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Iranian American

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Title: Iranian American  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Middle Eastern American, Catherine Bell (actress), Omid Kordestani, Nader Naderpour, Tehrangeles
Collection: American People of Iranian Descent, Iranian American, Iranian Emigrants, Middle Eastern American
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Iranian American

Iranian American
ایرانی آمریکایی
George Bournoutian
Total population
448,722 (2010 ACS);[1] around 1–2 million (U.S. government and other sources)[2][3][4][5][6][7]
Regions with significant populations
California, New York, New Jersey,[8] Texas, Maryland, Virginia, Washington, D.C., Illinois[9]

American English, Persian

Azerbaijani, Armenian, Kurdish, and other languages of Iran. (see Languages of Iran).
Muslim: 31%, Atheist/Realist/Humanist: 11%, Agnostic: 8%, Baha’i: 7%, Jewish: 5%, Protestant: 5%, Roman Catholic: 2%, Zoroastrian: 2%, "Other": 15%, and "No response": 15%.[10]

Iranian-Americans (also referred as Persian-Americans), are [11][12] They have historically excelled in business, academia, the sciences, arts, and entertainment – but have traditionally shied away from participating in American politics and other civic activities.[2]


  • Terminology 1
  • History 2
    • Modern history 2.1
      • Pre- and post-revolution migration 2.1.1
  • Demographics 3
    • Population 3.1
    • Religion 3.2
    • Ethnicity 3.3
    • Citizenship 3.4
  • Socioeconomics 4
    • Occupations and income 4.1
    • Education 4.2
    • Physicians 4.3
  • Politics 5
  • Ties to Iran 6
  • Discrimination 7
  • Notable individuals 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • Sources 11
  • External links 12


Iranian-American is used interchangeably with Persian-American,[13][14][15][16] partially due to the fact[17] that Iran was officially called Persia prior to 1935; as well as the fact that "Iran" and "Persia" have been used interchangeably since classic times.[18] There is a tendency among Iranian-Americans to categorize themselves as "Persian" rather than "Iranian", mainly to disassociate themselves from the [19] The Collins English Dictionary uses a variety of similar and overlapping definitions for the terms "Persian" and "Iranian".[21][22]


One of the very first recorded Iranians to visit North America was Martin the Armenian, an Iranian tobacco grower of Armenian descent who settled in Jamestown, Virginia in 1618.[23][24] Mirza Mohammad Ali, who is also known as Hajj Sayyah is another Iranian who came to North America in the 1800s. He was inspired to travel around the world due to the contradiction between the democratic ideals he read about around the world and how his fellow Iranians were treated by their leaders. He began his travel as a 23-year-old looking for knowledge and to gain perspective on the lives of others to bring back with him to help Iran progress. His stay in the United States lasted 10 years, and took him across the country from New York to San Francisco. He also met with powerful people like Ulysses S. Grant. Hajj Sayyah was the first Iranian to become an American Citizen on May 26, 1875. He was imprisoned upon his return to Iran for making a stand against the living conditions in Iran. He looked to the United States to protect him but to no avail.[25]

Modern history

Iranian immigration to the United States has been continuous since the 1980s. Between 1980 and 1990, the number of foreign-born people from Iran in the United States increased by 74 percent.[26] Today, the United States contains the highest number of Iranians outside of Iran. The Iranian-American community has produced individuals notable in many fields, including medicine, engineering, and business. The community chiefly expanded in the early 1980s, following the Iranian Revolution and its abolition of the Iranian monarchy.

Pre- and post-revolution migration

Prior to the Islamic revolution in Iran and the severance of diplomatic relations between the two countries, America and American universities were very popular among Iranians, and this popularity was a major force in drawing numerous Iranian students to the United States. During the 1977–78 academic year, of about 100,000 Iranian students abroad, 36,220 were enrolled in American institutions of higher learning. During the 1978–79 academic year, on the eve of the revolution, the number of Iranian students enrolled in American institutions rose to 45,340, and in 1979–80 the number reached a peak of 51,310: at that time, more students from Iran were enrolled in American universities than from any other foreign country.

