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  • ^ Yeung, LY; Rudd, JA; Lam, WP; Mak, YT et al. (December 2009). "Mice are prone to kidney pathology after prolonged ketamine addiction".  
  • ^ Bell, RF (June 2012). "Ketamine for chronic noncancer pain: concerns regarding toxicity.". Current opinion in supportive and palliative care 6 (2): 183–7.  
  • ^ Hui, TW; Short, TG; Hong, W; Suen, T et al. (March 1995). "Additive interactions between propofol and ketamine when used for anesthesia induction in female atients".  
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  • ^ Akhavanakbari, G; Mohamadian, A; Entezariasl, M (April 2014). "Evaluation the effects of adding ketamine to morphine in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after orthopedic surgery". Perspectives in Clinical Research 5 (2): 85–7.  
  • ^ Eker, HE; Yalcin Cok, O; Aribogan, A; Arslan, G (October 2011). "Children on phenobarbital monotherapy requires more sedatives during MRI". Pediatric Anesthesia 21 (10): 998–1002.  
  • ^ Lankenau, SE; Sanders, B; Bloom, JJ; Hathazi, D et al. (March 2007). "First injection of ketamine among young injection drug users (IDUs) in three U.S. cities".  
  • ^ "Ketamine in Palliative Care". Palliative Care Guidelines. Edinburgh:  
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  • ^ a b Narita, M; Yoshizawa, K; Aoki, K; Takagi, M et al. (September 2001). "A putative sigma1 receptor antagonist NE-100 attenuates the discriminative stimulus effects of ketamine in rats".  
  • ^ Seeman, P; Guan, HC; Hirbec, H (August 2009). "Dopamine D2High receptors stimulated by phencyclidines, lysergic acid diethylamide, salvinorin A, and modafinil".  
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  • ^ Chen, X; Shu, S; Bayliss, DA (2009). "HCN1 channel subunits are a molecular substrate for hypnotic actions of ketamine".  
  • ^ Orser, BA; Pennefather, PS; MacDonald, JF (1997). "Multiple mechanisms of ketamine blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors".  
  • ^ Hirota, K; Lambert, DG (October 1996). "Ketamine: Its mechanism(s) of action and unusual clinical uses".  
  • ^ Browne, CA; Lucki, I (2013). "Antidepressant effects of ketamine: mechanisms underlying fast-acting novel antidepressants".  
  • ^ a b c d Aroni, F; Iacovidou, N; Dontas, I; Pourzitaki, C et al. (August 2009). "Pharmacological aspects and potential new clinical applications of ketamine: Reevaluation of an old drug". Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 49 (8): 957–64.  
  • ^ Rowland, LM (July 2005). "Subanesthetic ketamine: How it alters physiology and behavior in humans".  
  • ^ Meller, ST (December 1996). "Ketamine: Relief from chronic pain through actions at the NMDA receptor?".  
  • ^ a b Sinner, B; Graf, BM (2008). "Ketamine". In Schüttler, J; Schwilden, H. Modern Anesthetics. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 182. pp. 313–33.   doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74806-9_15. PMID: 18175098.
  • ^ a b c Li, JH; Vicknasingam, B; Cheung, YW; Zhou, W et al. (2011). "To use or not to use: An update on licit and illicit ketamine use". Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2 (1): 11–20.  
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  • ^ Krüger, AD (1998). "[Current aspects of using ketamine in childhood]". Anaesthesiologie und Reanimation (in Deutsch) 23 (3): 64–71.  
  • ^ a b c d Morris, H; Wallach, J (July 2014). "From PCP to MXE: A comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs".  
  • ^ Domino, EF (September 2010). "Taming the ketamine tiger".  
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  • ^ History of non-medical use in literature references:
    • Alltounian & Moore 1978
    • Palmer & Horowitz 2000
    • Kelly 2001
  • ^ Increased non-medical use references:
    • Awuonda, M (13 July 1996). "Swedes alarmed at ketamine misuse".  
    • Curran, HV; Morgan, C (April 2000). "Cognitive, dissociative and psychotogenic effects of ketamine in recreational users on the night of drug use and 3 days later".  
    • Gahlinger, PM (1 June 2004). "Club drugs: MDMA, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), Rohypnol, and ketamine".  
    • Jansen, KL (6 March 1993). "Non-medical use of ketamine".  
    • Joe-Laider & Hunt 2008
  • ^ a b Joe-Laidler, K; Hunt, G (1 June 2008). "Sit down to float: The cultural meaning of ketamine use in Hong Kong". Addiction Research & Theory 16 (3): 259–71.  
  • ^ Ketamine sold as "ecstasy" references:
    • Tanner-Smith, EE (July 2006). "Pharmacological content of tablets sold as "ecstasy": Results from an online testing service".  
    • Copeland, J; Dillon, P (2005). "The health and psycho-social consequences of ketamine use". International Journal of Drug Policy 16 (2): 122–31.  
    • Measham, Fiona; Parker, Howard; Aldridge, Judith (2001). Dancing on Drugs: Risk, Health and Hedonism in the British Club Scene. London:  
  • ^ Moore, K; Measham, F (2006). "Ketamine use: Minimising problems and maximising pleasure". Drugs and Alcohol Today 6 (3): 29–32.  
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  • ^ Legal status of ketamine in Canada references:
    • " (S.C.)". Justice Laws Website.  
    • "Order Amending Schedule I to the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act".  
    • "Status of ketamine under CDSA". Canadian Society of Customs Brokers. 2 May 2005. Retrieved 2 August 2014. 
  • ^ "Government to tighten control on Ketamine", (press release) ( 
  • ^ Ho Wai-kin, Victor (2011). Criminal Law in Hong Kong. Kluwer Law International. p. 33.  
  • ^ Chang, Rich (4 December 2012). "Ketamine to be made a class-two drug: Official".  
  • ^ "Ketamine drug brought under 'Schedule X' to curb abuse".  
  • ^ Deb Roy, Sumitra (30 December 2013). "Govt makes notorious 'date rape' drug ketamine harder to buy or sell".  
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  • ^ Krupitsky, EM; Grineko, AYa; Berkaliev, TN; Paley, AI et al. (1992). "The combination of psychedelic and aversive approaches in alcoholism treatment".  
  • ^ Krupitsky, EM; Grinenko, AY (1997). "Ketamine psychedelic therapy (KPT): A review of the results of ten years of research".  
  • ^ Krupitsky, Evgeny; Kolp, Eli. "Ch. 6: Ketamine Psychedelic Psychotherapy". In Winkelman, Michael J.; Roberts, Thomas B. Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogens as Treatments. Vol. 2. Westport, CT:  
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