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Independence of Pakistan

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Subject: West Pakistan, List of universities in Pakistan, Faiz Ahmad Faiz, Malik Ghulam Muhammad, Afridi, Tomb of Muhammad Iqbal, Naseem Hijazi, Balochistan conflict, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Mir Lawang Khan
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Independence of Pakistan

The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e-Pakistan (Urdu: تحریکِ پاکستان‎ — Tẹḥrīk-e Pākistān) refers to the successful historical movement against British Raj and Indian Congress to have an independent Muslim state named Pakistan created from the dissolution of the British Indian Empire. It had its origins in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (present day Uttar Pradesh). Muslims there were a minority, yet their elite had a disproportionate amount of representation in the civil service and a strong degree of cultural and literary influence. The idea of Pakistan spread from Northern India through the Muslim diaspora of this region, and spread outwards to the Muslim communities of the rest of India.[1] This movement was led by lawyer Muhammad Ali Jinnah, along with other prominent founding fathers of Pakistan including Allama Iqbal, Liaqat Ali Khan, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Aga Khan III, Fatima Jinnah, Bahadur Yar Jung, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar, Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman, A.K. Fazlul Huq, Sardar Abdur Rab Nishtar, Jogendra Nath Mandal, Victor Turner, Ra'na Liaquat Ali Khan, and Dr. Sir Ziauddin Ahmed.

The movement ultimately achieved success in 1947 with the Partition of India into largely Muslim-majority and non-Muslim majority regions.

History of the movement


The basis of the Pakistan Movement was the Two-nation theory initiated by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and the awakening of the Muslims after the War of Independence, 1857. The beginning of Pakistan Movement was from the formation of the Muslim League in 1906, followed by the vision of Sir Mohammad Iqbal of a homeland for the Muslims floated in 1930, on to the Pakistan Resolution of 1940, and the League gaining strength to strength to finally attaining a separate homeland for the Muslims of India.[2]

Muslims minority

The 1882 Local Self-Government Act had already troubled Syed Ahmed Khan. When, in 1906, the British announced their intention to establish Legislative Councils, Muhsin al-Mulk, the secretary of both the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference and MAO College, hoped to win a separate Legislative Council for Muslims by making correspondence to several prominent Muslims in different regions of the South Asia and organising a delegation led by Aga Khan III to meet with Viceroy Lord Minto,[5][6][7][8] a deal to which Minto agreed because it appeared to assist the British divide and rule strategy.. The delegation consisted of 35 members, who each represented their respective region proportionately, mentioned hereunder.

  1. Sir Aga Khan III. (Head of the delegation); (Bombay).
  2. Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk. (Aligarh).
  3. Nawab Waqar-ul-Mulk. (Muradabad).
  4. Maulvi Hafiz Hakim Ajmal Khan. (Delhi).
  5. Maulvi Syed Karamat Husain. (Allahabad).
  6. Maulvi Sharifuddin (Patna).
  7. Nawab Syed Sardar Ali Khan (Bombay).
  8. Syed Abdul Rauf. (Allahabad).
  9. Maulvi Habiburrehman Khan. (Aligarh).
  10. Sahibzada Aftab Ahmed Khan. (Aligarh).
  11. Abdul Salam Khan. (Rampur).
  12. Raees Muhammed Ahtasham Ali. (Lucknow)
  13. Khan Bahadur Muhammad Muzammilullah Khan. (Aligarh).
  14. Haji Muhammed Ismail Khan. (Aligarh).
  15. Shehzada Bakhtiar Shah. (Calcutta).
  16. Malik Umar Hayat Khan Tiwana. (Shahpur).
  17. Khan Bahadur Muhammed Shah Deen. (Lahore).
  18. Khan Bahadur Syed Nawab Ali Chaudhary. (Memon Singh).
  19. Nawab Bahadur Mirza Shuja'at Ali Baig. (Murshidabad).
  20. Nawab Nasir Hussain Khan Bahadur. (Patna).
  21. Khan Bahadur Syed Ameer Hassan Khan. (Calcutta).
  22. Syed Muhammed Imam. (Patna).
  23. Nawab Sarfaraz Hussain Khan Bahadur. (Patna).
  24. Maulvi Rafeeuddin Ahmed. (Bombay).
  25. Khan Bahadur Ahmed Muhaeeuddin. (Madras).
  26. Ibraheem Bhai Adamjee Pirbhai. (Bombay).
  27. Maulvi Abdul Raheem. (Calcutta).
  28. Syed Allahdad Shah. (Khairpur).
  29. Maulana H. M. Malik. (Nagpur).
  30. Khan Bahadur Col. Abdul Majeed Khan. (Patiala).
  31. Khan Bahadur Khawaja Yousuf Shah. (Amritsar).
  32. Khan Bahadur Mian Muhammad Shafi. (Lahore).
  33. Khan Bahadur Shaikh Ghulam Sadiq. (Amritsar).
  34. Syed Nabiullah. (Allahabad).
  35. Khalifa Syed Muhammed Khan Bahadur. (Patna).[9]

