World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Leonard Wood

Article Id: WHEBN0000191813
Reproduction Date:

Title: Leonard Wood  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Rough Riders, United States presidential election, 1920, United States Aeronautical Reserve, 1920 Republican National Convention, Henry L. Stimson
Collection: 1860 Births, 1927 Deaths, American Colonial Period of the Philippines, American Expatriates in the Philippines, American Indian Wars Recipients of the Medal of Honor, American Military Personnel of the Philippine–american War, American Military Personnel of the Spanish–american War, American Military Physicians, American People of English Descent, American Physicians, Burials at Arlington National Cemetery, Cancer Deaths in Massachusetts, Colonial Heads of Cuba, Cuba–united States Relations, Deaths from Brain Tumor, Deaths from Neurological Disease, Georgia Institute of Technology Alumni, Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets Football Coaches, Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets Football Players, Governors-General of the Philippines, Harvard Medical School Alumni, People from Boston, Massachusetts, People from Cheshire County, New Hampshire, People from Fort Huachuca, Arizona, Physicians to the President, Politicians from Boston, Massachusetts, Rough Riders, United States Army Chiefs of Staff, United States Army Generals of World War I, United States Army Medal of Honor Recipients, United States Presidential Candidates, 1916, United States Presidential Candidates, 1920
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Leonard Wood

Leonard Wood
Brigadier General Leonard Wood in 1903
Born (1860-10-09)October 9, 1860
Winchester, New Hampshire
Died August 7, 1927(1927-08-07) (aged 66)
Boston, Massachusetts
Place of burial Arlington National Cemetery
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch  United States Army
Years of service 1886–1921
Rank Major General
Commands held 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry
Department of the East
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
Battles/wars Apache Wars
Spanish–American War
Philippine–American War
Awards Medal of Honor
Army Distinguished Service Medal
Spouse(s) Louise A. Condit Smith[1]
Other work Governor General of Cuba

Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Military Governor of Cuba, and Governor General of the Philippines. Early in his military career, he received the Medal of Honor. Wood also holds officer service #2 in the Regular Army (John Pershing holds officer service #1). He became a prominent Republican Party leader and a candidate for the 1920 presidential nomination. He served as civilian Governor General in the Philippines in the 1920s, where he fought with local leaders.


  • Biography 1
    • Early life and career 1.1
    • Spanish–American War 1.2
    • Philippine–American War 1.3
    • Army Chief of Staff 1.4
    • World War I 1.5
    • Republican politics 1.6
    • Governor General of the Philippines 1.7
    • Death 1.8
  • Legacy 2
  • Military awards 3
    • Medal of Honor citation 3.1
  • Dates of Rank 4
  • Head coaching record 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Additional sources 8


Early life and career

Born in Winchester, New Hampshire to Charles Jewett Wood (1829–1880) and Caroline E. (Hagar) Wood (1836–1910), he attended Pierce Academy in Middleborough, Massachusetts and Harvard Medical School, earning an M.D. degree in 1884 as an intern at Boston City Hospital. Leonard Wood was of English descent, and was descended from four Mayflower passengers including William White, Francis Cooke, Stephen Hopkins and Richard Warren; all four of whom signed the Mayflower Compact.[2] He was married to Louise Adriana Condit Smith (1869–1943), of Washington, on November 18, 1890.[1]

He took a position as an Army contract surgeon in January 1886, and was stationed with the 4th Cavalry at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. Wood participated in the last campaign against Geronimo in 1886, and was awarded the Medal of Honor for carrying dispatches 100 miles through hostile territory and for commanding a detachment of the 8th Infantry (whose officers had been lost) in hand-to-hand combat against the Apache. He received the rank of captain in 1891.