The expansion of Iranian economy and the resultant higher revenues were the cause of investments in students' education abroad, either directly by the government's financial aid services and/or indirectly by the students' families. This investment resulted in a cohort of Western-educated professionals. Due to Iran's increasing demand for high-level manpower in the years prior to 1979, the majority of students were returning home after graduation to work, including those who had received financial aid in exchange to serve the government or industry upon graduation.

During and after the revolution, most students did not return to Iran, and those who did, were gradually purged from the newly established Islamic Republic. Many students who graduated abroad after the revolution also did not return, due to ruling clergy's repression. As a result, the educated elite who left Iran after the revolution and the new graduates in the United States who chose not to return home created a large pool of highly educated and skilled Iranian professionals in the United States. Over 1.5 million Iranians have chosen to leave Iran for other countries due to Islamic government's authoritarian practices.[27]


Although Iranians have lived in the United States in relatively small numbers since the 1930s, a large number of Iranian-Americans immigrated to the United States after the Iranian Revolution of 1979. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, there were 338,000 Americans tracing heritage to Iran. The 2000 U.S. Census undercounted the numbers of many ethnic groups and minorities, including Iranian-Americans.[28] The U.S. Government and other sources estimate that the number of Iranian-Americans to be 1-2 million.[2][3][4][5][6][7]


Regarding Iranian-Americans of Armenian origin, the 1980 US Census put the number of Armenians living in Los Angeles at 52,400, of which 71.9% were foreign born: 14.7% in Iran, 14.3% in the USSR, 11.5% in Lebanon, 9.7% in Turkey, 11.7% in other Middle Eastern countries (Egypt, Iraq, Palestine, etc.), and the rest in other parts of the world.[29]

Federal data on Iranian Americans is not derived from the question of race in the Decennial Census, but rather from question of ancestry, which is collected through the annual American Community Survey (ACS). Data on Iranian ancestry from the annual ACS is available on the Census Bureau’s American Factfinder website.[30] In 2010, the number of self-identified Iranian Americans in the US was 448,722.[1]

According to research done by the Iranian Studies Group, an independent academic organization, at [11][31]

According to extrapolated U.S. Census data and other independent surveys done by Iranian-Americans themselves in 2009, there were an estimated one million Iranian-Americans living in the U.S.,[2] with the largest concentration—about 72,000 people—living around Los Angeles.[2][3] For this reason, the L.A. area with its Iranian American residents is sometimes referred to as "Tehrangeles" or "Irangeles" among Iranian-Americans.[32] Beverly Hills and Irvine both have large communities of Iranian Americans; 26% of the total population of Beverly Hills is Iranian Jewish, making it the city's largest religious community.[9][33][34]

Half of the nation's Iranians reside in the state of California alone.[35] Other large communities include New York/New Jersey, which have 9.1% of the U.S.' Iranian population, followed by Washington, D.C./Maryland/Virginia (8.3%) and Texas (6.7%).[1][9]

Approximately 6,000-10,000 Iranian Americans reside in the city of Chicago, while up to 30,000 reside in the Chicago metropolitan area.[36]


Nearly as many Iranian Americans identify as irreligious as Muslim, and a full one-fifth are Christians, Jews, Baha’is, or Zoroastrians.[37] Additionally, there are also some Iranian Mandaeans, but they are very small in number.

A 2012 national telephone survey of a sample of 400 Iranian-Americans, commissioned by the Public Affairs Alliance of Iranian Americans and conducted by Zogby Research Services, asked the respondents what their religions were. The responses broke down as follows: Muslim: 31%, atheist/realist/humanist: 11%, agnostic: 8%, Baha’i: 7%, Jewish: 5%, Protestant: 5%, Roman Catholic: 2%, Zoroastrian: 2%, "Other": 15%, and "No response": 15%.[10] The survey had a cooperation rate of 31.2%.[10] The margin of error for the results was +/- 5 percentage points, with higher margins of error in sub-groups.[10] Prominently, the number of Muslims decreased from 42% in 2008 to 31% in 2012.[10][38]

According to Harvard University professor Robert D. Putnam, the average Iranian is slightly less religious than the average American.[39] Iranian-Americans are distancing themselves from Islam, having accepted the negative characteristics associated with the religion.[40] This is due to Islam being imposed on the Iranians through war and invasion, equating to authoritarianism, brutality and corruption.[40] In the book, Social Movements in 20th Century Iran: Culture, Ideology, and Mobilizing Frameworks, author Stephen C. Poulson adds that Western ideas are making Iranians irreligious.[41]

