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Lebanon

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Title: Lebanon  
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Lebanon

wa_lnki_620" title="2013 Rugby League World Cup">2013 tournaments.[197] Lebanon also took part in the 2009 European Cup where, after narrowly failing to qualify for the final, the team defeated Ireland to finish 3rd in the tournament.[198]

Lebanon participates in Basketball. The Lebanese National Team qualified for the FIBA World Championship 3 times in a row.[199][200] Dominant Basketball teams in Lebanon are Sporting Al Riyadi Beirut,[201] who are the current Arab and Asian champions, Club Sagesse who were able to earn the Asian and Arab championships before. Fadi El Khatib is the most decorated player in the Lebanese National Basketball League.

Football is also one of the more popular sports in the country with the Lebanese Premier League, whose most successful clubs are the Al-Ansar Club and the Nejmeh SC, with notable players being Roda Antar and Youssef Mohamad, the first Arab to captain a European premier league team.

In recent years, Lebanon has hosted the AFC Asian Cup[202] and the Pan Arab Games.[203][204] Lebanon hosted the 2009 Jeux de la Francophonie[205] from 27 September to 6 October, and have participated in every Olympic Games since its independence, winning a total of four medals.[206]

Prominent Lebanese bodybuilders include Samir Bannout, Mohammad Bannout and Ahmad Haidar.

Education

Listed by the World Economic Forum’s 2013 Global Information Technology Report, Lebanon has been ranked globally as the fourth best country for math and science education, and as the tenth best overall for quality of education. In quality of management schools, the country was ranked 13th worldwide.[207]

The United Nations assigned Lebanon an education index of 0.871 in 2008. The index, which is determined by the adult literacy rate and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio, ranked the country 88th out of the 177 countries participating.[208]

All Lebanese schools are required to follow a prescribed curriculum designed by the Ministry of Education. Some of the 1400 private schools offer IB programs,[209] and may also add more courses to their curriculum with approval from the Ministry of Education. The first eight years of education are, by law, compulsory.[10]

Lebanon has forty-one nationally accredited universities, several of which are internationally recognized.[210][211] The American University of Beirut (AUB) and the Université Saint-Joseph (USJ) were the first Anglophone and the first Francophone universities to open in Lebanon, respectively.[212][213] Universities in

AUB College Hall in Beirut.

Lebanon, both public and private, largely operate in French or English.[214]

According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities's Excellence Rank, the top-ranking universities in the country are the American University of Beirut (951st worldwide), Université Saint Joseph de Beyrouth (2332nd), Lebanese American University (2630th), and the American University of Science and Technology (5080th).[215]

Health

In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 7.03% of the country's GDP. In 2009, there were 31.29 physicians and 19.71 nurses per 10,000 inhabitants.[216] The life expectancy at birth was 72.59 years in 2011, or 70.48 years for males and 74.80 years for females.[217]

By the end of the civil war, only one third of the country’s public hospitals were operational, each with an average of only 20 beds. By 2009 the country had 28 public hospitals, with a total of 2,550 beds.[218] At public hospitals, hospitalized uninsured patients pay 5% of the bill, in comparison with 15% in private hospitals, with the Ministry of Public Health reimbursing the remainder.[218] The Ministry of Public Health contracts with 138 private hospitals and 25 public hospitals.[219]

In 2011, there were 236,643 subsidized admissions to hospitals; 164,244 in private hospitals, and 72,399 in public hospitals. More patients visit private hospitals than public hospitals, because the private beds supply is higher.[219]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Republic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies. The phrase Lebanese Republic is a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Lebanese Arabic is the most common language spoken among the citizens of Lebanon.
  2. ^ 2005: Lebanese Communist Party; Gibran Tueni, Editor in Chief of "An Nahar" newspaper. 2006: Pierre Gemayel, Minister of Industry. 2007: Walid Eido, MP; Antoine Ghanim, MP.

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Bibliography

  • Morris, Benny (April 2008). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. Yale University Pres.  

Further reading

  • Arkadiusz, Plonka. L’idée de langue libanaise d’après Sa‘īd ‘Aql, Paris, Geuthner, 2004 (French) ISBN 2-7053-3739-3
  • Firzli, Nicola Y. Al-Baath wa-Lubnân [Arabic only] ("The Baath and Lebanon"). Beirut: Dar-al-Tali'a Books, 1973
  • Fisk, Robert. Pity the Nation: The Abduction of Lebanon. New York: Nation Books, 2002.
  • Glass, Charles, "Tribes with Flags: A Dangerous Passage Through the Chaos of the Middle East", Atlantic Monthly Press (New York) and Picador (London), 1990 ISBN 0-436-18130-4
  • Gorton, TJ and Feghali Gorton, AG. Lebanon: through Writers' Eyes. London: Eland Books, 2009.
  • Hitti Philip K. History of Syria Including Lebanon and Palestine, Vol. 2 (2002) (ISBN 1-931956-61-8)
  • Holst, Sanford. Phoenicians: Lebanon's Epic Heritage. Los Angeles: Cambridge and Boston Press, 2005.
  • Norton, Augustus R. Amal and the Shi'a: Struggle for the Soul of Lebanon. Austin and London: University of Texas Press, 1987.
  • Sobelman, Daniel. New Rules of the Game: Israel and Hizbollah After the Withdrawal From Lebanon, Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, Tel-Aviv University, 2004.
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • Salibi, Kamal. A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
  • Schlicht, Alfred. The role of Foreign Powers in the History of Syria and Lebanon 1799–1861 in: Journal of Asian History 14 (1982)

External links

  • Lebanon at DMOZ
  • Lebanese Republic official government portal
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