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International Women's Day

International Women's Day
German poster for International Women's Day, March 8th, 1914; English : “Give Us Women’s Suffrage. Women’s Day, March 8, 1914. Until now, prejudice and reactionary attitudes have denied full civic rights to women, who as workers, mothers, and citizens wholly fulfill their duty, who must pay their taxes to the state as well as the municipality. Fighting for this natural human right must be the firm, unwavering intention of every woman, every female worker. In this, no pause for rest, no respite is allowed. Come all, you women and girls, to the 9th public women’s assembly on Sunday, March 8, 1914, at 3pm.” [1]
Observed by Worldwide
Type International
Significance Civil awareness day
Women and girls day
Anti-sexism day
Anti-Discrimination Day
Date 8 March
Next time 8 March 2017 (2017-03-08)
Frequency annual
Related to Universal Children's Day, International Men's Day, International Workers' Day

International Women's Day (IWD), originally called International Working Women's Day, is celebrated on March 8 every year.[2] In different regions the focus of the celebrations ranges from general celebration of respect, appreciation, and love towards women to a celebration for women's economic, political, and social achievements. Started as a Socialist political event, the holiday blended the culture of many countries, primarily in Europe, especially those in the Soviet Bloc. In some regions, the day lost its political flavor, and became simply an occasion for people to express their love for women in a way somewhat similar to a mixture of Mother's Day and Valentine's Day. In other regions, however, the political and human rights theme designated by the United Nations runs strong, and political and social awareness of the struggles of women worldwide are brought out and examined in a hopeful manner. Some people celebrate the day by wearing purple ribbons.


  • History 1
  • Official UN themes 2
    • 2010 International Women's Day 2.1
    • 2011 International Women's Day 2.2
    • 2012 International Women's Day 2.3
    • 2013 International Women's Day 2.4
    • 2014 International Women's Day 2.5
    • 2015 International Women's Day 2.6
    • 2017 International Women's Day 2.7
  • In modern culture 3
  • Controversies 4
  • Apocrypha 5
  • Gallery 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • Further reading 9
  • External links 10


The earliest Women’s Day observance was held on February 28, 1909, in New York; it was organized by the Socialist Party of America in remembrance of the 1908 strike of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union.[3] There was no specific strike happening on March 8, despite later claims.[4]

In August 1910, an International Women's Conference was organized to precede the general meeting of the Socialist Second International in Copenhagen, Denmark. Inspired in part by the American socialists, German Socialist Luise Zietz proposed the establishment of an annual 'International Woman's Day' (singular) and was seconded by fellow socialist and later communist leader Clara Zetkin, although no date was specified at that conference.[5][6] Delegates (100 women from 17 countries) agreed with the idea as a strategy to promote equal rights, including suffrage, for women.[7] The following year, on March 19, 1911, IWD was marked for the first time, by over a million people in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland.[3] In the Austro-Hungarian Empire alone, there were 300 demonstrations.[5] In Vienna, women paraded on the Ringstrasse and carried banners honouring the martyrs of the Paris Commune.[5] Women demanded that women be given the right to vote and to hold public office. They also protested against employment sex discrimination.[2] Americans continued to celebrate National Women's Day on the last Sunday in February.[5]

Female members of the Australian Builders Labourers Federation march on International Women's Day 1975 in Sydney

In 1913 Russian women observed their first International Women's Day on the last Saturday in February (by Julian calendar then used in Russia).[4]

Although there were some women-led strikes, marches, and other protests in the years leading up to 1914, none of them happened on March 8.[4] In 1914 International Women's Day was held on March 8, possibly because that day was a Sunday, and now it is always held on March 8 in all countries.[4] The 1914 observance of the Day in Germany was dedicated to women's right to vote, which German women did not win until 1918.[4][8]

In London there was a march from Bow to Trafalgar Square in support of women's suffrage on 8 March 1914. Sylvia Pankhurst was arrested in front of Charing Cross station on her way to speak in Trafalgar Square.[9]

