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Interpunct

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Interpunct

·
Interpunct

An interpunct ( · ), also known as an interpoint,[1] middle dot, middot, and centered dot (UK centred dot), is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script. (Word-separating spaces did not appear until some time between A.D. 600 and 800.) It appears in a variety of uses in some modern languages and is present in Unicode as code point U+00B7 · middle dot (HTML · · ·).

The multiplication dot (U+2219 bullet operator (HTML ) or U+22C5 dot operator (HTML  · )), whose glyphs are similar or identical to the interpunct, is a multiplication sign optionally used instead of the styled ×: ab is equivalent to a × b or "a times b". The same sign is also used in vector multiplication to discriminate between the scalar product (ab) and the vector cross product (a × b) or exterior product (ab). As a multiplication operator, it is also encountered in symbols for compound units such as the newton-meter (N∙m or N m). The multiplication dot is a separate Unicode character (U+22C5), but is often silently replaced by the interpunct or bullet (U+2022 bullet (HTML  · )).

Contents

  • In written language 1
    • English 1.1
    • Catalan 1.2
    • Chinese 1.3
      • Minnan 1.3.1
    • Ethiopic 1.4
    • Franco-Provençal 1.5
    • Greek 1.6
    • Japanese 1.7
    • Korean 1.8
    • Latin 1.9
    • Occitan 1.10
    • Old Irish 1.11
    • Runes 1.12
  • In mathematics and science 2
  • Keyboard input 3
  • Similar symbols 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6

In written language

Various dictionaries often use the interpunct (in this context, sometimes called hyphenation point) to indicate syllabification within a word with multiple syllables. There is also a separate Unicode character, U+2027 hyphenation point.

English

In British typography, the space dot is an interpunct used as the formal decimal point. Its use is advocated by laws and by academic circles such as the Cambridge University History Faculty Style Guide[2] and is mandated by some UK-based academic journals such as The Lancet.[3] When the British currency was decimalized in 1971, the official advice issued was to write decimal amounts with a raised point (for example, £21·48) and to use a decimal point "on the line" only when typesetting constraints made it unavoidable. This usage, however, has been declining since the mid-1970s, as the importation of electronic typewriters, calculators, and computers from the United States and Japan familiarized Britons with using periods and made the space dot harder to typeset.

In the Shavian alphabet, interpuncts replace capitalization as the marker of proper nouns. The dot is placed at the beginning of a word.

Catalan

Billboard in Barcelona (detail)

The flown dot (Catalan: punt volat) is used in Catalan between two Ls in cases where each belongs to a separate syllable, for example cel·la, "cell". This distinguishes such "geminate Ls" (ela geminada), which are pronounced [ɫː], from "double L" (doble ela), which are written without the flown dot and are pronounced [ʎ]. In situations where the flown dot is unavailable, periods (as in col.lecció) or hyphens (as in col-lecció) are frequently substituted, but this is tolerated rather than advocated.

Historically, medieval Catalan also used the symbol · as a marker for certain elisions, much like the modern apostrophe (see Occitan below).

There is no separate keyboard layout for Catalan: the flown dot can be typed using Shift-3 in the Spanish (Spain) layout. It appears in Unicode as the letters Ŀ (U+013F) and ŀ (U+0140), but they are compatibility characters and are not frequently used nor recommended.[4] Similarly, the larger bullet (, U+2022, ) may be seen but is discouraged on aesthetic grounds. The preferred Unicode representation is (U+006C + U+00B7).

Chinese

The partition sign (Unicode code point U+2027, Hyphenation Point) is used in

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ Unicode Latin Extended A code chart p.13
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b c d
  7. ^ Ελληνικός Οργανισμός Τυποποίησης [Ellīnikós Organismós Typopoíīsīs, "ΕΛΟΤ 743, 2η Έκδοση [ELOT 743, 2ī Ekdosī, "ELOT 743, 2nd ed."]. ELOT (Athens), 2001. (Greek).
  8. ^ Unicode. "Unicode Greek code chart", pp. 34, 36.
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^

References

See also

Characters in the Symbol column above may not render correctly in all browsers.

Symbol Character Entity Numeric Entity Unicode Code Point LaTeX[10] Notes
· · · U+00B7 middle dot \textperiodcentered German mittelpunkt
· · U+0387 greek ano teleia Greek ánō stigmē
ּ ּ U+05BC hebrew point dagesh or mappiq Hebrew point dagesh or mapiq
U+16EB runic single punctuation Runic punctuation
U+2022 bullet \textbullet bullet, often used to mark list items
U+2027 hyphenation point hyphenation point (dictionaries)
U+2218 ring operator \circ ring operator (mathematics)
U+2219 bullet operator \bullet bullet operator (mathematics)
U+22C5 dot operator \centerdot, \cdot, \cdotp dot operator (mathematics)
U+25E6 black circle
U+25CF white bullet hollow bullet
U+2981 z notation spot symbol used by the Z notation[11]
U+2E30 ring point Avestan punctuation mark
U+2E31 word separator middle dot Word separator (Avestan and other scripts)
U+30FB katakana middle dot fullwidth katakana middle dot
U+FF65 halfwidth katakana middle dot halfwidth katakana middle dot
§ 𐂧 U+10101 aegean word separator dot Word separator for Aegean scripts.[12] (Linear A and Linear B)

