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Interstate 35 (Missouri)

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Interstate 35 (Missouri)

Interstate 35
;">Route information
Length:
Existed: 1956 (completed 1982)[1] – present
;">Major junctions
South end: Template:Jct/extra MX 85)
  Template:Plainlist
North end: Template:Jct/extra MN 61 / London Road / 26th Avenue in Duluth, Minnesota
Length:
Length:
Length:
Length:
;">
;">Highway system

Interstate 35 (IH-35 or I-35) is a north–south Interstate Highway in the central United States. I-35 stretches from Laredo, Texas, on the American-Mexican border to Duluth, Minnesota, at Minnesota Highway 61 (London Road) and 26th Avenue East.[2] Many Interstate Highways formerly had splits or spurs indicated with suffixed letters (N/S/E/W), and I-35 was the only one that still had such divisions, before the recent opening of I-69C and I-69E in the Rio Grande Valley. In two stretches, both through twin cities, the highway splits into Interstate 35E (Dallas and Saint Paul, Minnesota) and Interstate 35W (Fort Worth, Texas and Minneapolis).

At 1,568 mi (2,523 km), Interstate 35 is the ninth-longest Interstate Highway following Interstate 94, and it is the third-longest north-south Interstate Highway, following Interstate 75 and Interstate 95. Even though the route is generally considered to be a border to border highway, this highway does not directly connect to either international border. I-35's southern terminus is a traffic signal in Laredo, Texas, just short of the Mexican-American border. Travelers going south can take one of two toll bridges across the Rio Grande and the Mexican border, either straight ahead into the Juarez-Lincoln International Bridge, or via Interstate 35 Business through downtown Laredo into the Gateway to the Americas International Bridge.

To the north, I-35 terminates in Duluth, Minnesota, with connections to Canada from the interstate's terminus via Minnesota Highway 61 to Grand Portage, or north to the border at International Falls, Minnesota via U.S. Route 53 in Duluth, but that route is more typically accessed from the south by Minnesota Highway 33 at Cloquet, Minnesota.

Route description

Lengths
  mi km
TX 505 813
OK 235 378
KS 234 377
MO 114 183
IA 218 351
MN 259 416
Total 1565 2518

Texas

Interstate 35 northbound begins at an intersection (controlled by a stoplight) with Business Spur I-35 in Laredo, Texas, just north of the Rio Grande and the international border with Mexico. Through Webb, La Salle, and Frio Counties, it has a mostly north-northeastern course, turning more northeastly around Moore.[3] It then cuts across the corners of Medina and Atascosa Counties before entering Bexar County and San Antonio.

Interstate 35 is named the Pan Am Expressway in San Antonio. There, it has brief concurrencies with both Interstate 10 and Interstate 410, and it serves as the northern terminus of Interstate 37. I-35 heads northward out of the city towards the state capital, Austin, Texas.

In Austin, Interstate 35 is the Interregional Highway.[4] Throughout Austin, elevated express lanes were constructed on either side of the original freeway. Prior to this expansion, this section included an at-grade railroad crossing, which is extremely unusual for a freeway. From Austin, I-35 goes through Round Rock, Temple, and Waco. In Waco, I-35 is the Jack Kultgen Freeway. The campuses of the University of Texas and Baylor University are located adjacent to I-35.

I-35 then heads to Hillsboro, where it splits up into I-35W and I-35E and runs through the Dallas/Fort Worth area. The official mile markers follow I-35E through Dallas—I-35W, which is 85 miles (137 km) in length, carries its own mileage from Hillsboro to Denton, as though it were an x35 loop. In Dallas, I-35 is the R.L. Thornton Freeway south of I-30, which picks up the name heading east. North of I-30, it is the Stemmons Freeway.

After passing through Dallas and Fort Worth, I-35's two forks merge in Denton. The unified interstate then continues north to Gainesville before crossing the Red River into Oklahoma.

Oklahoma


In Oklahoma, I-35 runs from the Red River at the Texas border to the Kansas state line near Braman. It passes through or adjacent to many of the state's major cities. From south to north these cities include Ardmore, Pauls Valley, Purcell, Norman, Moore, Oklahoma City, Del City, Midwest City, Yukon, Edmond, El Reno, Guthrie, Stillwater, and Ponca City. In Downtown Oklahoma City, I-35 has a major junction with I-40 and spurs into I-235 through the north central inner city.

Kansas

Main article: Interstate 35 in Kansas

Between the Oklahoma state line and Emporia, I-35 is part of the Kansas Turnpike. This section of interstate serves Wichita and passes through the Flint Hills area. At Emporia, I-35 branches off on its own alignment. This free section of I-35 provides access to Ottawa before entering the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, where it serves Johnson County, and Kansas City, Kansas.