There are religious and ethnolinguistic differences among the Muslim, Jewish, Baha'i, Zoroastrian, Christian, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Kurdish, and Assyrian groups.[42] Calculating the percentage of Christian Iranian-Americans is difficult because most Iranian Christians are of Armenian or Assyrian origin and self-identify as such, rather than as Iranian.[43]


The majority of Iranian-Americans are ethnic Persians, with sizeable ethnic minorities being Iranian Azerbaijanis, Iranian Armenians, Iranian Kurds, Iranian Assyrians, and others.[44]

According to Hakimzadeh and Dixon, members of religious and ethnic minorities such as Bahai'is, Jews, Armenians, and Assyrians were disproportionately represented amongst the early exiles of the 1978–79 revolution.[45]


Nearly all Iranian-Americans are either citizens (81%) or permanent residents (15%) of the United States (2008 survey).[46] Iranian-Americans regard their culture and heritage as an important component of their day-to-day life and their overall identity within the United States.[47]


Occupations and income

The Small Business Administration (SBA) conducted a study that found Iranian immigrants among the top 20 immigrant groups with the highest rate of business ownership, contributing substantially to the U.S. economy. According to the report, there were 33,570 active and contributing Iranian American business owners in the U.S., with a 21.5% business ownership rate. The study also found that the total net business income generated by Iranian Americans was $2,559,450,000.[48] Almost one in three Iranian American households have annual incomes of more than $100K (compared to one in five for the overall U.S. population).[49] Ali Mostasahri a founding member of the Iranian Studies Group, offers a reason for the relative success of Iranian-Americans compared to other immigrants. He believes that unlike many other immigrants who left their home countries because of economic hardships, Iranians left due to social or religious reasons like the 1979 revolution.[31]


According to [11] According to the latest census data available, more than one in four Iranian-Americans holds a master's or doctoral degree, the highest rate among 67 ethnic groups studied.[12]

A 1990 [50] In 1988, The New York Times article claimed that Middle Eastern Armenians, which includes Armenians from Iran, prefer to settle in Glendale, California, while Armenian immigrants from the Soviet Union were attracted to Hollywood, Los Angeles.[51]

A study regarding Americans of Armenian descent showed that Armenians from Iran (Iranian-Armenians) are known for fast integration into American society;[52] for example, only 31% of Armenian Americans born in Iran claim not to speak English well,[53] while those Armenians from other nations were shown to have less steady successes of integration.


The earliest Iranian professionals in the U.S. before the 1979 revolution were the physicians. They were mostly young temporary trainees who worked as medical interns or residents. Some established themselves to continue practice beyond the residency stage. Their motives to extend their stay in the United States were more geared towards professional reasons than economics. Researcher from Johns Hopkins University in 1974 reported in the Journal of American Medical Association (JAMA) that in 1971 the number of Iranian physicians in the U.S. was 1,625.[54]

In 2013, another report was published in Archive of Iranian Medicine (AIM) that post revolution the number of Iranian Medical School graduates in the United States had grown to 5,045. Later, those who migrated to the U.S. after the 1979 revolution were mostly experienced physicians who came with their families and intent to stay permanently. As of 2013, there are a 5,050 Iranian Medical School Graduates in the United States.[55]

Prior to revolution the 1,626 physicians migrated to the United States were 15% of all medical graduates of Iranian medical school graduates while the 5,045 medical graduates who migrated post Islamic Revolution represent only 5% of total Iranian Medical Graduates. This is not indicative of the entire United States, merely of the areas in which most of the Iranian American population is concentrated.[56]


Most important issues to the Iranian-American community

Though Iranian-Americans have historically excelled in business, academia and the sciences, they have traditionally shied away from participating in American politics or other civic activities.[2]

Iranian-Americans don't seem to engage in American Politics, the fact that only 10 percent of Iranian-Americans voted in the 2004 election according to surveys in large American cities is evidence of this. The group that published this information urged Iranian-Americans to come together and vote in order to make a difference in how the United States foreign policy operates with regards to Iran.[57]

An August 2008 Zogby International poll, commissioned by the Public Affairs Alliance of Iranian Americans, found that approximately one half of Iranian Americans identified themselves as registered Democrats, in contrast to one in eight as Republicans and one in four as independents (2008).[46]