In 1917 demonstrations marking International Women's Day in Saint Petersburg on the last Thursday in February (which fell on March 8 on the Gregorian calendar) initiated the February Revolution.[2] Women in Saint Petersburg went on strike that day for “Bread and Peace" - demanding the end of World War I, an end to Russian food shortages, and the end of czarism.[4] Leon Trotsky wrote, "23 February (8th March) was International Woman’s Day and meetings and actions were foreseen. But we did not imagine that this ‘Women’s Day’ would inaugurate the revolution. Revolutionary actions were foreseen but without date. But in morning, despite the orders to the contrary, textile workers left their work in several factories and sent delegates to ask for support of the strike… which led to mass strike... all went out into the streets." [4]

Following the October Revolution, the Bolshevik Alexandra Kollontai and Vladimir Lenin made it an official holiday in the Soviet Union, and it was established, but was a working day until 1965. On May 8th, 1965 by the decree of the USSR Presidium of the Supreme Soviet International Women's Day was declared a non-working day in the USSR "in commemoration of the outstanding merits of Soviet women in communistic construction, in the defense of their Fatherland during the Great Patriotic War, in their heroism and selflessness at the front and in the rear, and also marking the great contribution of women to strengthening friendship between peoples, and the struggle for peace. But still, women's day must be celebrated as are other holidays."

From its official adoption in Russia following the Soviet Revolution in 1917 the holiday was predominantly celebrated in communist and socialist countries. It was celebrated by the communists in China from 1922, and by Spanish communists from 1936.[10] After the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949 the state council proclaimed on December 23 that March 8 would be made an official holiday with women in China given a half-day off.[11]

In the West, International Women's Day was first observed as a popular event after 1977 when the United Nations General Assembly invited member states to proclaim March 8 as the UN Day for women's rights and world peace.[12]

Official UN themes

Year UN Theme[13]
1996 Celebrating the Past, Planning for the Future
1997 Women and the Peace Table
1998 Women and Human Rights
1999 World Free of Violence Against Women
2000 Women Uniting for Peace
2001 Women and Peace: Women Managing Conflicts
2002 Afghan Women Today: Realities and Opportunities
2003 Gender Equality and the Millennium Development Goals
2004 Women and HIV/AIDS
2005 Gender Equality Beyond 2005; Building a More Secure Future
2006 Women in Decision-making
2007 Ending Impunity for Violence Against Women and Girls
2008 Investing in Women and Girls
2009 Women and Men United to End Violence Against Women and Girls
2010 Equal Rights, Equal Opportunities: Progress for All
2011 Equal Access to Education, Training, and Science and Technology: Pathway to Decent Work for Women
2012 Empower Rural Women, End Poverty and Hunger
2013 A Promise is a Promise: Time for Action to End Violence Against Women
2014 Equality for Women is Progress for All
2015 Empowering Women, Empowering Humanity: Picture it!

2010 International Women's Day

On the occasion of 2010 International Women's Day the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) drew attention to the hardships displaced women endure. The displacement of populations is one of the gravest consequences of today's armed conflicts. It affects women in a host of ways.[14]

2011 International Women's Day

U.S. Army officer Lt Col Pam Moody with a group of Afghan women on International Women's Day 2011

Events took place in more than 100 countries[15] on March 8, 2011 to commemorate the 100th anniversary of International Women's Day.[16] In the United States, President Barack Obama proclaimed March 2011 to be "Women's History Month", calling Americans to mark IWD by reflecting on "the extraordinary accomplishments of women" in shaping the country's history.[15] Secretary of State Hillary Clinton launched the "100 Women Initiative: Empowering Women and Girls through International Exchanges", on the eve of IWD.[17] In the run-up to 2011 International Women's Day, the Red Cross called on States and other entities not to relent in their efforts to prevent rape and other forms of sexual violence that harm the lives and dignity of countless women in conflict zones around the world every year.[18] In Pakistan, the Punjab Government Project Gender Reform Action Plan (GRAP), Gujranwala District celebrated this day at the GIFT University Gujranwala. Shazia Ashfaq Mattu, MPA and GRAP officer Yasir Nawaz Manj organized the events.