Of note on the route, at several points between Cassoday and Emporia in the Flint Hills dirt driveways that provide direct access without a ramp, for cattle trucks, may be found in either direction along the highway.

BETO Junction is a highway intersection in Coffey County, Kansas that is the intersection of U.S. Highway 75 and I-35. It derives its name from the four major cities nearest the intersection: Burlington, Emporia, Topeka, and Ottawa. It is located 16 miles (26 km) north of Burlington at exit 155. Historically, the intersection referred to as "BETO Junction" before I-35 was constructed was located on the old US 75 highway alignments 2 miles (3.2 km) south and 2 miles (3.2 km) east, near Waverly, Kansas.

Missouri

I-35 enters Missouri two miles (3 km) southwest of Kansas City's Central Business District as a six-lane highway. After merging with Southwest Trafficway and Broadway, it becomes eight lanes and continues north to downtown Kansas City, where it serves as the west and north legs of the Downtown freeway loop. Along the north edge of the loop, I-35 joins with I-70 immediately west of Broadway and carries six lanes of traffic with a speed limit of 45 mph (72 km/h). Upon leaving the loop, Interstate 29 begins, concurrent with I-35. The two interstates cross the Missouri River together on the Bond Bridge.

After crossing the river, I-29 and I-35 split. I-35 heads north to Cameron, Missouri, and then continues northward to the Iowa state line.

Iowa

Main article: Interstate 35 in Iowa


I-35 is part of the Avenue of the Saints between Clear Lake and St. Paul, Minnesota. A four-lane link has been completed between Clear Lake and Interstate 380 in Waterloo, Iowa.

In the southern sections of the state, I-35 is parallel to U.S. Route 69, for much of its course.

In Des Moines, I-35 has a 12-mile (19 km) overlap with I-80. The concurrency takes place northwest of the downtown district of the city. At exit 127 of I-80, the overlap turns east and terminates at exit 137 via an interchange with Interstate 235.

North of Des Moines, I-35 is mainly parallel with US 69, traversing a vast and rural area of Iowa.[5]

Minnesota


All of I-35 in the state of Minnesota from the Iowa state line to the city of Duluth is officially designated the Red Bull Highway, after the 34th Infantry (Red Bull) Division.

At Medford, Minnesota, the on/off ramps lead to roundabouts rather than standard cross intersections.[6] This is the first site in the state linked to a major highway to use roundabouts.

I-35 splits again into I-35W and I-35E in the Minneapolis/Saint Paul, Minnesota area. The mile- and exit-numbering sequence continues along I-35E. At one sharp turn in I-35W near the junction with I-94, it is advised to slow to 35 mph (55 km/h) (although many drivers are able to maintain the speed limit of 55 mph (90 km/h)). Additionally, it is not possible to go from westbound I-94 to northbound I-35W, from southbound I-35W to eastbound I-94, from eastbound I-94 to southbound I-35E, and from northbound I-35E to westbound I-94 without resorting to surface streets.

On I-35E in Minnesota between Minnesota Highway 5 and Interstate 94, in both directions, trucks weighing more than 9,000 lbs (4,082 kg) are banned from the freeway, and the speed limit drops to 45 mph (70 km/h) but it is rarely obeyed. This section was not completed until the late 1980s (although the route was cleared and graded earlier) due to opposition from the historic Crocus Hill neighborhood, which sits only a few hundred feet from the alignment. The four-lane alignment, "parkway" design was a compromise. The truck bypass for this section is signed on I-494 and I-694 to the east of Saint Paul.

I-35 has an interchange with I-535 / U.S. 53 in Duluth, Minnesota, known locally as the "Can of Worms". This junction features a pair of left exits from I-35, a stoplight, and lane drops over the I-35 bridge.[7]

The national northern terminus of I-35 is at an intersection in eastern Duluth. Driver's options include merging with London Road / Minnesota Highway 61 northbound; proceeding through the stop lights onto 26th Avenue East; or turning left onto London Road southbound.

