upper-level structures. Its outflow improved throughout the night of August 26,[20] and the system was not very disrupted when it moved back over water into the Gulf of Gonâve.[21] However, the storm's movement slowed, and continued interaction with nearby Haiti, combined with the incursion of mid-level dry air from the northeast, resulted in further weakening during the day on August 27.[22][23] The storm began a west-southwesterly movement that brought it closer to Jamaica. On the morning of August 28 it was found that, overnight, Gustav had either reformed farther to the south or had moved farther to the south than previously thought. The storm was also found to have restrengthened nearly to hurricane status.[24] It then was upgraded to a hurricane again during the late afternoon of August 29. At 11:00 a.m EDT (1500 UTC) on August 30, as Gustav neared the west end of Cuba, it was upgraded to a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale,[25] with sustained winds near 125 mph (205 km/h).[25] Gustav continued its rapid deepening trend, and three hours later, it had already reached Category 4 strength. Gustav's maximum sustained winds had reached 155 mph (250 km/h)[26] with a minimum pressure of 941 millibars.[27]

[16] and the minimum central pressure fell.[15] became more prominent,central dense overcast Before reaching Haiti, its satellite presentation continued to intensify, a [14] another hurricane hunter aircraft confirmed what forecasters already suspected—that Gustav had strengthened into a hurricane with winds topping 90 mph (150 km/h).[13] In the early hours of August 26, as the storm approached Haiti's southwestern peninsula,[12] proved to be temporary as a well-defined eye wall formed that same night.[11]

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