World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Legion of Ratu Adil

Article Id: WHEBN0029480082
Reproduction Date:

Title: Legion of Ratu Adil  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: APRA coup d'état, Indonesian National Revolution, Military history of Indonesia, Sultan Hamid II, Makassar Uprising
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Legion of Ratu Adil

Part of a series on the
Indonesia portal

The Legion of Ratu Adil, also known as Angkatan Perang Ratu Adil (APRA) or the Prince Justice Legion was a pro-Dutch militia and private army established during the Indonesian National Revolution. It was founded by the former KNIL Captain Raymond Westerling following his demobilization on January 15, 1949.[1] The militia's name was derived from a passage from the medieval Book of Prophecies of Jojo Boyo which prophesied the coming of a Ratu Adil or Prince Justice who would be of Turkish descent and come to save the people of Java and establish universal peace and justice. With his mixed Turkish heritage in mind, Westerling used the myth of Prince Justice to create a following.[2]

Westerling sought to preserve the component states of the federal Republic of the United States of Indonesia against what he perceived as the Javanese-dominated unitary Republic of Indonesia led by Sukarno and Hatta.[3] APRA was recruited from several anti-Republican factions including former Republican guerillas, Darul Islam, Ambonese, Malays, Minahasa, demobilized KNIL, Regiment Special Forces and Royal Netherlands Army personnel.[4] By 1950, APRA had evolved from a series of rural self-defense units into a 2,000-strong fighting force.[5] Unhappy with the growing influence of Sukarno's government, Westerling conspired with the federalist Sultan of Pontianak Hamid II to launch a coup in January 1950.[6]

On 23 January 1950, APRA launched a coup d’état against the Republican government. While the Legion managed to temporarily occupy Bandung, they failed to occupy Jakarta. Raymond Westerling had planned to overthrow the RUSI Cabinet and assassinate several prominent Republican figures including the Defense Minister Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and Secretary-General Ali Budiardjo. The coup's failure demoralized the Legion's belief in Westerling and he was forced to flee to Singapore. Without a strong leader, APRA had ceased to function by February 1950.[6] APRA's actions led to the incarceration of Hamid II and accelerated the dissolution of the federal United States of Indonesia on 17 August 1950, turning Indonesia into a unitary state dominated by the central government in Jakarta.[7]


  1. ^ Westerling (1952), p. 146
  2. ^ Westerling (1952), p. 154-56
  3. ^ Westerling (1952), p. 151
  4. ^ Westerling (1952), p. 152
  5. ^ Westerling (1952), p. 153
  6. ^ a b Kahin (1952), p. 454-56
  7. ^ Kahin (1952), p. 456


Further reading

  • Venner, Dominique (1977). Westerling: Guérilla Story. Paris: Hachette. ISBN 2-01-002908-9 ISBN 9782010029080. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.