Australia issued an IWD 100th anniversary commemorative 20 cent coin.

In Egypt however, the day was a step back for women. In Egypt’s Tahrir Square, hundreds of men came out not in support, but to harass the women who came out to stand up for their rights as the police and military stood by watching the events unfold in front of them. "The women - some in headscarves and flowing robes, others in jeans - had marched to Cairo's central Tahrir Square to celebrate International Women's Day. But crowds of men soon outnumbered them and chased them out," wrote Hadeel Al-Shalchi for The Associated Press (AP).[19]

2012 International Women's Day

The UN theme for International Women's Day 2012 was Empower Rural Women – End Hunger and Poverty.[20] In that year, Oxfam America invited people to celebrate inspiring women in their lives by sending a free International Women's Day e-Card or honoring a woman whose efforts had made a difference in the fight against hunger and poverty with Oxfam's International Women's Day award.[21]

On the occasion of International Women's Day 2012, the ICRC called for more action to help the mothers and wives of people who have gone missing during armed conflict. The vast majority of people who go missing in connection with conflict are men. As well as the anguish of not knowing what has happened to the missing husband or son, many of these women face economic and practical difficulties. The ICRC underlined the duty of parties to a conflict to search for the missing and provide information to the families.[22]

The Google Doodle for March 8, 2012 had an International Women's Day theme.[23]

2013 International Women's Day

The UN theme for International Women's Day 2013 was "A promise is a promise: Time for action to end violence against women,"[24] while International Women's Day 2013 declared the year's theme as The Gender Agenda: Gaining Momentum.[25]

The 2013 International Women's Day, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) draw attention to the plight of women in prison.[26]

2014 International Women's Day

The UN theme for International Women's Day 2014 is "Equality for Women is Progress for All".[27][28]

The Google Doodle on the eve of IWD 2014 (7 March 2014) featured an International Women's day doodle video on YouTube, showing images and videos of women from around the world, with music by Zap Mama.[29][30]

American singer Beyoncé Knowles also posted an International Women's Day on YouTube video to her YouTube account. Throughout the video, her song ***Flawless plays, which includes a portion of the "we should all be feminists" speech given by author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie. Knowles is a modern-day feminist.[31]

2015 International Women's Day

The UN theme for International Women's Day 2015 is "Empowering Women, Empowering Humanity: Picture it!".[32] Governments and activists around the world will commemorate the 20th anniversary year of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, an historic roadmap that sets the agenda for realizing women's rights.[33]

The International Woman’s Day theme for 2015 is ‘Make It Happen’ with a dedicated hashtag for social media.[34]

2017 International Women's Day

2017 will be the hundredth anniversary of the [35] On this day a global women's strike including a sex strike is planned, called by, among others, the International Union of Sex Workers.

In modern culture

  Official holiday
  Holiday for women
  Non-official holiday
The mimosa (technically, the silver wattle) is the symbol of the celebrations of Women's day in Italy and Russia

The day is an official holiday in Afghanistan,[36] Angola, Armenia,[37] Azerbaijan,[38] Belarus,[39] Burkina Faso,[40] Cambodia,[41] China (for women only),[42] Cuba,[43] Georgia,[44] Guinea-Bissau,[36] Eritrea,[36] Kazakhstan,[45] Kyrgyzstan,[46] Laos,[47] Macedonia (for women only), Madagascar (for women only),[48] Moldova,[49] Mongolia,[50] Nepal (for women only),[36] Russia,[36] Tajikistan,[36] Turkmenistan,[36] Uganda,[36] Ukraine,[36] Uzbekistan,[51] Vietnam,[52] and Zambia.[53]

In some countries, such as Cameroon,[54] Croatia,[55] Romania,[56] Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina,[57] Serbia, Bulgaria[58] and Chile,[59] the day is not a public holiday, but is widely observed nonetheless. On this day it is customary for men to give the women in their lives – friends, mothers, wives, girlfriends, daughters, colleagues, etc. – flowers and small gifts. In some countries (such as Bulgaria and Romania) it is also observed as an equivalent of Mother's Day, where children also give small presents to their mothers and grandmothers.[56]