The same poll indicates that more than half of Iranian Americans cite domestic U.S. issues, including issues that are not unique to Iranian Americans, as the most important to them. In contrast, one quarter of Iranian Americans cite foreign policy issues involving U.S.-Iran relations and less than one in ten cite the internal affairs of Iran as being of greatest importance to them.[46]

From 1980 to 2004, more than one out of every four Iranian immigrants was a refugee or asylee.[11] The PAAIA/Zogby poll also cites that almost three-quarters of Iranian Americans believe the promotion of human rights and democracy in Iran is the most important issue relating to U.S.-Iran relations. About the same percentage, however, believe diplomacy is the foreign policy approach towards Iran that would be in the best interest of the United States. 84% support establishing U.S. Interest Section in Iran.[46] Nearly all Iranian Americans surveyed oppose any U.S. military attack against Iran.[58]

Ties to Iran

According to a survey conducted in 2009, more than six in ten Iranian Americans have immediate family members in Iran, and almost three in ten communicate with their families or friends in Iran at least several times a week. An additional four in ten communicate with their families or friends in Iran at least several times a month. This study indicates an unusually close relationship between Iranian Americans and Iranians.[58]

As of 2013, U.S. laws require U.S. persons to obtain a license from OFAC to engage in transactions related to the sale of their personal property in Iran.[59] Similarly, US persons will need a license from OFAC to open a bank account or transfer money to Iran.[60]


According to the Public Affairs Alliance of Iranian Americans, nearly half of Iranian-Americans surveyed in 2008 by Zogby International have experienced or personally know Iranian Americans who have experienced discrimination due to their ethnicity or country of origin. The most common types of discrimination reported are airport security check, social discrimination, racial profiling, employment or business discrimination and discrimination at the hands of immigration officials.[46]

In 2009 Martin Kramer, a Harvard professor, warned about the dangers of allowing Iranian Americans to get too close to power during the 2009 American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) conference:[61]

Notable individuals

Business/technology: Iranian-Americans are among the most educated and successful communities in the U.S., according to a report by Iranian Studies group at MIT, Iranian-Americans have founded and/or participated in senior leadership positions of many major US companies, including many Fortune 500 companies such as GE, Intel, Citigroup, Verizon, Motorola, Google, and AT&T.[62] Pierre Omidyar, founder/CEO of eBay is of Iranian origin, as well as the founder of Bratz Isaac Larian. Hamid Biglari is Vice-Chairman of Citicorp.[63] In 2006, Anousheh Ansari, co-founder of the Ansari X Prize, became the first female tourist in space. Ansari is also the co-founder and former CEO of Prodea Systems Inc. and Telecom Technologies, Inc. Other well-known Iranian-American entrepreneurs include designer Bijan Pakzad, entrepreneur Sam Nazarian, entrepreneur Shabnam Rezaei, Omid Kordestani of Google, CEO of YouTube Salar Kamangar and Sina Tamaddon of Apple Inc.

Philanthropy: Many Iranian Americans are active philanthropists and leaders in improving their community. In 2006, the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center was the recipient of a 10 million dollar donation from an Iranian American couple based in Houston, Texas.[64][65] The University of Southern California was also the recipient of a 17 million dollar gift from an Iranian-American,[66] as was San Francisco State University which also received a 10 million dollar gift from an Iranian-American couple.,[67] and Chicago's Swedish Covenant Hospital ($4 million),[68] Portland State University ($8 million),[69] and UC Irvine ($30 million),[70][71] among others.

Science/academia: Well-known Iranian Americans in science include Firouz Naderi director at NASA, Ali Javan inventor of the first gas laser, Maryam Mirzakhani the first female winner of the Fields Medal, Nima Arkani-Hamed a leading theoretical physicist, Gholam A. Peyman, the inventor of LASIK, Lotfi Asker Zadeh, Vartan Gregorian, Cumrun Vafa, Vahid Tarokh, and Rashid Massumi, M.D., a pioneer in the fields of electrophysiology and cardiology, among many others.

