World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ivar Giaever

Article Id: WHEBN0000396621
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ivar Giaever  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Brian Josephson, List of Nobel laureates by university affiliation, Leo Esaki, Superconductivity, Nobel Prize in Physics
Collection: 1929 Births, American Nobel Laureates, Climate Change Deniers (Scientists), General Electric People, Guggenheim Fellows, Hamar Katedralskole Alumni, Living People, Members of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences, Nobel Laureates in Physics, Norwegian Atheists, Norwegian Emigrants to the United States, Norwegian Institute of Technology Alumni, Norwegian Nobel Laureates, Norwegian Physicists, People from Bergen, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Alumni, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Faculty, Superconductivity
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Ivar Giaever

Ivar Giæver
Born (1929-04-05) April 5, 1929
Bergen, Norway
Nationality Norway, USA (1964)
Fields Physics
Alma mater Norwegian Institute of Technology,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Known for Solid-state physics
Notable awards Oliver E. Buckley Condensed Matter Prize (1965)
Nobel Prize in Physics (1973)

Ivar Giaever (Norwegian: Giæver, IPA: ; born April 5, 1929) is a Norwegian-American physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Leo Esaki and Brian Josephson "for their discoveries regarding tunnelling phenomena in solids".[1] Giaever's share of the prize was specifically for his "experimental discoveries regarding tunnelling phenomena in superconductors".[2] Giaever is an institute professor emeritus at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, a professor-at-large at the University of Oslo, and the president of Applied Biophysics.[3]


  • Early life 1
  • The Nobel Prize 2
  • Other prizes 3
  • Global warming 4
  • Selected publications 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Early life

Giaever earned a degree in mechanical engineering from the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim in 1952. In 1954, he emigrated from Norway to Canada, where he was employed by the Canadian division of General Electric. He moved to the United States four years later, joining General Electric's Corporate Research and Development Center in Schenectady, New York, in 1958. He has lived in Niskayuna, New York, since then, taking up US citizenship in 1964. While working for General Electric, Giaever earned a Ph.D. at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1964.[4]

The Nobel Prize

The work that led to Giaever's Nobel Prize was performed at General Electric in 1960. Following on Esaki's discovery of electron tunnelling in semiconductors in 1958, Giaever showed that tunnelling also took place in superconductors, demonstrating tunnelling through a very thin layer of oxide surrounded on both sides by metal in a superconducting or normal state.[5] Giaever's experiments demonstrated the existence of an energy gap in superconductors, one of the most important predictions of the BCS theory of superconductivity, which had been developed in 1957.[6] Giaever's experimental demonstration of tunnelling in superconductors stimulated the theoretical physicist Brian Josephson to work on the phenomenon, leading to his prediction of the Josephson effect in 1962. Esaki and Giaever shared half of the 1973 Nobel Prize, and Josephson received the other half.[1]

Giaever's research later in his career was mainly in the field of biophysics. In 1969, he researched Biophysics for a year as a fellow at Clare Hall, University of Cambridge, through a Guggenheim Fellowship, and he continued to work in this area after he returned to the US.[4]

He has co-signed a letter from over 70 Nobel laureate scientists to the Louisiana Legislature supporting the repeal of Louisiana’s creationism law, the Louisiana Science Education Act.[7]

Other prizes

In addition to the Nobel Prize, he has also been awarded the Oliver E. Buckley Prize by the American Physical Society in 1965, and the Zworykin Award by the National Academy of Engineering in 1974.[3]

In 1985 he was awarded an honorary degree, doctor honoris causa, at the Norwegian Institute of Technology, later part of Norwegian University of Science and Technology.[8]

He is a member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.[9]

Global warming

Giaever has said man-made global warming is a "new religion."[10] In the minority report released by the U.S. Senate Environment and Public Works Committee in March 2009,[11] Giaever said, "I am a skeptic…Global warming has become a new religion."[11][12]

In a featured story in Norway's largest newspaper, Aftenposten, 26 June 2011, Giaever stated, "It is amazing how stable temperature has been over the last 150 years."[13]

On 13 September 2011, Giaever resigned from the American Physical Society over its official position. The APS Fellow noted: "In the APS it is ok to discuss whether the mass of the proton changes over time and how a multi-universe behaves, but the evidence of global warming is incontrovertible?"[14]

As part of the 62nd Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting, Giaever referred to agreement with the evidence of climate change as a "religion" and commented on the significance of the apparent rise in temperature when he stated, "What does it mean that the temperature has gone up 0.8 degrees? Probably nothing." Referring to the selection of evidence in his presentation, Giaever stated "I pick and choose when I give this talk just the way the previous speaker (Mario Molina) picked and chose when he gave his talk." Giaever concluded his presentation with a pronouncement: "Is climate change pseudoscience? If I’m going to answer the question, the answer is: absolutely."[15][16]

Giaever is currently a science advisor at The Heartland Institute.[17]

Selected publications

  • Giaever, Ivar (1960). "Energy Gap in Superconductors Measured by Electron Tunneling".  
  • Giaever, Ivar (1960). "Electron Tunneling Between Two Superconductors".  
  • Giaever, Ivar (1974). "Electron tunneling and superconductivity".  


  1. ^ a b "Press Release: The 1973 Nobel Prize in Physics".  
  2. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973".  
  3. ^ a b Giaever, Ivar (2011-06-27). "Ivar Giaever Physics Department Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute".  
  4. ^ a b Lundqvist, Stig (1992). "Biography".  
  5. ^ Giaever, I. (1960). "Energy Gap in Superconductors Measured by Electron Tunneling". Physical Review Letters 5 (4): 147–148.  
  6. ^ Bardeen, Cooper, and Schrieffer won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1972 for this theoretical advance, which bears their initials.
  7. ^ Nobel Laureate Letter
  8. ^ "Honorary doctors at NTNU". Norwegian University of Science and Technology. 
  9. ^ "Gruppe 8: Teknologiske fag" (in Norwegian).  
  10. ^ Strassel, Kimberley A. (2009-06-26). "The Climate Change Climate Change The number of skeptics is swelling everywhere.".  
  11. ^ a b "U. S. Senate Minority Report: More Than 700 International Scientists Dissent Over Man-Made Global Warming Claims Scientists Continue to Debunk "Consensus" in 2008 & 2009 (Updates Previous Report: "More Than 650 International Scientists Dissent Over Man-Made Global Warming Claims")".  
  12. ^ Morano, Marc (2009-03-17). "U.S. Senate Minority Report Update: More Than 700 International Scientists Dissent Over Man-Made Global Warming Claims".  
  13. ^ Giaever, Ivar (2011-06-26). )"The peculiar climate myths"De forunderlige klimamytene (.  
  14. ^ "Nobel Prize-Winning Physist Resigns Over Global Warming". Fox News. 2011-09-14. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  15. ^ Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: From the Big Bang to the Big Controversy (aka Climate Change)
  16. ^ Giaver, I. "The Strange Case of Global Warming", Lecture, 62nd Lindau Meeting, July 2012
  17. ^ "Ivar Giaever Profile". The Heartland Institute. Retrieved 8 Jul 2015. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.