History

Some sections of I-35 in Oklahoma City were already built in 1953, before the Interstate system was created.[8] Through Norman, Oklahoma, the interstate opened in June 1959. In Moore, it opened in two parts: the northern half, connecting Moore to Oklahoma City, opened in January 1960. The southern half, linking it to Norman, was opened to traffic in June 1967.[9]

I-35 through Oklahoma largely parallels U.S. Route 77. This is in large part due to efforts of the towns of Wynnewood, Paoli, and Wayne, which fought to keep I-35 as close as possible to U.S. 77. This was successful due to a threat from Governor Henry Bellmon to build a toll road rather than I-35, and legislation preventing state funds for the interstate from being spent if it were more than 1-mile (1.6 km) from the U.S. route.[10]

I-35 was completed in Oklahoma in 1971, when parts of the interstate running through Carter Co. and Murray Co. were opened to traffic.[8]

The final segment of I-35 (as originally planned) to open was in north central Iowa, between Mason City and US 20 near Iowa Falls. This segment was delayed due to some controversy. Originally, I-35 was to follow the alignment of US 69 from Des Moines all the way to the Minnesota border. However, Mason City's business community lobbied for the route to be moved closer to their city. On September 1, 1965, the alignment was changed to instead parallel US 65 through northern Iowa, which brought the highway much closer to Mason City. This, however, created a long diagonal section through Wright and Franklin counties. Local farmers objected to their farms being bisected into triangular pieces, and resulting litigation delayed I-35 for several years. A November 1972 ruling rejected a lawsuit filed by the farmers, and the final segment of I-35 was allowed to proceed, eventually opening in 1975. One of the final pieces of the highway puzzle happened in Faribault, Minnesota. For approximately 25 years, Highway 35 actually went through the town and travelers had to deal with several traffic lights. In 1975, the highway went around Faribault where today a traveler actually has three exit choices for this southern Minnesota town.

The Paseo Bridge over the Missouri River in Kansas City, Missouri was replaced by the dual-span cable-stayed Christopher S. Bond Bridge in December 2010.[11]

"NAFTA Superhighway" controversy

Further information: NAFTA superhighway

The proposed Trans-Texas Corridor toll-road project includes one proposal (TTC-35) to primarily parallel I-35 from the Mexican border up to the Oklahoma border.[12] There are major disagreements as to what impact this parallel route would have on I-35 in terms of traffic, maintenance, and commerce.

The Trans-Texas Corridor was first proposed by Texas Governor Rick Perry in 2002. It consists of a 1,200 foot (366 m) wide highway that also carries utilities such as electricity, petroleum and water as well as railway track and fiber-optic cables.[13] In July 2007, U.S. Representative Duncan Hunter successfully offered an amendment to House Resolution 3074, the FY2008 Transportation Appropriations Act, prohibiting the use of federal funds for Department of Transportation participation in the activities of the Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP). Hunter stated that: "Unfortunately, very little is known about the NAFTA Super Highway. This amendment will provide Congress the opportunity to exercise oversight of the highway, which remains a subject of question and uncertainty, and ensure that our safety and security will not be compromised in order to promote the business interests of our neighbors."[14] Fellow Republican Congressman and presidential candidate Ron Paul brought the issue to mainstream prominence during the December 2007 CNN-YouTube GOP debate, where he rejected the concept and also called it the NAFTA Superhighway after the North American Free Trade Agreement and, like Hunter, framed it within the ultimate goal of creating a North American Union.

In 2011, the Texas Legislature formally repealed its authority for the establishment and operation of the Trans-Texas Corridor. with the passage of HB 1201.[15] [16]