International Women's Day poster
The 1932 Soviet poster dedicated to the March 8 holiday. The text reads: "8th of March is the day of rebellion of the working women against kitchen slavery" and "Down with the oppression and narrow-mindedness of household work!". Originally in the USSR the holiday had a clear political character, emphasizing the role of the Soviet state in the liberation of women from their second-class-citizen status.
International Women's Day poster

In Armenia, after the collapse of the Soviet Union celebrations of IWD were abandoned. Instead, April 7 was introduced as state holiday of 'Beauty and Motherhood'. The new holiday immediately became popular among Armenians, as it commemorates one of the main holidays of the Armenian Church, the Annunciation. However, people still kept celebrating IWD on March 8 as well. Public discussion held on the topic of two ‘Women's Days’ in Armenia resulted in the recognition of the so-called ‘Women's Month’ which is the period between March 8 and April 7.

In Italy, to celebrate the day, men give yellow mimosas to women.[60][61] Teresa Mattei chose the mimosa as the symbol of IWD in Italy because she felt that the French symbols of the day, violets and lily-of-the-valley, were too scarce and expensive to be used effectively in Italy.[62] Yellow mimosas and chocolate are also one of the most common March 8 presents in Russia and Albania.

In many countries, such as in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Colombia, Estonia, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine the custom of giving women flowers still prevails [within these regions only]. Women also sometimes get gifts from their employers. Schoolchildren often bring gifts for their female teachers, too.

In countries like Portugal groups of women usually celebrate on the night of March 8 in "women-only" dinners and parties.

In Pakistan working women in formal and informal sectors celebrate International Women's Day every year to commemorate their ongoing struggle for due rights, despite facing many cultural and religious restrictions. Some women working for change in society use IWM to help the movement for women's rights. In Poland, for instance, every IWD includes large feminist demonstrations in major cities.[63]

In 1975, which was designated as International Women's Year, the United Nations gave official sanction to, and began sponsoring, International Women's Day.

As for efforts to achieve official recognition in the United States of America, actress and human rights activist Beata Pozniak worked with the Mayor of Los Angeles and the Governor of California to lobby members of the U.S. Congress to propose official recognition of the holiday. In February, 1994, H.J. Res. 316 was introduced by Rep. Maxine Waters, along with 79 cosponsors, in an attempt to officially recognize March 8 of that year as International Women's Day. The bill was subsequently referred to, and remained in, the House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service. No vote of either house of Congress was achieved on this piece of legislation.[64]

The 2005 Congress (conference) of the British Trades Union Congress overwhelmingly approved a resolution calling for IWD to be designated a public holiday in the United Kingdom.

Since 2005, IWD has been celebrated in Montevideo, either on the principal street, 18 de Julio, or alternatively through one of its neighbourhoods. The event has attracted much publicity due to a group of female drummers, La Melaza, who have performed each year.[65]

Today, many events are held by women's groups around the world. The UK-based marketing company Aurora hosts a free worldwide register of IWD local events[66] so that women and the media can learn about local activity. Many governments and organizations around the world support IWD.

In Taiwan, International Women's Day is marked by the annual release of a government survey on women's waist sizes, accompanied by warnings that weight gain can pose a hazard to women's health.[67]


In Tehran, Iran on March 4, 2007, when police beat hundreds of men and women who were planning a rally. Police arrested dozens of women and some were released after several days of solitary confinement and interrogation.[68] Shadi Sadr, Mahbubeh Abbasgholizadeh and several more community activists were released on March 19, 2007, ending a fifteen-day hunger strike.[69]


A popular apocryphal story which surfaced in French Communist circles[70][71] claimed that women from clothing and textile factories had staged a protest on March 8, 1857 in New York City.[72] The story alleged that garment workers were protesting against very poor working conditions and low wages and were attacked and dispersed by police. It was claimed that this event led to a rally in commemoration of its 50th anniversary in 1907. Temma Kaplan[70] explains that "neither event seems to have taken place, but many Europeans think March 8, 1907, inaugurated International Women's Day."[70] Speculating about the origins of this 1857 legend, Liliane Kandel and Françoise Picq suggested it was likely that (in recent times) some felt it opportune to detach International Women's Day from its basis in Soviet history and ascribe to it a more "international" origin which could be painted as more ancient than Bolshevism and more spontaneous than a decision of Congress or the initiative of those women affiliated to the Party.[71]