Media/entertainment: Well-known media personalities of America, of Iranian descent, include Christiane Amanpour of ABC News and CNN, Daron Malakian, member of rock band System of a Down,[72] Susie Gharib of Nightly Business Report, Asieh Namdar, Roya Hakakian, Yara Shahidi and Rudi Bakhtiar. There are several Iranian American actors, comedians and filmmakers, including the Academy Award nominee and Emmy Award winner Shohreh Aghdashloo, actresses Catherine Bell, Sarah Shahi, Nasim Pedrad, Desiree Akhavan, Sheila Vand, Necar Zadegan, and Bahar Soomekh, comedian Maz Jobrani, filmmakers Bavand Karim and Kamshad Kooshan, actor Adrian Pasdar, producer Bob Yari, Farhad Safinia, author and performer Shahram Shiva, and Daryush Shokof.

Sports: Professional tennis player Andre Agassi, NFL football players T.J. Houshmandzadeh, David Bakhtiari and Shar Pourdanesh, MLB player Yu Darvish, NBA players Arsalan Kazemi and Hamed Haddadi, professional wrestlers Shawn Daivari and The Iron Sheik, professional mixed martial artist Amir Sadollah, and professional soccer players Sobhan Tadjalli, Alecko Eskandarian and Steven Beitashour.

Politics: The son of the late Shah of Iran, Reza Pahlavi, lives in the United States, as well as several high-ranking officials in the Shah's administration such as Hushang Ansary and Jamshid Amouzegar. Goli Ameri is the Under Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, as well as the former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs from 2008 to 2009, during which she was the highest-ranking Iranian-American public official in the United States. Beverly Hills elected its first Iranian-born Mayor, Jamshid Delshad, in 2007.[73][74] In November 2011, Anna M. Kaplan was elected Councilwoman in the Town of North Hempstead, New York, becoming the first Iranian-American to be elected to a major municipal office in New York State.[75] Cyrus Amir-Mokri is the highest ranking Iranian-American official in government as of 2012, who was appointed as the Treasury Department Assistant Secretary for Financial Institutions by President Obama.[76] Also, in November 2012, Cyrus Habib, from the 48th district in Washington State, became the first Iranian American elected as a state legislator. Alex Nowrasteh is a well-known political commentator, policy analyst, and economist.

