List of conservative feminisms

Some feminisms are considered more conservative than others.[1][2][3]

Because almost any feminism can have a conservative element, this list does not attempt to list feminisms simply with conservative elements. Instead, this list is of feminisms that are primarily conservative.

Contents

  • List 1
  • See also 2
  • Notes 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5

List

This list may include organizations or individuals where a conservative feminism is more readily identified that way, but is primarily a list of feminisms per se. Generally, organizations and people related to a feminism should not be in this list but should be found by following links to articles about various feminisms with which such organizations and people are associated.

  • backlash feminism: see new conservative feminism in this list
  • balanced feminism: see right-wing feminism in this list
  • conservative feminism (in addition to various feminisms in this list and that are conservative):
    • Katherine Kersten objects "that in many of their endeavors women continue to face greater obstacles to their success than men do",[4] thus acknowledging that sexism exists,[5] and does not reject feminism entirely but draws on a classical feminist tradition and draws on, e.g., Margaret Fuller.[6] Kersten advocates for conservative feminism based on equality and justice defined alike for women and men and acknowledgment of historical and present injustice suffered by women.[6] She also advocates building on Western ideals and institutions, with reform pursued slowly and cautiously and accepting that human failings mean that perfection is unattainable.[6] Her concerns include crime and violence against women, cultural popular media's degradation of women, noncommittal sex, and poverty's feminization,[6] but opposing affirmative action and class action litigation.[7]
    • Sarah Palin "made her case for conservative feminism" in 2010, at a meeting of the Susan B. Anthony List.[8]
    • Richard A. Posner "suggest[s]" "'conservative feminism' .... is ... the idea that women are entitled to political, legal, social, and economic equality to men, in the framework of a lightly regulated market economy."[9] Posner tentatively argues for taxing housewives' at-home unpaid work to reduce a barrier to paid outside work[10] (argued by D. Kelly Weisberg to be rooted in a Marxist feminist argument for waged housework)[11] and argues for sex being a factor in setting wages and benefits in accordance with productivity, health costs with pregnancy, on-the-job safety, and longevity for pensions.[12] Posner is against comparable worth among private employers,[13] against no-fault divorce,[14] for surrogate motherhood by binding contract,[15] against rape even in the form of nonviolent sex,[16] and for a possibility that pornography may either incite rape or substitute for it.[17] Posner does not argue for or against an abortion right, arguing instead for a possibility but not a certainty that the fetus is "a member of society"[18] because libertarianism and economics do not say one way or the other.[19][1][2][3][4] Posner argues that the differences between the genders on average include women's lesser aggressiveness and greater child-centeredness[20] and has "no quarrel" with law being empathetic to "all marginal groups".[21]
  • domestic feminism: see old conservative feminism in this list
  • equity feminism
  • individualist feminism was cast to appeal to "younger women ... of a more conservative generation"[22] and includes concepts from Rene Denfeld and Naomi Wolf, essentially that "feminism should no longer be about communal solutions to communal problems but individual solutions to individual problems",[22] and concepts from Wendy McElroy
  • Evangelical Protestant Christian profeminism ("Karen .... articulates the Evangelical [Protestant] profeminist position particularly well. Like profeminist Catholics and Jews, she feels that the women's liberation movement was a necessary response to the oppression of women. She praises the achievements of feminism in society as well as in Evangelical communities and insists that sexism persists and that further changes are necessary. Yet Karen, too, criticizes the movement for seeking to eliminate gender differences, devaluing motherhood and homemaking, and being led by extremists who do not represent ordinary American women, particularly with respect to the issues of homosexuality and abortion. Her comments on the latter two issues ... resemble ... closely the statements made by antifeminist Evangelicals.")[23]
  • National Woman's Party, in the U.S., was led by Alice Paul, described as "[articulating a] narrow and conservative version of feminism".[24]
  • new conservative feminism,[25] or backlash feminism,[5] is arguably antifeminist[26] and is represented by Betty Friedan in The Second Stage and Jean Bethke Elshtain in Public Man, Private Woman and anticipated by Alice Rossi, A Biosocial Perspective on Parenting.[27] These authors do not necessarily agree with each other on all major points.[28] According to Judith Stacey,[29] new conservative feminism rejects the politicization of sexuality, supports families, gender differentiation, femininity, and mothering, and deprioritizes opposition to male domination.
  • old conservative feminism or domestic feminism, from the 19th century[30]
  • postfeminism
  • right-wing feminism,[31] or balanced feminism,[32] includes the work of Independent Women's Forum, Feminists for Life of America, and ifeminists.net headed by Wendy McElroy. It generally draws on principles of first-wave feminism[33] and against both postfeminism and academic or radical feminism,[34] the latter being defined to include left and progressive politics, not only feminism based on gender oppression.[35] Right-wing feminism supports both motherhood and women having careers[36] and both individuality and biological determinism;[37] it accepts gender equality in careers while believing that numerical equality will naturally not occur in all occupations.[38]
  • state feminism
  • Womansurge: see Women's Equity Action League in this list
  • [41]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Adam Smith, pioneer of political economy and philosopher in the 18th century
  2. ^ John Stuart Mill, philosopher and political economist in the 19th century
  3. ^ Herbert Spencer, political theorist and philosopher in the Victorian era
  4. ^ Milton Friedman, economist in the 20th century
  5. ^ This is apparently not entirely the backlash written about by feminist author Susan Faludi.