See also


  1. ^ "Give Us Women’s Suffrage (March 1914)". German History in Documents and Images. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  2. ^ a b c "UN WomenWatch: International Women's Day – History". Retrieved 2013-02-21. 
  3. ^ a b "United Nations page on the background of the IWD". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "8th of March - International woman’s day: in search of the lost memory". Archived from the original on 2011-03-13. Retrieved 2014-03-14. 
  5. ^ a b c d Temma Kaplan, "On the Socialist Origins of International Women's Day", Feminist Studies, 11/1 (Spring, 1985)
  6. ^ "History of International Women's Day". United Nations. Retrieved May 26, 2012. 
  7. ^ "About International Women's Day". March 8, 1918. Retrieved 2013-03-08. 
  8. ^ "Women's Suffrage". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  9. ^ "Suffragist Disorders". The Times. 9 March 1914. Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  10. ^ Nelson, Jinty. "International Women's Day: a centenary to celebrate". History Workshop Online. Retrieved August 28, 2011. 
  11. ^ "Anniversaries of important events". China Factfile. Chinese Government. Retrieved August 28, 2011. 
  12. ^ "WomenWatch: International Women's Day". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  13. ^ "WomenWatch: International Women's Day". Retrieved 2013-02-21. 
  14. ^ "Women and displacement: strength in adversity". International Committee of the Red Cross. March 2, 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  15. ^ a b Sindelar, Daisy. "Women's Day Largely Forgotten in West, Where It Got Its Start". Radio Free Europe. Radio Free Europe. Retrieved March 8, 2011. 
  16. ^ Pasha, Masroor Afzal. "To commemorate 100th International Women's Day". Daily Times. Daily Times. Retrieved March 8, 2011. 
  17. ^ McKellogg, JulieAnn. "Clinton Launches 100th Anniversary of International Women's Day". VOA News. Retrieved March 8, 2011. 
  18. ^ "International Women's Day: the fight against sexual violence must not falter". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  19. ^ Al-Shalchi, Hadeel (March 8, 2011). "Egyptian women's rights protest marred by hecklers". The Washington Post. AP. Retrieved March 8, 2015. 
  20. ^ "UN WomenWatch: International Women's Day 2012 – UN Observances Worldwide". Retrieved 2013-02-20. 
  21. ^ "International Women's Day Celebration". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  22. ^ Helping women take matters into their own hands International Committee of the Red Cross
  23. ^ Peacock, Louisa (7 March 2014). "Women's Day 2014 celebrated with a Google Doodle". The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 March 2014. 
  24. ^ "UN WomenWatch: International Women's Day 2014". Retrieved 2014-02-02. 
  25. ^ "INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY 2013 Theme: The Gender Agenda – Gaining Momentum". Aurora Ventures. Retrieved 2013-02-20. 
  26. ^ "The forgotten plight of women behind bars". ICRC. Retrieved 2013-03-08. 
  27. ^ "International Women's Day | UN Women - Headquarters". UN Women. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  28. ^ - 19:00. "International Women's Day conference". Unesco-Ihe. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  29. ^ "Women's Day 2014: Google doodles a music video featuring women from around the world". IBN Live. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  30. ^ "Google Doodles for 2014". Google. Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  31. ^ Beyoncé: Lessons in Modern Feminism - TIME
  32. ^ "International Women's Day | UN Women - Headquarters". UN Women. Retrieved 2015-02-11. 
  33. ^ "The Beijing Platform for Action, inspiration then and now | Beijing+20 campaign". UN Women. Retrieved 2015-02-11. 
  34. ^
  35. ^ (Ukrainian) Femen: "Ми даємо чиновникам і політикам, проср...тися", Табло ID (September 20, 2010)
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i "IRIN Asia | AFGHANISTAN: Marking International Women's Day | Afghanistan | Gender Issues". March 8, 2005. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  37. ^ "Armenian Holidays – ARMENIA Information". July 5, 1995. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  38. ^
  39. ^ (Russian) President's decree on public holidays in Belarus – 1998
