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Indian Police Service

Indian Police Service
Agency overview
Formed 1948[1]
Preceding Agency Indian Imperial Police[1]
Type All India Service
Jurisdiction Republic of India
Employees 4730[2]
Minister responsible Rajnath Singh, Minister of Home Affairs
Agency executives Syed Asif Ibrahim, Director of Intelligence Bureau
Ajit Seth, Cabinet Secretary
Parent agency Ministry of Home Affairs
Service colour Dark blue and red
Uniform colour Khaki[3]

The Indian Police Service (Hindi: भारतीय पुलिस सेवा, Bhāratīya Pulis Sevā) or IPS, is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India.[4] It replaced the Indian (Imperial) Police in 1948, a year after India gained independence from Britain.


  • Objective 1
  • History 2
  • Cadre strength 3
  • IPS Civil List 4
  • Selection 5
  • Pay structure (gazetted officers) IPS & CAPFs 6
  • Ranks and insignia 7
    • Ranks of the IPS 7.1
  • Reforms 8
    • National Police Commission (1977-81) 8.1
    • Ribeiro Committee (1998-99) 8.2
    • Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000) 8.3
    • Soli Sorabjee Committee (2005) 8.4
    • Supreme Court intervention (2006) 8.5
    • Follow-up from Supreme Court 8.6
  • See also 9
  • Notes 10
  • References 11
  • Further reading 12
  • External links 13


The First Police Commission, appointed on 17 August 1865, contained detailed guidelines for the desired system of police in India and defined the police as a enforce the law, and to prevent and detect crime. The Indian Police Service is not a force itself but a service providing leaders and commanders to staff the state police and all-India Central Armed Police Forces. Its members are the senior officers of the police. With the passage of time Indian Police Service's objectives were updated and redefined, the current rules and functions of an Indian Police Service Officer are as follows:[5]

Armoured vehicles and personnel of the Mumbai Police Force.
  • Leading and commanding the Indian Federal Law Enforcement Agencies.
  • Last but not the least, to lead and command the force with courage, uprightness, dedication and a strong sense of service to the people.
  • Endeavour to inculcate in the police forces under their command such values and norms as would help them serve the people better.
  • Inculcate integrity of the highest order, sensitivity to aspirations of people in a fast-changing social and economic milieu, respect for human rights, broad liberal perspective of law and justice and high standard of professionalism.


Prior to Independence, senior police officers belonging to the Imperial Police (IP) were appointed by the Secretary of State on the basis of a competitive examination. The first open civil service examination for admission to the service was held in England in June 1893 and the ten top candidates were appointed as probationers in the Indian (Imperial) Police. It is not possible to pinpoint an exact date on which the Indian Police came formally into being. Around 1907, the Secretary of State's officers were directed to wear the letters "IP" on their epaulettes in order to distinguish them from the other officers not recruited by the Secretary of State through examination. In this sense, 1907 could be regarded as the starting point.[1] In 1948, a year after India gained independence; the Imperial Police was replaced by IPS.

Cadre strength

The authorised cadre strength of Indian Police Service is 4720. (3270 Direct Recruitment Posts and 1450 Promotional Posts).[6] Posted 20 December 2012 Vol 3 Issue 50

IPS Civil List

Civil List of IPS officers is an updated (annual) list maintained by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India that lists the posting details of all IPS officers in India. This Civil List can be accessed from this MHA site. It allows searching for an IPS officer on the basis of his name, Batch or Cadre.


National Police Memorial New Delhi

IPS officers are recruited from the state police cadres and from the rigorous Civil Services Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission every year.[7] Due to an ongoing shortage of police officers in India, the Ministry of Home Affairs proposed the creation of an Indian Police Service Limited Competitive Examination to be conducted by UPSC.[8]

The Civil Services Examination has a three stage competitive selection process. At stage one, there is an objective type examination called the preliminary exam. This is a qualifying examination. It consists of a General Studies paper and an aptitude test. Only the candidates who pass this can appear for the "Main Examination" which consists of nine papers. Each candidate has to select an optional subject (one paper) and to take six General Studies papers, an Essay, an English language paper and a regional language paper. This is followed by an interview.

After selection for the IPS, candidates are allocated to a cadre. There is one cadre in each Indian state, with the exception of three joint cadres: Assam-Meghalaya, Manipur-Tripura, and Arunachal Pradesh-Goa-Mizoram-Union Territories (AGMUT). Two-thirds of the strength of every cadre is filled directly by IPS officers and the remaining are promoted from the respective states cadre officers.