While stationed at

Military offices
Preceded by
John R. Brooke
Military Governor of Cuba
Succeeded by
Preceded by
J. Franklin Bell
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
Succeeded by
William W. Wotherspoon
Political offices
Preceded by
Charles Yeater
Governor-General of the Philippines
Succeeded by
Eugene Allen Gilmore
  • Hermann Hagedorn, Leonard Wood, a Biography, 2 vols., 1931
  • Lane, Jack C. Armed Progressive: General Leonard Wood (2009)
  • Jack McCallum, Leonard Wood: Rough Rider, Surgeon, Architect of American Imperialism (2005)

Additional sources

  1. ^ a b c
  2. ^ Leonard Wood by Eric Fisher Wood, 1920, page 22
  3. ^
  4. ^ Jack C. Lane. "Wood, Leonard"; American National Biography Online (2000)
  5. ^ EVIDENCE IN WOOD CASE: Major Runcie Tells of Magazine Article Attacking General Brooke: WRITTEN AT WOOD'S REQUEST: Article Exploited His Success at Santiago and Spoke Unfavorably of General Brooke's Administration of Havana, published November 28, 1903, in the Daily Star (via Google News)
  6. ^ New York Times. July 5, 1916.
  7. ^ Also see
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ Leonard Wood at Find a Grave


See also

Year Team Overall Conference Standing Bowl/playoffs
Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets (Independent) (1893)
1893 Georgia Tech 2–1–1
Georgia Tech: 2–1–1
Total: 2–1–1

Head coaching record

Rank Date Component
Assistant Surgeon 5 January 1886 Regular Army
Surgeon 5 January 1891 Regular Army
Colonel 8 May 1898 Volunteers
Brigadier General 8 July 1898 Volunteers
Major General 7 December 1898 Volunteers
Brigadier General 13 April 1899 Volunteers
Major General 5 December 1899 Volunteers
Brigadier General 4 February 1901 Regular Army
Major General 8 August 1903 Regular Army

Dates of Rank

Voluntarily carried dispatches through a region inhabited by hostile Indians, making a journey of 70 miles in one night and walking 30 miles the next day. Also for several weeks, while in close pursuit of Geronimo's band and constantly expecting an encounter, commanded a detachment of Infantry, which was then without an officer, and to the command of which he was assigned upon his own request.

Medal of Honor citation

Military awards

He is portrayed favorably in the 1997 miniseries Rough Riders by actor and retired United States Marine Dale Dye, but portrayed in a less favorable light by Mark Twain and others for his part in the First Battle of Bud Dajo in 1906.

For a brief period of time, Guadalupe County, New Mexico, was named after Wood. After a few years it was changed back to Guadalupe.

One of the US Navy's Harris-class attack transports, the USS Leonard Wood (APA-12), bears Gen. Wood's name. Numerous streets are named after Wood, including roads in Baguio City and Zamboanga City, Philippines A Public Elementary School in Barangay Jagobiao, Mandaue City, Philippines (inside Eversley Childs Sanitarium compound) was also named after him.

Camp Leonard Wood in Missouri, now Fort Leonard Wood, home of the United States Army Combat Engineer School, Chemical School, and Military Police School, were named in his honor. Ft. Leonard Wood is also a major TRADOC post for Basic Combat Training (BCT), home of the 10th Infantry Regiment (Basic Training).


He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.[12][13] His brain is held at the Yale University School of Medicine as part of an historic collection of Harvey Cushing's patients' preserved brains.

Wood died in Boston, Massachusetts after undergoing surgery for a recurrent brain tumor. He had initially been diagnosed in 1910 with a benign meningioma brought on by exposure to experimental weapons refuse. This was resected by Harvey Cushing at that time, and Wood made a full recovery until the tumor later recurred. The successful removal of Wood's brain tumor represented an important milestone, indicating to the public the advances that had been made in the nascent field of neurosurgery, and extending Wood's life by almost two decades.[11]