For Jinnah, Islam laid a cultural base for an ideology of ethnic nationalism whose objective was to gather the Muslim community to defend the Muslim minorities. Jinnah's representation of minority Muslims was quite apparent in 1928, when in the All-Party Muslim Conference, he was ready to swap the advantages of separate electorates for a quota of 33% of seats at the Centre. He maintained his views at the Round Table Conferences, while the Muslims of Punjab and Bengal were vying for a much more decentralised political setup. Many of their requests were met in the 1935 Government of India Act. Jinnah and the Muslim League played a peripheral role at the time and in 1937 could manage to gather only 5% of the Muslim vote. Jinnah refused to back down and went ahead with his plan. He presented the two-nation theory in the now famous Lahore Resolution in March 1940, seeking a separate Muslim state,[10][not specific enough to verify]

The idea of a separate state had first been introduced by Allama Iqbal in his speech in December 1930 as the President of the Muslim League.[11] The state that he visualised included only Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), and Balochistan. Three years later, the name Pakistan was proposed in a declaration in 1933 by Choudhary Rahmat Ali, a University of Cambridge graduate. Again, Bengal was left out of the proposal.[12]

In his book Idea of Pakistan, Stephen P. Cohen writes on the influence of South Asian Muslim nationalism on the Pakistan movement:[13]

"It begins with a glorious precolonial state empire when the Muslims of South Asia were politically united and culturally, civilizationally, and strategically dominant. In that era, ethnolinguistic differences were subsumed under a common vision of an Islamic-inspired social and political order. However, the divisions among Muslims that did exist were exploited by the British, who practiced divide and rule politics, displacing the Mughals and circumscribing other Islamic rulers. Moreover, the Hindus were the allies of the British, who used them to strike a balance with the Muslims; many Hindus, a fundamentally insecure people, hated Muslims and would have oppressed them in a one-man, one-vote democratic India. The Pakistan freedom movement united these disparate pieces of the national puzzle, and Pakistan was the expression of the national will of India's liberated Muslims."

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Further information: Provincial Assembly of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

In NWFP (renamed Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), the Muslim League faced its hardest challenge yet. It had intense competition from Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan dubbed as the "Frontier Gandhi" due to his efforts in following in the footstepsof Gandhi. The popularity of the Congress, along with the strong Pakhtoon identity created by Ghaffar Khan in the cultural and the political arenas made it a challenge for the Muslim League. With the support of Ghaffar Khan, the Congress was able to contain the Muslim League to the non-Pakhtoon areas, particularly, the Hazara region. The Muslim League could only manage to win 17 seats, against the 30 won by Congress, in the 1946 elections. The efforts was made by Jalal-ud-din Jalal Baba then, who was renowned leader of Pakistan that time. He won the seats in Hazara, due to active involvement of him the Muslim League captured all the Hazara District assembly seats except one in the crucial elections of 1946 against the than ANP who wanted to accede with India.

Other regions

During the Pakistan Movement in the 1940s, Rohingya Muslims in western Burma had an ambition to annexe and merge their region into East Pakistan.[14] Before the independence of Burma, in January 1948, Muslim leaders from Arakan addressed themselves to Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, and asked his assistance in annexing of the Mayu region to Pakistan which was about to be formed.[14] Two months later, North Arakan Muslim League was founded in Akyab (modern: Sittwe, capital of Arakan State), it, too demanding annexation to Pakistan.[14] However, the proposal never materialised after it was reportedly turned down by Jinnah.