Pay structure (gazetted officers) IPS & CAPFs

Grade Position in the State Government(s) Salary Equivalent Position or Designation in the State Government(s) or Government of India (GOI)
Above Super Time Scale (Apex Scale)(After 30 years of service in IPS Cadre)[9] Commissioner of Police (State) INR80,000 (fixed) plus grade pay-Nil Director General of Police – Only one cadre post, all other DGPs/CPs are in HAG + scale of Rs75,500–80,000, Director (GOI), Director General (GOI), Secretary (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI), Director General in CAPFs.
Above Super Time Scale (HAG)(Pay-Band-4)(After 25 years of service in IPS Cadre)[10] Special Commissioner of Police INR67,000-INR79,000 plus grade pay of INR12,000 Additional Director General of Police, Commissioner of Police (City), Special or Additional Director (GOI), Special or Additional Secretary (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI), ADG in CAPFs.
Super Time Scale (Senior Administrative Grade)(Pay-Band-4)(After 18 years of service in IPS Cadre) Additional Commissioner of Police INR37,400-INR67,000 plus grade pay of INR10,000 Inspector General of Police, Commissioner of Police (City), Joint Secretary if empanelled as such (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI), IG of CAPFs.
Super Time Scale (DIG/Conservator Grade)(Pay-Band-4)(After 14 years of service in IPS Cadre) Joint Commissioner of Police INR37,400-INR67,000 plus grade pay of INR8900 Deputy Inspector General of Police, Commissioner of Police (City), Director (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI), DIG in CAPFs( 27+ years vacancy based).
Selection Grade(Pay-Band-4)(After 13 years of service in IPS Cadre) Deputy Commissioner of Police if in the Selection Grade 37,400-INR67,000 plus grade Pay of INR8700+ Senior Superintendent of Police, Director (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI), Commandants of CAPFs( 21+ years based on vacancy).
Junior Administrative Grade(Pay-Band-3)(After 9 years of service in IPS Cadre) Deputy Commissioner of Police, also designated as Senior Superintendent in certain States such as UP and Punjab INR15,600-INR39,100 plus grade pay of INR7600 Superintendent of Police, Deputy Secretary (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI),

Second-in-Command of CAPFs(After 17+ Years based on vacancy).

Senior Time Scale (Pay-Band-3)(After 4 years of service in IPS Cadre) Superintendent of Police / Additional Deputy Commissioner of Police INR15,600-INR39,100 plus grade pay of INR6600 Additional Superintendent of Police, Deputy Commandants of CAPFs ( 5 years vacancy based).
Junior Time Scale(Pay-Band-3)(Initial Pay IPS Cadre) Assistant Commissioner of Police INR15,600-INR39,100 plus grade pay of INR5400 Deputy Superintendent of Police, Circle Officer, Senior Field Officer (R) Cabinet Secretariat (GOI), Assistant Commandants of CAPFs.

Ranks and insignia

Ranks of the IPS

All State Police Services officers of and above the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP) or Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP) in State Police and Metropolitan Police forces respectively.[11]

  • National Emblem above two stars
  • Deputy Commissioner of Police (Selection grade) or Senior Superintendent of Police in selection grade with 13+ years of service (IPS officers posted in insurgency infested states such as J&K also wear this rank before 13 years of service to facilitate coordination and interaction with Commanding Officers of paramilitary and the Indian Army.[13]
  • Deputy Secretary(ies) (R), Cabinet Secretariat, (Government of India)
  • Other officers above selection grade
  • Commandants in Central Armed Police Forces (Government of India)
  • Under Secretary(ies) (R), Cabinet Secretariat, (Government of India)
  • Commandant of State Armed Police Battalion
  • Other officer on Junior Administrative Grade with between 9 and 13 years service
  • Second-in-Command in Central Armed Police Forces (Government of India)
  • Other officers on senior time scale with 9 years service or less
  • Deputy Commandants of Central Armed Police Forces (Government of India)
  • Two stars
  • One-star


India's police continue to be governed by an archaic and colonial police law passed in 1861. The Indian Constitution makes policing a state subject and therefore the state governments have the responsibility to provide their communities with a police service. However, after independence, most have adopted the 1861 Act without change, while others have passed laws heavily based on the 1861 Act.

Repeated major incidents, (latest of them being 2012 Delhi gang rape) revealed failure of police to uphold the rule of law.[14][15]

The need for reform of police in India has been long recognised. There has been almost 30 years of debate and discussion by government created committees and commissions on the way forward for police reform, but India remains saddled with an outdated and old-fashioned law, while report after report gathers dust on government bookshelves without implementation. Many committees on police reforms have recommended major reforms in the police system coupled with systematic accountability.[16][17]

National Police Commission (1977-81)

National Police Commission was the first committee set up by the [18]

Ribeiro Committee (1998-99)

In 1996, two former senior police officers filed a [18][19]

Padmanabhaiah Committee (2000)

In 2000, the government set up a third committee on police reform, this time under the stewardship of a former union Home Secretary, K. Padmanabhaiah. This Committee released its report in the same year.[18][20]

Soli Sorabjee Committee (2005)

In 2005, the government put together a group to draft a new police Act for India. It was headed by [18]

Supreme Court intervention (2006)

In 1996, Prakash Singh (a former Directors General of Police of the states of Assam and subsequently Uttar Pradesh and finally Director General of the Border Security Force) initiated a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the Supreme Court of India, asking the court to investigate measures to reform the police forces across India to ensure the proper rule of law and improve security across India. The Supreme Court studied various reports on police reforms. Finally, in 2006, a bench of Justice Y.K. Sabharwal, Justice C.K. Thakker and Justice P.K. Balasubramanyan[21] ordered the state governments to implement several reforms in police force.[22]

Several measures were identified as necessary to professionalise the police in India:

  • A mid or high ranking police officer must not be transferred more frequently than every two years.
  • The state government cannot ask the police force to hire someone, nor can they choose the Chief Commissioner.
  • There must be separate departments and staff for investigation and patrolling.

