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List of driverless trains

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List of driverless trains

The London Underground Victoria Line, which opened in 1967, can be considered the first line operated with driverless trains. Many lines now operate with driverless trains, with the aim of reducing the operational costs and improving the frequency of service.

This list focuses heavily on trains in the classical sense used for large-scale metros and railways but does include a few people mover systems.

The list is ordered in descending order to the degree of how automatized the train is.

  • In an Unattended Train Operation (UTO) system like the Copenhagen Metro, the trains run automatically at all times, handle door closing, obstacle detection and emergency situations, without any regulatory requirement of staff present in the trains.
  • In a driverless system like London Docklands Light Railway, the trains run automatically from station to station but a human Passenger Service Agent is always present somewhere in the train, with responsibility for door closing and handling of emergency situations.
  • In a system with ATO like London Underground Victoria Line, the trains run automatically from station to station but a human train driver is always present in the front of the train, with responsibility for door closing, obstacle detection on the track before the train and handling of emergency situations.

Unattended Train Operation (UTO - completely driverless) systems and lines (Grade of Automation 4)

Europe

  • Italy Turin Metro Line M1 - VAL type system - opened in section 1 on 4 February 2006 for the Turin 2006 Winter Olympics Games. First fully automatized metro in Italy.
  • South Africa Paris Metro Line 150000
  • France Paris Métro Line 1 - Driverless system started to operate in mixed mode (driven train and driverless train) on 3 November 2011. Last manually driven train will be removed by end of 2012 - Siemens CBTC
  • France Lille Metro - inaugurated on 25 April 1983, the first using the VAL type system.
  • France Lyon Metro Line D Rubber-tyred trains run automatically with no driver on board, controlled by a system known as MAGGALY (Métro Automatique à Grand Gabarit de l’Agglomération Lyonnaise). - Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
  • Germany Nuremberg U-Bahn - U3 and U2 lines. Many (but not all) trains have a train captain on board.

North America

South America

  • Brazil São Paulo Metro Future Line 6 - Orange

Asia

  • South Korea Korea - BusanBusan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit

Staffed driverless systems and lines (Grade of Automation 3)

  • United Kingdom London Docklands Light Railway opened 1987 (driverless but Passenger Service Agents board at stations to check that all mechanics are running smoothly).

Systems and lines with ATO and human driver (Grade of Automation 2)

Europe

  • France Paris Métro Line 2 Low level ATO systems managing speed of the trains in the tunnel sections.
  • France Paris Métro Line 3 OCTYS system provides ATP and high level ATO with mobile block system - Siemens CBTC
  • France Paris Métro Line 4 Low level ATO systems managing speed of the trains in the tunnel sections.
  • France Paris Métro Line 5 Low level ATO systems managing speed of the trains in the tunnel sections. (OCTYS system planned for 2013)
  • France Paris Métro Line 6 Low level ATO systems managing speed of the trains in the tunnel sections.
  • France Paris Métro Line 7 Low level ATO systems managing speed of the trains in the tunnel sections.
  • France Paris Métro Line 8 Low level ATO systems managing speed of the trains in the tunnel sections.
  • France Paris Métro Line 9 Low level ATO systems managing speed of the trains in the tunnel sections. (OCTYS system planned for 2015)
  • France Paris Métro Line 11 Low level ATO systems managing speed of the trains in the tunnel sections.
  • France Paris Métro Line 12 Low level ATO systems managing speed of the trains in the tunnel sections.
  • France Paris Métro Line 13 Low level ATO systems managing speed of the trains in the tunnel sections.
  • France RER line A - Utilizes the SACEM system which remains today one of the world's most advanced traffic control systems and enables extremely short spacing (under 90 seconds in stations, under 2 minutes in tunnels) between trains during rush hour.
  • United Kingdom London's Victoria Line opened 1967 (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors and presses twin start buttons, but does not normally drive the trains).
  • United Kingdom London's Central Line converted to automated operation in the mid-1990s (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors monitors the train and fixes faults on board. Drivers drive the trains on Sundays and Bank holidays. All shunt moves are made by the drivers and whenever the train stops for fail safe reasons such as excess wheel spin or sliding the driver takes over; at other times trains are computer driven).
  • United Kingdom London's Jubilee Line converted to automated operation in 2011 (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors).[1]
  • United Kingdom London's Northern Line converted in 2012 (a driver operates the doors and presses buttons to start the train).
  • United Kingdom Glasgow Subway uses driverless trains on its line. The driver checks the way is clear and operates the doors.
  • Germany Munich U-Bahn (driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated; a fully driverless turning at terminus stations is planned)
  • Austria Vienna U-Bahn (uses the same system as Munich)
  • Hungary Budapest Line 3 - converted to automated operation in 1990 (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors)
  • Spain Barcelona Metro line 1
  • Spain Barcelona Metro line 2
  • Spain Barcelona Metro line 3
  • Spain Barcelona Metro line 5
  • Spain Madrid Metro Line 1 - Bombardier CBTC
  • Spain Madrid Metro Line 3
  • Spain Madrid Metro Line 4
  • Spain Madrid Metro Line 5
  • Spain Madrid Metro Line 6 - Bombardier CBTC
  • Spain Madrid Metro Line 7 - Invensys CBTC
  • Spain Madrid Metro Line 8
  • Spain Madrid Metro Line 9
  • Spain Madrid Metro Line 10
  • Spain Madrid Metro Line 11
  • Spain Madrid Metro Line 12
  • Spain Madrid Metro Branch line
  • Russia Saint Petersburg Metro Line 2 - system "Dvizhenie"
  • Russia Kazan Metro - system "Dvizhenie"
  • Turkey Ankara Metro Uses a modified version of Toronto subway's H6 subway model made by Bombardier Transportation and configured for driverless operation.
  • Sweden Stockholm Metro Green Line (Lines T17, T18 and T19)
  • Sweden Stockholm Metro Red Line (Lines T13 and T14) will begin ATO operation in 2014 - Ansaldo STS CBTC
  • Finland Helsinki Metro (including Länsimetro/Västmetron extension) will begin ATO operation in 2013 - Siemens CBTC
  • Italy Milan Metro Line 3