See also


  1. ^ a b c Iranian-Americans and the 2010 Census: Did We Shrink?.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Azadeh Ansari CNN (June 16, 2009). "Iranian-Americans cast ballots on Iran's future". CNN. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  3. ^ a b c The Wall Street Journal, Iran's Political Crisis Fuels Expatriates' Fears, Hopes
  4. ^ a b Gopalan, Shamini. "U.S. State Department". Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b "Iranian Americans Observe Persian New Year Traditions". Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "Alliance of Iranian Americans". January 7, 2003. Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "Iranian Trade Group". Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  8. ^ Monsy Alvarado (March 20, 2014). "N.J. Iranians celebrate Persian New Year with music, dance in Englewood". North Jersey Media Group. Retrieved March 21, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c
  10. ^ a b c d e "2012 NATIONAL PUBLIC OPINION SURVEY of IRANIAN AMERICANS regarding Potential Military Strike Against Iran" (PDF). 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  11. ^ a b c d "Migration Information Source – Spotlight on the Iranian Foreign Born". Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  12. ^ a b "Iranian-Americans Reported Among Most Highly Educated in U.S". November 24, 2006. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  13. ^ a b Maryam Daha (March 25, 2011). """Maryam Daha, Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents, Journal of Adolescent Research September 2011 vol. 26 no. 5 543–569: "the majority of the participants self-identified themselves as Persian instead of Iranian, due to the stereotypes and negative portrayals of Iranians in the media and politics. Adolescents from Jewish and Baha’i faiths asserted their religious identity more than their ethnic identity. The fact Iranians use Persian interchangeably is nothing to do with current Iranian government because the name Iran was used before this period as well. Linguistically modern Persian is a branch of Old Persian in the family of Indo-European languages and that includes all the minorities as well more inclusively.. Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  14. ^ Raymond M. Nakamura (2003). Iranian/Persian Americans - The flow of Iranian citizens into the United States began in 1979, during and after the Islamic Revolution. Health in America: A multicutral perspective. Kendal Hub. 
  15. ^ Mark Zanger. The American Ethnic Cook Book for Students. p. Excerpt pp-212-214: (Iranians) Most of the million Iranian-Americans have come to the United States since the 1979 revolution that overthrew the Shah and established an Islamic Republic in Iran. 
  16. ^ Racial and Ethnic Relations in America, Carl Leon Bankston,"Therefore, Turkish and Iranian (Persian) Americans, who are Muslims but not ethnically Arabs, are often mistakenly..",Salem Press, 2000
  17. ^ Fereshteh Haeri Darya, "Second-generation Iranian-Americans: The relationship between ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological well-being" Capella University, ProQuest, 2007 pp 3–4: "According to previous studies, the presence of heterogeneity is evident among Iranian immigrants (also known as Persians – Iran was known as Persia until 1935) who came from myriads of religious (Muslim, Christian, Jewish, Armenian, Assyrian, Baha'i and Zoroastrian), ethnic (Turk, Kurds, Baluchs, Lurs, Turkamans, Arabs, as well as tribes such as Ghasghaie, and Bakhtiari), linguistic/dialogic background (Persian, Azari, Gialki, Mazandarani, Kurdish, Arabic , and others). Cultural, religious and political, and various other differences among Iranians reflect their diverse social and interpersonal interactions. Some studies suggest that, despite the existence of subgroup within Iranian immigrants (e.g. various ethno-religious groups), their nationality as Iranians has been an important point of reference and identifiable source of their identification as a group across time and setting."
  18. ^ Greater Iran: a 20th-century odyssey – Richard Nelson Frye – Google Books. Google Books. June 30, 2006. Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b c Mehdi Bozorgmehr, The new Americans: a guide to immigration since 1965 // Mary C. Waters, Reed Ueda, Helen B. Marrow (eds.), Harvard University Press, 2007, p. 469
  20. ^ Elizabeth Chacko, Contemporary ethnic geographies in America // Ines M. Miyares, Christopher A. Airriess (eds.), Rowman & Littlefield, 2007, pp. 325–326
  21. ^ "Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition". Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  22. ^
  23. ^ Bakalian 1993, p. 33.
  24. ^ Papazian, Dennis (2000). "Armenians in America". Journal of Eastern Christian Studies (University of Michigan-Dearborn) 52 (3-4): 311–347.  
  25. ^ "The First Iranian American". Paaia. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  26. ^ "Migration Information Source – Spotlight on the Iranian Foreign Born". Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  27. ^ Torbat, Akbar E (Spring 2002). "The brain drain from Iran to the United States". Middle East Journal 56 (2): 272–295.
  28. ^ "". Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  29. ^ Bakalian 1993, p. 16.
  30. ^ The Iranians Count Census Coalition Releases the Special Tabulation Results from the 2010 U.S. Census.
  31. ^ a b McIntosh, Phyllis. IIP Digital. State Department’s Bureau of International Information Programs Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  32. ^ "'"Iranians at odds over talks with 'the Great Satan. London:  
  33. ^ Universe: Total population more information 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.
  34. ^ Los Angeles Times, Irvine embraces diversity at the polls, November 9, 2008.