Three new authorities will be created in each state, to prevent political interference in the police and also to make the police accountable for their heavy-handedness,[23] which will include the creation of:

  • A State Security Commission, for policies and direction
  • A Police Establishment Board, which will decide the selection, promotions and transfers of police officers and other staff
  • A Police Complaints Authority, to inquire into allegations of police misconduct.

Follow-up from Supreme Court

In 2006, due to a lack of action by all the state governments,[24] the Supreme Court ordered the state governments to report to it why the reform measures outlined were not implemented.[25] After being questioned in front of the judges of the Supreme Court, the state governments are finally starting to reform the police forces and give them the operational independence they need for fearless and proper law enforcement. Tamil Nadu Police has been in the forefront of application of the new referendum.[26]

Again, in October 2012, a Supreme Court bench of Chief Justice Altamas Kabir and Justices SS Nijjar and Jasti Chelameswar asked all state governments and Union territories to inform about compliance of its September 2006 judgement. The order was passed when Prakash Singh through his lawyer Prashant Bhushan said that many of the reforms (ordered by the Supreme Court) have yet not been implemented by many state governments.[27]

See also



  1. ^ a b c "Data History of Indian Police Service (Official Raj Govt. Page)". Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  2. ^ "Ministry of Home Affairs: Annual Report 2011-2012".  
  3. ^ "Why is the colour of the Indian police uniform khaki?". The Times of India. 3 March 2007. Retrieved 2010-05-11. 
  4. ^ "IPS, IAS and IFS: All India Services (Government of India)". Retrieved 2009-04-13. 
  5. ^ "Duties and Responsibilities of Indian Police Service officers". Retrieved 2009-12-19. 
  6. ^
  7. ^ "Awaaz India Pvt. Ltd – About Indian Police Service". Retrieved 2010-04-26. 
  8. ^ "Indian Police Service Limited Competitive Examination".  
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^ "Modern ranks and insignia of IPS and SPS Officers Bio". Retrieved 2010-01-20. 
  12. ^ "Director, Intelligence Bureau's Insignia Equivalent to Armed Forces Generals". Government of India. Retrieved 2009-07-27. 
  13. ^ Indian Military : Service Benefits and Issues: Illegal (Police) badges of rank in J & K. (2011-01-10). Retrieved on 2013-08-17.
  14. ^ "Inept Delhi cops get HC rap". DNA. 21 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 
  15. ^ "Two ACPs are suspended". The Hindu. Retrieved 28 December 2012. 
  16. ^ "Failure of governance root cause of crimes against women: Verma committee". The Hindu. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  17. ^ "Read: Highlights of Justice Verma Committee report". CNNIBNLive. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c d "PRAKASH SINGH Case at". Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  19. ^ "Ribeiro Committee". Archived from the original on 6 Mar 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  20. ^ "Padmanabhaiah Committee". Archived from the original on 6 Mar 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  21. ^ "Prakash Singh Case". Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  22. ^ Prasad, Devika; Caroline Avanzo (5 November 2006). "Seize the opportunity". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  23. ^ Strip, Mobius; Ramesh Ramanathan (7 May 2007). "Sohrabbudin's encounter: An article on Prakash Singh, IPS". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  24. ^ "COMPLIANCE WITH SUPREME COURT DIRECTIVES". Archived from the original on 6 March 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  25. ^ "The Supreme Court of India takes the lead on police reform: Prakash Singh vs. Union of India". Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  26. ^ Das, Sunrat (6 May 2007). "Board to lend ears to transfer woes". Retrieved 2007-09-12. 
  27. ^ "SC asks states to file affidavit on police reforms". Hindustan Times. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2012. 

Further reading

  • History of services of Indian police service, as on 1 July 1966, by Ministry of Home Affairs, India. Published by Govt. of India, 1969.
  • The peace keepers: Indian Police Service (IPS), by S. R. Arun, IPS, DGP Uttar Pradesh. Published by Berghahn Books, 2000. ISBN 978-81-7049-107-1.
  • The Indian Police Journal (IPJ), by Bureau of Police Research and Development, Ministry of Home Affairs. Published by Govt. of India, October–December 2009 Vol.LVI-No.4. ISSN 0537-2429.
  • History of services of Indian police service, as on 1 July 1966, by Ministry of Home Affairs, India. Published by Govt. of India, 1969.
  • Intelligence Bureau may get its first Muslim chief 'S Asif Ibrahim'
  • Police reform and election reform need.[1]
  • Half cear reform
  • police & people [2]
  • police reform cases [3]
  • Need of basic reform [4]
  • Reform too delayed [5]

External links

  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy
  • Union Public Service Commission
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