Muslim nationalism became evident in the provinces where the Muslim minorities resided as they faced social and political marginalisation. The desire of the significant Muslim minorities to for self-government and self-determination, became obvious when a clause in the Lahore Resolution which stated that "constituent units (of the states to come) shall be autonomous and sovereign" was not respected. The Two-Nation Theory became more and more obvious during the congress rule. In 1946, the Muslim majorities agreed to the idea of Pakistan, as a response to Congress's one sided policies,[15][16] which were also the result of leaders like Jinnah leaving the party in favour of Muslim League,[17] winning in seven of the 11 provinces. Prior to 1938, Bengal with 33 million Muslims had only ten representatives, less than the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, which were home to only seven million Muslims. Thus the creation of Pakistan became inevitable and the British had no choice but to create two separate nations, Pakistan and India, in 1947.[18][19][20][21]

According to Pakistan Studies curriculum, Muhammad bin Qasim is often referred to as the first Pakistani.[22] Muhammad Ali Jinnah also acclaimed the Pakistan movement to have started when the first Muslim put a foot in the Gateway of Islam.[23]

Non-Muslims contribution and efforts

Jinnah's vision was supported by few of the Hindus, Sikhs, Parsis, Jews and Christians that lived in the Muslim dominated regions of undivided India.[24][25] Most notable and extremely influential Hindu figure in Pakistan Movement was Jogendra Nath Mandal from Bengal, and Jagannath Azad from the Urdu-speaking belt.[26] Mandal represented the Hindu representation calling for independent state of Pakistan, and was one of the Founding-fathers of Pakistan.[24] After the independence, Mandal was given ministries of Law, Justice, and Work-Force by Jinnah in Liaquat Ali Khan's government.[24]He, however, realised his folly in 1950 when thousands of lower caste Hindus were massacred in East Bengal generating a wave of refugees to India. He himself fled to India and submitted his resignation to Liaquat Ali Khan, the then Prime Minister of Pakistan.

The Christian composition also stand behind Jinnah's vision, playing a pivotal role in the movement.[27] The notable Christians included Sir Victor Turner and Alvin Robert Cornelius.[28] Turner was responsible for carrying the economic, financial planning of the country, after gaining the independence.[28] Turner was among one of the founding fathers[28] of Pakistan, and guided Jinnah and Ali Khan on economic affairs, taxation and to handle the administrative units.[28] Alvin Robert Cornelius was elevated as Chief Justice of Lahore High Court bench by Jinnah and served as Law secretary in Liaquat Ali Khan's government.[28] The Hindu, Christian, and Parsi communities had also played their due role for the development of Pakistan soon after its creation.[27]


Notable quotations

Allama Iqbal

I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind and Baluchistan amalgamated into a single State. Self-government within the British Empire, or without the British Empire, the formation of a consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to me to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North-West India.[31]

Choudhary Rahmat Ali

At this solemn hour in the history of India, when British and Indian statesmen are laying the foundations of a Federal Constitution for that land, we address this appeal to you, in the name of our common heritage, on behalf of our thirty million Muslim brethren who live in Pakistan – by which we mean the five Northern units of India, Viz: Punjab, North-West Frontier Province (Afghan Province), Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan – for your sympathy and support in our grim and fateful struggle against political crucifixion and complete annihilation.[12]

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

It is extremely difficult to appreciate why our Hindu friends fail to understand the real nature of Islam and Hinduism. They are not religious in the strict sense of the word, but are, in fact, different and distinct social orders, and it is a dream that the Hindus and Muslims can ever evolve a common nationality, and this misconception of one Indian nation has troubles and will lead India to destruction if we fail to revise our notions in time. The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, literatures. They neither intermarry nor interdine together and, indeed, they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspect on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that Hindus and Mussalmans derive their inspiration from different sources of history. They have different epics, different heroes, and different episodes. Very often the hero of one is a foe of the other and, likewise, their victories and defeats overlap. To yoke together two such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built for the government of such a state."[32][33]

Leaders and Founding fathers

See also


External links

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