References

  1. ^  
  2. ^  
  3. ^ Bradley, Allan (27 June 2010). "Conservative feminism: oxymoron?". Harvard Political Review | HPRgument (blog) | (Undergraduate publication of Harvard University). Retrieved 20 February 2011. Internal contradictions aside, conservative feminism is not particularly new, and it is a mistake to call it an oxymoron. It is deeply religious, of course, and it views the anti-abortion fight as one of female empowerment. The argument is simply that as women – as the motherly and feminine forces guiding our nation’s ethical compass – it is a feminine duty to defend life at its earliest stages. Women are empowered by the defense itself. This cultural theory may be out of date in Cambridge, Massachusetts, but it is at the heart of Palin’s sizeable and passionate following. And it is, in its own way, a feminist argument. 
  4. ^ Dillard, Angela D., , vol. 42, no. 3, Mar./Apr., 2005Society, in Adventures in Conservative Feminism, as accessed Feb. 20, 2011, & Apr. 5–9, 2012, p. 25 (seen via Academic Source Premier (EBSCOhost), as accessed Apr. 5, 2012) (DOI 10.1007/BF02802982) (author assoc. prof. history & politics, Gallatin Sch. of Individualized Study, NYU), citing Kersten, Katherine, What Do Women Want?: A Conservative Feminists Manifesto. (sic), in Policy Review (1991).
  5. ^ Dillard, Angela D., Adventures in Conservative Feminism, op. cit., pp. 25 & 26.
  6. ^ a b c d Dillard, Angela D., Adventures in Conservative Feminism, op. cit., p. 26 (on abortion rights, see p. 27).
  7. ^ Dillard, Angela D., Adventures in Conservative Feminism, op. cit., p. 27.
  8. ^ USA / Politics, May 14, 2010, sec. The Christian Science Monitor, in Sarah Palin - Feminist First, Tea Partyer SecondFeldmann, Linda, , as accessed Feb. 20, 2011 (author staff writer).
  9. ^ Both quotations: Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, in The University of Chicago Legal Forum (ISSN 0892-5593), vol. 1989, pp. 191–192 (author judge, U.S. Court of Appeals, 7th Circuit, & sr. lecturer, Univ. of Chicago Law School).
    Latter quotation from "the idea" to end: Weisberg, D. Kelly, ed., Feminist Legal Theory: Foundations (Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press, 1993 (ISBN 1-56639-029-X)), p. 7 and see pp. 6–8 (Pt. 1: The Elements of Feminist Legal Theory (Introduction)) (attributing quotation to Richard A. Posner), and pp. 99–117 (apparently excerpting Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism (attributing to 1989 U. Chi. Legal F. 191)) (ed. Weisberg prof. law Hastings College of the Law in San Francisco).
  10. ^ Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, op. cit., pp. 192–193 and see pp. 193–194.
    See also Weisberg, D. Kelly, ed., Feminist Legal Theory, op. cit., p. 7 (without the rationale about reducing a barrier).
  11. ^ Weisberg, D. Kelly, ed., Feminist Legal Theory, op. cit., p. 7.
  12. ^ Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, op. cit., pp. 195–197.
  13. ^ Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, op. cit., pp. 202–203.
  14. ^ Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, op. cit., p. 204 n. 22.
  15. ^ Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, op. cit., pp. 205–206.
  16. ^ Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, op. cit., pp. 206–207 and see p. 203 (date and marital rape).
  17. ^ Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, op. cit., p. 207.
  18. ^ Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, op. cit., p. 208 and see pp. 207–209.
  19. ^ Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, op. cit., p. 208 (libertarians being "conservatives in the classical liberal tradition of Adam Smith, John Stuart Mill ..., Herbert Spencer ... and Milton Friedman", per id., p. 191.
  20. ^ Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, op. cit., p. 215.
  21. ^ Both quotations: Posner, Richard A., Conservative Feminism, op. cit., p. 217.