  35. ^ Amirani, Shoku. "Tehrangeles: How Iranians made part of LA their own". BBC. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  36. ^
  37. ^ Multicultural America: A Multimedia Encyclopedia, Volume 1.  
  38. ^ "Public Opinion Survey of Iranian Americans" (PDF).  
  39. ^ "'"Losing Our Religion: The Growth Of The 'Nones.  
  40. ^ a b "Disparaging Islam and the Iranian-American Identity: To Snuggle or to Struggle". 21 September 2009. 
  41. ^ Social Movements in 20th Century Iran: Culture, Ideology, and Mobilizing Frameworks.  
  42. ^ Nilou Mostofi, Who We Are: The Perplexity of Iranian-American Identity, The Sociological Quarterly (published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the Midwest Sociological Society), Vol. 44, No. 4 (Autumn, 2003), pp. 681–703, p. 685
  43. ^ Mohsen Mobasher (September 1, 2006). "Cultural Trauma and Ethnic Identity Formation Among Iranian Immigrants in the United States". Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  44. ^ "Iranian Studies Group at MIT, Iranian-American Community Survey Results, 2005". Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  45. ^ By Shirin Hakimzadeh and David Dixon Migration Policy Institute -Spotlight on the Iranian Foreign Born Migration Information Source – Spotlight on the Iranian Foreign Born". Retrieved 2010-02-15. "The exiles were disproportionately members of religious and ethnic minorities, such as the Bahai'is, Jews, Armenians, and Assyrians. Also in the second wave were young men who fled military service and the Iran-Iraq war, followed by young women and families who came for educational and political reasons. "
  46. ^ a b c d e PAAIA 2008 National Survey of Iranian Americans
  47. ^ PAAIA Releases 2011 National Survey of Iranian Americans. (December 7, 2011).
  48. ^ "SBA Report: Iranian-Americans with one of highest rates of immigrant-owned businesses". November 22, 2006. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  49. ^ Archived March 5, 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ Sabagh, Bozorgmehr & Der-Martirosian 1990, p. 9.
  51. ^ Reinhold, Robert (21 March 1988). "Echoes From Armenia In Southern California".  
  52. ^ Parks, Lisa; Kumar, Shanti (2003). Planet TV: a global television reader. New York: New York University Press. p. 395.  
  53. ^ Samkian 2007, p. 102.
  54. ^ 39. Ronaghy HA, Williams KN, Baker TD, Emigration of Iranian Physicians to the United States, A Ten-Year Follow-up of Graduates of Shiraz Medical School. Pahlavi Med J. 1973; 4:174-193.
  55. ^ Ronaghy HA, Shajari A, Islamic Revolution and Physician Migration Archive of Iranian Medicine 2013; 16: 10
  56. ^ Ronaghy HA, Cahill K Baker TD, Physician Migration to the United States: One Country's Transfusion is Another Country's Hemorrhage. J Am Med Assoc. 1974: 227: 538-542
  57. ^ McIntosh, Phyllis. "Iranian-Americans Reported Among Most Highly Educated in U.S.". IIP Digital. State Department’s Bureau of International Information Programs. Retrieved 25 April 2015. 
  58. ^ a b "PAAIA Releases 2009 National Survey of Iranian Americans". Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^ Disney, Patrick (26 March 2010). "Amanpour is Being Attacked Because She's Iranian". Payvand News. 
  62. ^ "Iranian Studies Group at MIT". Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
  63. ^
  64. ^ "Profile of an Iranian-American philanthropist: Ali Saberioon". Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  65. ^ "Title_ – M. D. Anderson Cancer Center". April 22, 2009. Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  66. ^ Mankin, Eric (November 23, 2011). "Alum Gives $17M to USC Viterbi Dept". Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  67. ^ "SF State News". June 1, 2005. Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  68. ^ "Archive Pages". April 9, 2007. Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  69. ^ Portland State Maseeh College of Engineering & Computer Science | Visionary Alumnus
  70. ^ "University of California, Irvine | The Paul Merage School of Business". Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  71. ^ "Archive Pages". April 24, 2005. Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  72. ^ Gowing, Liam (March 2, 2006). "In later years he moved Memphis, Tennessee to pursue his music career. However this was unsuccessful. His son has got him covered: System of a Down's artist of choice is Vartan Malakian, the guitarist's dad".  
  73. ^ "Living in Tehrangeles: L.A.'s Iranian Community". NPR. Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  74. ^ Kasindorf, Martin (March 14, 2007). "Beverly Hills will have first Iranian-born mayor in USA". USA Today. Retrieved 2010-05-05. 
  75. ^ Zendrian, Alexandra (November 9, 2011). "Kaplan Wins North Hempstead Town Council Race – Port Washington, NY Patch". Retrieved November 28, 2011. 
  76. ^ White House Hosts Iranian-American Community Leaders for Roundtable Discussion.


  • Samkian, Artineh (2007). Constructing Identities, Perceiving Lives: Armenian High School Students' Perceptions of Identity and Education. ProQuest.  
  • Bakalian, Anny (1993). Armenian Americans: From Being to Feeling Armenian. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.  

External links

  • Iranian-American Organizations - Comprehensive list
  • Iranian-American workers by occupation, New York Times
  • Iran Census Report (2003): Strength in Numbers – The Relative Concentration of Iranian Americans Across the United States
  • Fact-sheet on the Iranian-American Community (ISG MIT)
  • Migration Information Source -Spotlight on the Iranian Foreign Born
  • Interest Section of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Washington D.C. – Consular affairs
  • Documentary about Iranian-Americans. PBS (2012)
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