Exit list

Missouri

County Location # Destinations Notes
Jackson Kansas City 1A Southwest Trafficway Southbound exit and northbound entrance
1B Penn Valley Drive, 27th Street Southbound exit and northbound entrance
1C Pennway Street Northbound exit and southbound entrance
1D 20th Street Southbound exit only
2U Template:Jct/extra I-670 to I-70 / Broadway StreetTopeka, St. Louis South end of Alphabet loop overlap; no southbound exit to westbound I-670
2V 14th Street – Downtown Kansas City Northbound exit and southbound entrance
2W 12th Street
2X Template:Jct/extra I-70 west / US 24 west / US 40 west / US 169 north to Kansas TurnpikeTopeka North end of I-70/US 24/US 40 overlap
2Y Template:Jct/extra US 169 north (Arrowhead Trafficway) / Broadway Street, Charles B. Wheeler Downtown Airport Southbound exit signed as exit 2A
2D Delaware Street
2E Template:Jct/extra Route 9 north / Oak Street
2F Template:Jct/extra I-70 east / US 40 east / US 71 south to I-49St. Louis, Independence, Joplin North end of I-70/US 40/Alphabet loop overlap; south end of I-29/US 71 overlap
2H Template:Jct/extra US 24 east (Independence Avenue) North end of US 24 overlap; northbound exit only
3 The Paseo south Southbound exit and northbound entrance
4 Front Street
Bridge over Missouri River
Clay North Kansas City 5 Levee Street Southbound exit and northbound entrance
5A Bedford Avenue Northbound exit and southbound entrance
5B 16th Avenue Northbound exit and southbound entrance
6 Template:Jct/extra Route 210 (Armour Road)
Kansas City 8A N.E. Parvin Road
8B Template:Jct/extra I-29 north / US 71 north, Kansas City International Airport North end of I-29/US 71 overlap
8C Template:Jct/extra Route 1 (Antioch Road)
9 Template:Jct/extra Route 269 south / Choteau Trafficway
10 Brighton Avenue Northbound exit and southbound entrance
11 Template:Jct/extra US 69 (N.E. Vivion Road)
12 Template:Jct/extra I-435, Kansas City International Airport, Wichita Signed as exits 12A (south) and 12B (north); no southbound exit to northbound I-435
13
14
Template:Jct/extra US 69 south (N.E. Vivion Road) / Pleasant Valley Road, Liberty Parkway Signed as exits 13 (US 69) and 14 (Pleasant Valley/Liberty); south end of US 69 overlap
Liberty 16 Template:Jct/extra Route 152
17 Template:Jct/extra Route 291
20 Template:Jct/extra US 69 north / Route 33 / Lightburne Street North end of US 69 overlap
Kearney 26 Template:Jct/extra Route 92
Clinton 33 Template:Jct/extra Route PP
40 Template:Jct/extra Route 116
48 Template:Jct/extra US 69
Cameron 52 Template:Jct/extra I-35 Bus. north / Route BB
De Kalb 54 Template:Jct/extra I-35 Bus. south / US 36
Daviess 61 Template:Jct/extra US 69
64 Template:Jct/extra Route 6
68 Template:Jct/extra US 69
72 Template:Jct/extra Route DD
Pattonsburg 78 Template:Jct/extra Route G
80 Template:Jct/extra Route N west / Route B east
Harrison 84 Template:Jct/extra Route AA west / Route H east
88 Template:Jct/extra Route 13
Bethany 92 Template:Jct/extra US 136
93 Template:Jct/extra US 69 Spur west
99 Template:Jct/extra Route A
106 Template:Jct/extra Route N
114 Template:Jct/extra US 69, Lamoni

Major intersections

Texas
Template:Jct/extra I-410 in San Antonio (twice)
Template:Jct/extra I-10 in San Antonio
Template:Jct/extra I-37 in San Antonio
I-35 splits into I-35E and I-35W between Hillsboro and Denton
Template:Jct/extra I-20 in Dallas (I-35E) and in Fort Worth (I-35W)
Template:Jct/extra I-30 in Dallas (I-35E) and in Fort Worth (I-35W)
Template:Jct/extra I-820 in Fort Worth (I-35W only)
Template:Jct/extra I-635 in Dallas (I-35E only)
Oklahoma
Template:Jct/extra I-240 in Oklahoma City
Template:Jct/extra I-235 in Oklahoma City
Template:Jct/extra I-40 in Oklahoma City concurrent with I-35 for Template:Convert/spell
Template:Jct/extra I-44 in Oklahoma City concurrent with I-35 for Template:Convert/spell
Kansas
Template:Jct/extra I-135 in Wichita (the Kansas Turnpike continues along I-35 east of Wichita, while I-135 passes through downtown Wichita)
Template:Jct/extra I-235
Template:Jct/extra I-335 in Emporia (I-35 splits from the Kansas Turnpike at this point, and I-335 picks up the Kansas Turnpike designation)
Template:Jct/extra I-435 in Lenexa
Template:Jct/extra I-635 in Kansas City
Missouri
Template:Jct/extra I-670 in Kansas City
Template:Jct/extra I-70 in Kansas City concurrent with I-35 between exits 2A and 2H
Template:Jct/extra I-29 in Kansas City, Missouri concurrent with I-35 for Template:Convert/spell
Template:Jct/extra I-435 in Claycomo
Iowa
Template:Jct/extra I-80 in Des Moines. I-80 is cosigned with I-35 bypassing Downtown Des Moines (served by I-235) for 13 miles (21 km).
Template:Jct/extra I-235 in Des Moines (twice)
Minnesota
Template:Jct/extra I-90 in Albert Lea
I-35 splits into I-35E and I-35W between Burnsville and Columbus
Template:Jct/extra I-494 in Bloomington (I-35W) and Eagan, Minnesota
Template:Jct/extra I-94 in Minneapolis (I-35W) and in Saint Paul (I-35E concurrent with I-94 for less than a half mile)
Template:Jct/extra I-694 in New Brighton (I-35W) and Little CanadaVadnais Heights (I-35E concurrent with I-694 for less than a half mile)
Template:Jct/extra I-535 in Duluth

References

External links

Template:Attached KML

  • Geographic data related to OpenStreetMap
  • Kansas City Star's "I-35 Odyssey, A Summer Travel Series"
  • - A Look at the History of the Federal Highway Administration
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