  40. ^ Coordination Team (2011-05-22). "Taking International Women's Day Seriously in Burkina Faso".  
  41. ^ "2007 Cambodia Public Holiday – Cambodia e-Visa Blog". August 4, 2007. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  42. ^ "Public holidays in the People's Republic of China". January 9, 2008. Retrieved 2013-03-08. 
  43. ^ "Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Cuba". March 8, 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  44. ^ "დღესასწაულები". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  45. ^ "Holidays and weekends in the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2014 year". Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  46. ^ "Kyrgyz and American Holidays (In Russian)". U.S. Embassy Bishkek. Retrieved March 7, 2012. 
  47. ^ "Lao Cultural Events / Public Holidays". Archived from the original on 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2014-03-07. 
  48. ^ "Madagascar 2009 Public Holidays". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  49. ^ (Romanian) Article 111 (1c) of the work codex of Moldova, PDF, page 53 "Article 111. Non-working holidays. (1) in Moldova, non-working holidays, maintaining the average salary, are: (...) c) March 8 – International Women's Day; (...)".
  50. ^ "Mongolia Web News". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  51. ^ "National Holidays (In Russian)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Retrieved March 7, 2012. 
  52. ^ "Hanoi streets jammed on Int’l Day for Women | Vietnam News & Information Portal". March 9, 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  53. ^ "Zambia 2009 Public Holidays". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  54. ^ "". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  55. ^ (Croatian) Zakon o blagdanima, spomendanima i neradnim danima u Republici Hrvatskoj
  56. ^ a b "Ziua Internațională a Femeii. De 8 martie Google posteaza un desen pentru acest eveniment". November 24, 2010. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  57. ^ "Žene su heroji ovog društva (in Bosnian)". Oslobodjenje. March 8, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012. 
  58. ^ "Bulgarian national radio". Bulgarian national radio. 
  59. ^ "Días Nacionales en Chile (in Spanish)". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  60. ^ "la Repubblica/societa: 8 marzo, niente manifestazione tante feste diverse per le donne". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  61. ^ """politica » Festa della donna, parla Ciampi "La parità è ancora lontana. March 8, 2006. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  62. ^ Pirro, Dierdre (March 25, 2013). "Teresa Mattei, Flower power".  
  63. ^ "March 8 in Poland: Still Marching Together for Freedom and Equality". Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  64. ^ "Bill Summary & Status 103rd Congress (1993 - 1994) H.J.RES.316". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  65. ^ "Travel Guide to Uruguay – Uruguay gets a female beat". UruguayNow. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  66. ^ "International Women's Day 2013". Retrieved 2013-03-08. 
  67. ^ "Women's waistlines increasing: bureau". Taipei Times. March 9, 2013. 
  68. ^ Harrison, Frances (March 8, 2007). "Middle East | Iranian women struggle for equality". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  69. ^ "Iran: Release Women's Rights Advocates | Human Rights Watch". March 8, 2007. Retrieved 2012-03-08. 
  70. ^ a b c Temma Kaplan, On the Socialist Origins of International Women's Day, in: Feminist Studies, 11, 1985, S. 163–171. (PDF)
  71. ^ a b Liliane Kandel / Françoise Picq, Le Mythe des origines à propos de la journée internationale des femmes", in: La Revue d'en face, 12, 1982, S. 67–80.
  72. ^ Angela Howard Zophy, Handbook of American women's history, Garland, 1991, 187.

Further reading

  • On IWD's centenary, historian Jinty Nelson looks at its genesis and achievements – and the ground still to cover
  • The socialist roots of International Women's Day. Al Jazeera America. March 7, 2015

External links

  • UN Women, International Women's Day page
  • International Women's Day – "A global hub for sharing International Women's Day news, events and resources"
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