  22. ^ a b Siegel, Deborah, Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to Grrls Gone Wild (N.Y.: Palgrave Macmillan, 1st ed. 2007 (ISBN 978-1-4039-8204-9)), p. 123 and see pp. 122–124 & nn. 32–34 (author Ph.D., writer & consultant on women's issues, & fellow, Woodhull Institute for Ethical Leadership).
  23. ^ Manning, Christel J., God Gave Us the Right: Conservative Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, and Orthodox Jewish Women Grapple with Feminism (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1999 (ISBN 0-8135-2599-3)), p. 190 (author asst. prof. religious studies, Sacred Heart Univ., Fairfield, Conn.).
  24. ^ Echols, Alice, Daring to Be Bad: Radical Feminism in America: 1967–1975 (Minneapolis, Minn.: Univ. of Minn. Press (American Culture ser.), 1989 (ISBN 0-8166-1787-2)), p. 12 (author then visiting asst. prof. history, Univ. of Ariz. at Tucson).
  25. ^ Stacey, Judith, The New Conservative Feminism, in Feminist Studies, vol. 9, no. 3 (Autumn, 1983), p. 559.
  26. ^ Stacey, Judith, The New Conservative Feminism, op. cit., p. 574.
  27. ^ Rossi, Alice, A Biosocial Perspective on Parenting, in Daedalus 106 (special issue on the family, Spring, 1977), as cited in Stacey, Judith, The New Conservative Feminism, op. cit., p. [559] n. 3.
  28. ^ Stacey, Judith, The New Conservative Feminism, op. cit., pp. 562 & 567–568.
  29. ^ Stacey, Judith, The New Conservative Feminism, op. cit., pp. 561–562.
  30. ^ Stacey, Judith, The New Conservative Feminism, op. cit., p. 575 & n. 53, citing, e.g., Epstein, Barbara Leslie, The Politics of Domesticity: Women, Evangelism, and Temperance in Nineteenth-Century America (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1981), Sklar, Kathryn Kish, Catharine Beecher: A Study in American Domesticity (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1973), & DuBois, Ellen Carol, Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women's Movement in America, 1848–1869 (Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1978).
  31. ^ Bailey, Courtney, 'Taking Back the Campus': Right-Wing Feminism as the 'Middle Ground' , in Feminist Teacher, vol. 16, no. 3 (2006), p. 173.
  32. ^ Bailey, Courtney, 'Taking Back the Campus' , op. cit., p. 175.
  33. ^ Bailey, Courtney, 'Taking Back the Campus' , op. cit., p. 177.
  34. ^ Bailey, Courtney, 'Taking Back the Campus' , op. cit., esp. p. 176.
  35. ^ Bailey, Courtney, 'Taking Back the Campus' , op. cit., p. 174 n. 3.
  36. ^ Bailey, Courtney, 'Taking Back the Campus' , op. cit., pp. 180–181.
  37. ^ Bailey, Courtney, 'Taking Back the Campus' , op. cit., pp. 181–182.
  38. ^ Bailey, Courtney, 'Taking Back the Campus' , op. cit., p. 182.
  39. ^ a b Castro, Ginette, trans. Elizabeth Loverde-Bagwell, American Feminism: A Contemporary History (N.Y.: N.Y. Univ. Press, 1990 (ISBN 0-8147-1448-X)), p. 62 and see pp. 216–218 (trans. from Radioscopie du féminisme américain (Paris, France: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, 1984) (French)) (author prof. Eng. lang. & culture, Univ. of Bordeaux III, France).
  40. ^ a b c d Siegel, Deborah, Sisterhood, Interrupted: From Radical Women to Grrls Gone Wild, op. cit., p. 83.
  41. ^ Castro, Ginette, trans. Elizabeth Loverde-Bagwell, American Feminism, op. cit., p. 176 ("new feminism" probably the author's term not referring to the new feminism related to Roman Catholicism but perhaps to second-wave feminism generally) (fragmentation prob. referring to late 1960s–early 1970s in U.S.).

Further reading

Books

  • Dworkin, Andrea, Right-Wing Women: The Politics of Domesticated Females (N.Y.: Coward-McCann (also Wideview/Perigee Book), 1983)
  • Young, Cathy, Ceasefire!: Why Women and Men Must Join Forces to Achieve True Equality (N.Y.: Free Press, 1999 (ISBN 0-684-83442-1)); she argues for a "philosophy" (id., p. 10 (Introduction: The Gender Wars)) and "do[es]n't know if this philosophy should be called feminism or something else" (id., p. 11 (Introduction))

Articles

Blogs

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.