World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Jankó keyboard

Article Id: WHEBN0000309189
Reproduction Date:

Title: Jankó keyboard  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Isomorphic keyboard, Wicki-Hayden note layout, Musical keyboard, Piano, Paul von Jankó
Collection: Hungarian Inventions, Musical Keyboard Layouts
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Jankó keyboard

A Jankó keyboard

The Jankó keyboard is a musical keyboard layout for a piano designed by Paul von Jankó in 1882.[1] It was designed to overcome two limitations on the traditional piano keyboard: the large-scale geometry of the keys (stretching beyond a ninth, or even an octave, can be difficult or impossible for pianists with small hands), and the fact that each scale has to be fingered differently. Instead of a single row, the Jankó keyboard has an array of keys consisting of two interlocking manuals with three touch-points for each key lever. Each vertical column of keys is a semitone away from its neighboring columns, and on each horizontal row of keys the interval from one note to the next is a whole step.

This key layout results in each chord and scale having the same shape on the keyboard with the same fingerings regardless of key, so there is no change in geometry when transposing music. The configuration retains the colouring of traditional keyboards (white naturals, black sharps and flats) for pedagogical purposes.

For an 88 note (full size) keyboard, there would be 264 keys in total, with each note playable by three keys in vertical alignment. In the picture below, the white keys have been coloured to show how the keys are interconnected. Instead of 123 cm the keyboard is only 89 cm wide, and the smaller key size allows reaching wider intervals.

The Jankó keyboard never achieved wide popularity. Music educators were not convinced that the benefits of the new keyboard were enough to challenge the traditional keyboard. Few performers were prepared to relearn their repertoire on a new keyboard with entirely different fingering. Both reasons left keyboard manufacturers afraid to invest in a redesigned keyboard which promised to have only marginal commercial success.[2]

Many embodiments of this keyboard have appeared since its conception. Jankó himself (in German patent 25852, dated 14 January 1884) originally chose a key shape which resembled the slim, black keys on the familiar piano keyboard. A year later (in German patent 32138, dated 1 July 1885) the keys became wider and shorter. Other inventors have filed patents for keyboards which are substantially similar to his design, differing most often in key shape or instrument to which those keyboards are affixed. (For example: John Trotter English Patent 3404, 4 March 1811, William A. B. Lunn devised in 1843 under the name of Arthur Wallbridge a sequential keyboard with two parallel rows of keys, each in whole tones. Miguel Theodore de Folly, 1845,Useful Registered Design Number 448 for a geometrical keyboard for the pianoforte, Gould and Marsh [1859], Edgar [1871], Cramer [1874], McChesney [1875], Stewart [1886], Adams [1901], Nordbö [1916], Barnett [1934], Reuther [1940], and Firestone [1945].) The most recent patents are for MIDI compatible instruments.

a      b     c♯   d♯   f      g       a      b      c♯
   a♯   c      d       e    f♯    g♯   a♯   c
a      b     c♯   d♯   f      g       a      b      c♯
   a♯   c      d       e    f♯   g♯   a♯   c
a      b     c♯   d♯   f      g       a      b      c♯
   a♯   c      d       e    f♯   g♯   a♯   c
Jankó keyboard layout.

See also

References

  1. ^  
  2. ^ Naragon, Kristine (1977). The Jankó Keyboard (typescript) 1. pp. 15–17, 140–142. 

External links

  • Pianoworld article
  • The Cipher for Whole Tone or Janko Chromatic Keyboard
  • Intuitive instruments for improvisers Jankó keyboard
  • The Uniform Keyboard (contains many pictures of instruments with Jankó keyboards)
  • The Chromatone 312 (MIDI keyboard and synthesizer with Janko layout)
  • Mouse and PC Keyboard Music (Windows program) - try out Janko layouts with PC keyboard (similar layout of keys) - any tuning for the keys.
  • Piano vs. Accordions including 6+6(Janko) (Java Apps on Windows and Mac) - Try and compare many musical key layouts with vertically held keyboard.
  • Daskin Manufacturing (MIDI controller keyboards with Janko layout)
  • Wicki.org.uk, free UK site containing Java, Flash, and PC applications to enable users to play their alpha-numeric keyboard to sound 12 equal tempered pitches using Wicki/Hayden or Janko layout.
  • IsoKeys is a free application that provides a Jankó keyboard on touch-screen Android devices.
  • Hexiano is a free and open-source application that provides a Jankó keyboard on touch-screen Android devices.
  • Demo, Demonstration of the advantages of the Jankó Keyboard by Paul Vandervoort, considered to be the world's foremost player of the device. Program: "Kitten on the Keys" by Zez Confrey; explanation of the Janko note arrangement and advantages over a standard keyboard; demonstration of musical passages which are difficult or impossible to play on a standard keyboard; "C#-Major Prelude" from the Well-Tempered Clavier by J.S. Bach; Boogie-woogie rendition of "Bye Bye Blackbird".
  • [3] (A report on the Jankó keyboard shown at the 1893 Chicago Exposition)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.