Similar symbols

Failing this, it may be copy-pasted from here: ·

On computers, the interpunct may be available through various key combinations, depending on the operating system and the keyboard layout. Assuming a QWERTY keyboard layout unless otherwise stated:

Keyboard input

In chemistry, the middle dot is used to separate the parts of formulas of addition compounds, mixture salts or solvates (mostly hydrates), such as of copper(II) sulphate pentahydrate, CuSO4 · 5H2O.

In computing, the middle dot is usually used to indicate white space in various software applications such as word processing, graphic design, web layout, desktop publishing or software development programs. In some word processors, interpuncts are used to denote not only hard space or space characters, but also sometimes used to indicate a space when put in paragraph format to show indentations and spaces. This allows the user to see where white space is located in the document and what sizes of white space are used, since normally white space is invisible so tabs, spaces, non-breaking spaces and such are indistinguishable from one another.

In mathematics, a small middle dot can be used to represent product; for example, x ∙ y for the product of x and y. When dealing with scalars, it is interchangeable with the multiplication sign: x ⋅ y means the same thing as x × y, but × is easily confused with the letter x. However, when dealing with vectors, the dot product is distinct from the cross product. This usage has its own designated code point in Unicode, U+2219 (∙), called the "bullet operator". It is also sometimes used to denote the “AND” relationship in formal logic, due to the relationship between these two operations. In situations where the interpunct is used as a decimal point (as noted above, by many mathematics teachers in some countries), then the multiplication sign used is usually a full stop (period), not an interpunct.

In SI units the middle dot or non-breaking space is used as a multiplication sign. Only a comma or full stop (period) may be used as a decimal marker.

In mathematics and science

Runic texts use either an interpunct-like or a colon-like punctuation mark to separate words. There are two Unicode characters dedicated for this: U+16EB runic single punctuation and U+16EC runic multiple punctuation.

Runes

In many linguistic works discussing Old Irish (but not in actual Old Irish manuscripts), the interpunct is used to separate a pretonic preverbal element from the stressed syllable of the verb, e.g. do·beir "says". It is also used in citing the verb forms used after such preverbal elements (the prototonic forms), e.g. ·beir "carries", to distinguish them from forms used without preverbs, e.g. beirid "carries".[9] In other works, the hyphen (do-beir, -beir) or colon (do:beir, :beir) may be used for this purpose.

Old Irish

Bela Domna·l vostre cors gens
E·lh vostre bel olh m'an conquis,
E·l doutz esgartz e lo clars vis,
E·l vostre bels essenhamens,
Que, can be m'en pren esmansa,
De beutat no·us trob egansa:
La genser etz c'om posc'e·l mon chauzir,
O no·i vei clar dels olhs ab que·us remir.

Domna·l [ˈdonnal] = Domna, lo ("Lady, the": singular definite article)
E·lh [eʎ] = E li ("And the": plural definite article)
E·l [el] = E lo ("And the")
E·l = E lo ("And the")

No·us [nows] = Non vos ("(do) not... you": direct object pronoun)
E·l = En lo ("in the")
No·i [noj] = Non i ("(do) not... there") // Que·us [kews] = Que vos ("that (I)... you")
O pretty lady, all your grace
and eyes of beauty conquered me,
sweet glance and brightness of your face
and all your nature has to tell
so if I make an appraisal
I find no one like in beauty:
most pleasing to be found in all the world
or else the eyes I see you with have dimmed.
  • que·l (que lo, that the) versus qu'el (that he)
  • From Bertran de Born's Ab joi mou lo vers e·l comens (translated by James H. Donalson):

In Old Occitan, the symbol · was sometimes used to denote certain elisions, much like the modern apostrophe, the only difference being that the word that gets to be elided is always placed after the interpunct, the word before ending either in a vowel sound or the letter n:

Although it is considered to be a spelling error, a period is frequently used when a middle dot is unavailable: des.har, in.hèrn, which is the case for French keyboard layout.

  • s·h, pronounced [s.h], versus sh, pronounced [ʃ], for example, in des·har 'to undo' vs deishar 'to leave'
  • n·h, pronounced [n.h], versus nh, pronounced [ɲ], for example in in·hèrn 'hell' vs vinha 'vineyard'

In Occitan, especially in the Gascon dialect, the interpunct (punt interior, literally, "inner dot", or ponch naut for "high / upper point") is used to distinguish the following graphemes:

Occitan

The interpunct (INTERPVNCTVS) was regularly used in classical Latin to separate words. In addition to the most common round form, inscriptions sometimes use a small equilateral triangle for the interpunct, pointing either up or down. It may also appear as a mid-line comma, similar to the Greek practice of the time. The interpunct fell out of use c.AD 200, and Latin was then written scripta continua for several centuries.