The tension became more heightened by 1923, precipitated by the issue regarding Wood's interference in the case of Ray Conley, a Manila Police detective who was accused of immorality and misconduct in office. Interior Secretary Jose P. Laurel sought for Conley's removal from service due to probable cause but Wood ordered Laurel that Conley be reinstated to the police force. In protest, Laurel tendered his resignation.[9] The Filipino members of the Wood cabinet, including the Council of State, tendered their resignations as well in support of Laurel and in protest of Wood's handling of government affairs in the country. These events would become known as the "Cabinet Crisis of 1923," effectively straining relations between the U.S. colonial government under Wood and the Filipino leaders that would last until his death in 1927.[10]

His tenure as was characterized with marked tension between him and key Filipino officials. In his first year, Wood vetoed 16 measures passed by the Philippine legislature, an act denounced by critics as a "misuse of the veto power," citing that his predecessor, Francis Burton Harrison, only vetoed 5 measures.[8]

He retired from the U.S. Army in 1921, after which he was appointed as Governor General of the Philippines later that year.[7]

Governor General of the Philippines

Among the reasons that he did not become the candidate were several strong rivals for the nomination, his political inexperience, and the strong support he gave to the Red Scare, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer's campaign against Bolsheviks and anarchists. After the major candidates deadlocked, the nomination went to U.S. Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio.

Wood was an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the election of 1920. He was urged into running by the family and supporters of his old friend Theodore Roosevelt, who himself had been considering another campaign before his illness and death in 1919. He won the New Hampshire primary that year but lost at the convention.

Republican politics

With the US entry into World War I in April 1917, Wood was recommended by Republicans, in particular Henry Cabot Lodge, to be the U.S. field commander; however, War Secretary Newton Baker instead appointed John J. Pershing, amid much controversy. During the war, Wood was, instead, put in charge of the training of the 10th and 89th Divisions, both at Camp Funston.

On July 4, 1916 Wood was elected as an honorary member of the Rhode Island Society of the Cincinnati.[6]

In 1914, Wood was replaced as Chief of Staff by William Wotherspoon. Wood was a strong advocate of the Preparedness Movement, led by Republicans, which alienated him from President Wilson. In 1915, he published The Military Obligation of Citizenship.

Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood in later years

World War I

Wood had known Theodore Roosevelt well before the Spanish–American War. Wood was named Army Chief of Staff in 1910 by President Taft, whom he had met while both were in the Philippines; he remains the only medical officer to have ever held that position. As Chief of Staff, Wood implemented several programs, among which were the forerunner of the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) program, and the Preparedness Movement, a campaign for universal military training and wartime conscription. The Preparedness Movement plan was scrapped in favor of the Selective Service System, shortly before World War I. He developed the Mobile Army, thus laying the groundwork for American success in World War I.

Army Chief of Staff

In 1902, he proceeded to the Philippines, where he commanded the Philippines Division and later became commander of the Department of the East. He was promoted to major general in 1903 despite significant opposition,[5] and served as governor of Moro province, a stronghold of Muslim rebellion, from 1903 to 1906. He received criticism for his handling of the battle at First Battle of Bud Dajo.

Philippine–American War

After San Juan, Wood led the 2nd Cavalry Brigade for the rest of the war; he stayed in Cuba after the war and was appointed the Military Governor of Santiago in 1898, and of Cuba from 1899–1902. In that capacity, he relied on his medical experience to institute improvements to the medical and sanitary conditions in Cuba. He introduced numerous reforms similar to those of the Progressive Movement in the U.S.[4] He was promoted to brigadier general of regulars shortly before moving to his next assignment.

General Joe Wheeler with the command group of the 1st US Volunteer Regiment, the "Rough Riders" in Tampa—Col Wood is 2nd from right with Lt Col Roosevelt far right.

Wood was personal physician to Presidents Rough Riders. Wood commanded the regiment in a successful engagement known as the Battle of Las Guasimas. When the brigade commander, Samuel B. M. Young, became ill, Wood received a field promotion to brigadier general of volunteers and assumed command of the 2nd Brigade, Cavalry Division, Fifth Army Corps (which included the Rough Riders) and led the brigade to a famous victory at Kettle Hill and San Juan Heights.

Spanish–American War

[1] by Harvard in 1899.LL.D. He was awarded an [3]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.