World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Khandhaka

Article Id: WHEBN0011223805
Reproduction Date:

Title: Khandhaka  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Pāli Canon, Dhammasangani, Itivuttaka, Puggalapannatti, Udana
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Khandhaka

Khandhaka (Pali) is the second book of the Theravadin Vinaya Pitaka and includes the following two volumes:

Outline

The Mahavagga has 10 chapters:

  1. the first chapter is simply called the great chapter; it starts with a narrative beginning immediately after the Buddha's enlightenment and telling of the beginning of his preaching and foundation of the order of monks; it goes on to give rules on ordination and related matters
  2. the second deals with the recitation of the Patimokkha, which is to take place every half month (at new and full moons) wherever there is a quorum of four monks
  3. then comes provision for the retreat for three months in the rainy season, when monks are supposed to stay in one place except for specified reasons
  4. at the end of the retreat they must invite their colleagues to say if they have any criticisms of their behaviour
  5. the fifth chapter is called the chapter on hides and deals with various topics
  6. the next chapter is on medicines; a passage authorizing inhalation of smoke through a tube is used by some modern monks to justify smoking[1]
  7. the next chapter is called kathina, the process of making up robes, but is in fact about the exemptions granted monks from certain rules in consequence of this
  8. robe material
  9. a dispute between monks at Campa
  10. a dispute at Kosambi

The Cullavagga has 12 chapters:

  1. the first deals with various procedures to be followed in dealing with badly behaved monks
  2. the next deals with probation for monks guilty of certain offences (see Suttavibhanga)
  3. the next chapter deals with the case where a monk on probation commits a further offence
  4. explanation of the seven rules for settling disputes (see Suttavibhanga)
  5. minor matters
  6. lodgings
  7. schism; this chapter starts with the story of Devadatta, the Buddha's fellow clansman; he starts by inviting the elderly Buddha to retire and appoint him in his place; when this is refused he makes three attempts to assassinate the Buddha; when these fail he asks the Buddha to impose strict practices, including vegetarianism, on the monks; when this is refused he leads a schism
  8. observances; various duties
  9. a monk may suspend the recitation of the Patimokkha if another monk has an offence unconfessed
  10. nuns; the Buddha, after being asked seven times, finally agrees to establish an order of nuns, but warns that it will weaken the teaching and shorten its lifetime, and imposes some rules organizing nuns' orders (more on this can be found in the Pali Canon, most notably the Kunala Jataka; for the other side see Therigatha)
  11. shortly after the Buddha's death, Kassapa holds a council at which the teachings are recited; Upali answers questions on the vinaya and Ananda on the dhamma
  12. a century later a dispute arises on various points, mainly on the acceptance of gold and silver; another council is held which agrees on the stricter position, after receiving advice from an aged pupil of Ananda

Translations

  • Vinaya Texts, tr T. W. Rhys Davids & Hermann Oldenberg, Sacred Books of the East, volumes XIII, XVII & XX, Clarendon/Oxford, 1881-5; reprinted Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi (&? Dover, New York) Vol. XIII, Mahavagga I-IV, Vol. XVII, Mahavagga V-X, Kullavagga I-III, Vol. XX, Kullavagga IV-XII
  • The Book of the Discipline, volumes IV & V, tr I. B. Horner, 1951-2, Pali Text Society[1], Lancaster

Origins

According to tradition, the Khandhaka was compiled at the first council, mentioned in the text, with the account of the first council added at the second and that of the second at the third. Scholars do not take this literally, but differ as to how far they disagree with it. Professor Erich Frauwallner argued in 1956 that the original version of this book was compiled at the second council, and this theory is still taken seriously by many scholars. For further scholarly opinions see Vinaya Pitaka and Pali Canon.

See also

References

  1. ^ Richard Randell, Life as a Siamese Monk

External links

  • "Mahavagga (selected texts)", on www.accesstoinsight.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-14.
  • "Cullavagga (selected texts)", on www.accesstoinsight.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-14.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.