Latin

U+318D hangul letter araea (아래아) is used more than a middle dot when an interpunct is to be used in Korean typography, though araea is not a punctuation symbol but an obsolete Hangul Jamo, because araea is full-width letter so that it looks better than middle dot between Hangul and it is drawn like middle dot in Windows default Korean font such as Batang.

Interpuncts are used in written Korean to denote a list of two or more words, more or less in the same way a slash (/) is used to juxtapose words in many other languages. In this role it also functions in a similar way to the English en dash, as in 미·소관계, "American–Soviet relations". The use of interpuncts has declined in years of digital typography and especially in place of slashes, but, in the strictest sense, a slash cannot replace a middle dot in Korean typography.

Korean

The interpunct also has a number of other uses in Japanese, including the following: to separate titles, names and positions: 課長補佐・鈴木 (Assistant Section Head · Suzuki); as a decimal point when writing numbers in kanji: 三・一四一五九二 (3.141 592); and in place of hyphens, dashes and colons when writing vertically.

  • U+30FB katakana middle dot, with a fixed width that is the same as most kana characters, known as fullwidth.
  • U+FF65 halfwidth katakana middle dot

In Japanese typography, there exist two Unicode code points:

However, the Japanese writing system usually does not use space or punctuation to separate words (though the mixing of katakana, kanji, and hiragana gives some indication of word boundary).

Interpuncts are often used to separate transcribed foreign words written in katakana. For example, "Can't Buy Me Love" becomes 「キャント・バイ・ミー・ラヴ」 (Kyanto·bai·mī·ravu). A middle dot is also sometimes used to separate lists in Japanese instead of the Japanese comma ("、" known as tōten). Dictionaries and grammar lessons in Japanese sometimes also use a similar symbol to separate a verb suffix from its root. Note that while some fonts may render the Japanese middle dot as a square under great magnification, this is not a defining property of the middle dot that is used in China or Japan.

Japanese

The Hellenistic scholars of Alexandria first developed the mark for a function closer to the comma, before it fell out of use and then repurposed for its present role.[6]

The modern Greek ano teleia mark (άνω τελεία, ánō teleía, lit. "upper stop"), also known as the áno stigmī́ (άνω στιγμή), is the infrequently-encountered Greek semicolon and is properly romanized as such.[7] It is also used to introduce lists in the manner of an English colon.[6] In Greek text, Unicode provides a unique code point—U+0387 · greek ano teleia[8]—but it is also expressed as an interpunct. In practice, the separate code point for ano teleia canonically decomposes to the interpunct.[6]

Ancient Greek did not have spacing or interpuncts but instead ran all the letters together. By late antiquity, various marks were used to separate words, particularly the Greek comma.[6]

Greek

  • ch·, pronounced [ʃ], versus ch, pronounced [ts]
  • , pronounced [ʒ], versus j, pronounced [dz]
  • before e, i, pronounced [ʒ], versus g before e, i, pronounced [dz]

In Franco-Provençal (or Arpitan), the interpunct is used in order to distinguish the following graphemes:

Franco-Provençal

The Ge'ez (Ethiopic) language uses an interpunct of two vertically aligned dots, like a colon, but with larger dots. An example is ገድለ፡ወለተ፡ጴጥሮስ.

Ethiopic

In Pe̍h-ōe-jī for Taiwanese Hokkien, middle dot is often used as a workaround for dot above right diacritic because most early encoding systems did not support this diacritic. This is now encoded as U+0358 ͘ combining dot above right (see ). Unicode did not support this diacritic until June 2004. Newer fonts often support it natively; however, the practice of using middle dot still exists. Historically, it was derived in the late 19th century from an older barred-o with curly tail as an adaptation to the typewriter.

Minnan

The partition sign is also used to separate book and chapter titles when they are mentioned consecutively: book first and then chapter. It also appears in Swedish sinologist Bernhard Karlgren's works, where an interpunct is used to represent the glottal stop in his reconstruction of medieval Chinese.

without a partition sign. 伊麗莎白二世 or 伊利沙伯二世 and 成吉思汗 are simply Elizabeth II and Genghis Khan). Titles and other translated words are not similarly marked: Ābù Kǎxīmù Mùhǎnmòdé Běn Ābùdùlā Běn Ābùdùlè-Mùtǎlìbǔ Běn Hāxīmǔ p (阿布·卡西木·穆罕默德·本·阿布杜拉·本·阿布杜勒-穆塔利卜·本·哈希姆 as Muhammad), and the full name of the prophet Qiáozhì W. Bùshí p (乔治·布什 or 布殊喬治·

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