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Lithium hydroxide

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Title: Lithium hydroxide  
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Subject: BAP Pacocha (SS-48), Lithium, Carbon dioxide scrubber, Lithium stearate, Lithium aspartate
Collection: Bases, Hydroxides, Lithium Compounds, Rebreathers
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Lithium hydroxide

Lithium hydroxide
Lithium hydroxide
Lithium-hydroxide.jpg
Names
IUPAC name
Lithium hydroxide
Other names
Lithine
Identifiers
 Y
(monohydrate) N
ChEBI  Y
ChemSpider  Y
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem
RTECS number OJ6307070
UNII  Y
UN number 2680
Properties
LiOH
Molar mass 23.95 g/mol (anhydrous)
41.96 g/mol (monohydrate)
Appearance hygroscopic white solid
odorless
Density 1.46 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
1.51 g/cm3 (monohydrate)
Melting point 462 °C (864 °F; 735 K)
Boiling point 924 °C (1,695 °F; 1,197 K) decomposes
anhydrous:
12.7 g/100 mL (0 °C)
12.8 g/100 mL (20 °C)
17.5 g/100 mL (100 °C)
monohydrate:
22.3 g/100 mL (10 °C)
26.8 g/100 mL (80 °C)[1]
Solubility in methanol anhydrous:
9.76 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
monohydrate:
13.69 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)[2]
Solubility in ethanol anhydrous:
2.36 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
monohydrate:
2.18 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)[2]
Solubility in isopropanol anhydrous:
0 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)
monohydrate:
0.11 g/100 g (20 °C, 48 hours mixing)[2]
Basicity (pKb) -0.63[3]
1.464 (anhydrous)
1.460 (monohydrate)
Thermochemistry
2.071 J/g K
-20.36 kJ/g
Hazards
Main hazards Corrosive
Safety data sheet ICSC 0913
ICSC 0914 (monohydrate)
NFPA 704
0
3
0
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (Median dose)
210 mg/kg (oral, rat)[4]
Related compounds
Other anions
Lithium amide
Other cations
Sodium hydroxide
Potassium hydroxide
Rubidium hydroxide
Caesium hydroxide
Related compounds
Lithium oxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: Y/N?)

Lithium hydroxide is an formula LiOH. It is a white hygroscopic crystalline material. It is soluble in water and slightly soluble in ethanol, and is the weakest base among the alkali metal hydroxides. It is available commercially in anhydrous form and as the monohydrate (LiOH.H2O), both of which are strong bases.

Contents

  • Production and reactions 1
  • Applications 2
    • Carbon dioxide scrubbing 2.1
    • Other uses 2.2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Production and reactions

Lithium hydroxide is produced in a metathesis reaction between lithium carbonate and calcium hydroxide:[5]

Li2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 → 2 LiOH + CaCO3

The initially produced hydrate is dehydrated by heating under vacuum up to 180 °C.

In the laboratory, lithium hydroxide arises by the action of water on lithium or lithium oxide. The equations for these processes follow:

2 Li + 2 H2O → 2 LiOH + H2
Li2O + H2O → 2 LiOH

Typically, these reactions are avoided.

Although lithium carbonate is more widely used, the hydroxide is an effective precursor to lithium salts, e.g.

LiOH + HF → LiF + H2O.

Applications

Lithium hydroxide is mainly consumed for the production of lithium greases. A popular lithium grease is lithium stearate, which is a general-purpose lubricating grease due to its high resistance to water and usefulness at both high and low temperatures.

Carbon dioxide scrubbing

Lithium hydroxide is used in breathing gas purification systems for spacecraft, submarines, and rebreathers to remove carbon dioxide from exhaled gas by producing lithium carbonate and water:[6]

2 LiOH·H2O + CO2 → Li2CO3 + 3 H2O

Or,

2LiOH + CO2 → Li2CO3 + H2O

The latter, anhydrous hydroxide, is preferred for its lower mass and lesser water production for respirator systems in spacecraft. One gram of anhydrous lithium hydroxide can remove 450 cm3 of carbon dioxide gas. The monohydrate loses its water at 100–110 °C.

Other uses

It is used as a heat transfer medium and as a storage-battery electrolyte. It is also used in ceramics and some Portland cement formulations. Lithium hydroxide (isotopically enriched in lithium-7) is used to alkalize the reactor coolant in pressurized water reactors for corrosion control.

See also

References

  1. ^ Lide, David R., ed. (2006).  
  2. ^ a b c Khosravi, Javad (2007). "9: Results". PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM PEROXIDE AND LITHIUM OXIDE IN AN ALCOHOL MEDIUM.  
  3. ^ Lew. Kristi., Acids and Bases (Essential Chemistry). Infobase Publishing (2009). p43.
  4. ^ http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/1310-65-2
  5. ^ Wietelmann, U; Bauer, RJ (2000). "Lithium and Lithium Compounds".  
  6. ^ Jaunsen, JR (1989). "The Behavior and Capabilities of Lithium Hydroxide Carbon Dioxide Scrubbers in a Deep Sea Environment". US Naval Academy Technical Report. USNA-TSPR-157. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0913 (anhydrous)
  • International Chemical Safety Card 0914 (monohydrate)
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