North America

  • Canada Vancouver SkyTrain is the world's longest and oldest fully automated advanced rapid transit systems. Its first revenue line, the Expo Line opened in December 1985, and has since been extended six times, including three small extensions to the original service line in 1989, 1990, and 1994, and three additional lines in 2001, 2009, and now 2016. SkyTrain has used a full ATC system since 1985 that is fully automated and driven under computer control from a centralized office. Trains can be manually driven by SkyTrain attendants during emergencies and computer failures.
  • Canada Montreal Metro Line 1 Green, Line 2 Orange and Line 5 Blue, opened in 1966 (Lines 1 and 2) and 1986 (Line 5), operates in ATO mode introduced since 1976. A member of staff closes the train doors (doors are usually opened automatically unless the driver requests otherwise) but does not normally drive the trains.
  • Canada Toronto Subway and RT is expected to have ATC/ATO implemented on the Yonge–University–Spadina Line and the Bloor–Danforth Line by 2016 and 2020 respectively. The Scarborough RT, which uses the same trains as the Vancouver SkyTrain and the Detroit People Mover, already runs on an ATC/ATO system.
  • United States Bay Area Rapid Transit in San Francisco opened in 1972. (A member of staff closes the train doors but does not normally drive the trains).
  • United States PATCO Speedline between Philadelphia and New Jersey operates in automated mode since 1969, but can be overridden by a staff member.
  • United States Washington Metro has an automated mode, where the driver is responsible for opening and closing of doors and of overriding the system. However, the system has been operating in manual mode since the June 2009 Washington Metro train collision, and plans are to operate in manual mode until newer railcars are delivered.[2]
  • United States New York City Subway BMT Canarsie Line L train is to begin full-fledged Automatic train operation in early 2012 - Siemens CBTC[3][4]
  • United States San Francisco Muni Metro light rail trains switch to automatic control while operating in the Market Street Subway and in the Twin Peaks Tunnel. The operator manages the doors in-station and pilots the vehicle when running aboveground.

Latin America

  • Brazil CPTM lines 7, 10 and 12
  • Alstom Urbalis

Caribbean

  • Puerto Rico Tren Urbano - the entire system is fully automated, but can be over-ridden. Substations providing the power are remotely controlled from an operational control centre.

Asia

Africa

Future system and lines

  • China Wuxi Metro Line 1 & Line 2 - by Alstom Urbalis
  • Macau Macau - driverless elevated lightrail
  • Australia Pilbara iron ore trains from Roy Hill.
  • Brazil São Paulo Line 4 opened in 2010 between the stations Paulista and Butantã
  • Brazil São Paulo Future Line 6 opened in 2014 between the stations Brasilândia to São Joaquim
  • Russia Moscow's Third Interchange Circuit is expected to be completed in 2014.
  • Alstom Urbalis

Standard systems for driverless operation

Defunct systems

See also

References

External links

  • "UITP Automated Metro Observatory, a complete website with UTO Metro Resources"
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