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Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions

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Title: Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions  
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Subject: Fatherland Defense Force, Martin Weiss (Nazi official), Franz Walter Stahlecker, Generalplan Ost, Schutzmannschaft
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Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions

The Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions were German-occupied territories of Eastern Europe. In Lithuania, the first battalions originated from units formed during the anti-Soviet Uprising of June 1941. Lithuanian activists hoped that these units would become the basis for the reestablished Lithuanian Army. Instead, these units were absorbed into the German military apparatus and aided German forces: guarded strategic objects, engaged in anti-partisan operations, participated in the Holocaust. The 12th and the 13th battalions, tracing their roots from the Tautinio darbo apsaugos batalionas (TDA), were particularly active in the executions of the Jews and were responsible for estimated 78,000 Jewish deaths in Lithuania and Belarus. While the battalions were often deployed outside of Lithuania, they generally did not participate in combat. In total, 26 battalions were formed and approximately 13,000 men served in them.[1] In July–September, 1944, the remaining units were combined into two Lithuanian Volunteer Infantry Regiments.[2]


  • Terminology 1
  • Sources and historiography 2
  • Formation 3
  • List of battalions 4
  • References 5


The units are known under a number of different names. German documents referred to them as Ordnungsdienst (order service), Selbstschutz (self-defense), Hilfspolizei (auxiliary police).[3] From September 1941, they became known as Schutzmannschaft-Bataillonen (abbreviated Schuma; police team). In Lithuanian, the police battalions were known as savisaugos batalionai (self-defense battalions), apsaugos dalys (security units), Lietuvos apsaugos dalys (LAD, security units of Lithuania).[3]

Sources and historiography

The topic of Lithuanian Police Battalions is very controversial and poorly researched. The main obstacle is the lack of reliable and objective data. During the war, journal Karys published frequent stories about the battalions, but to protect military secrets the articles were heavily censored to remove names, dates, and locations. During the Soviet period, when Soviet propaganda exploited tales of war crimes and actively persecuted former members of the battalions, objective research was impossible. Several members of the battalions managed to escape to the West and publish memoirs, but they gloss over the controversial aspects of the battalions and often deny Lithuanian involvement in the Holocaust.[4] Foreign researchers were hampered by lack of archival data.

When KGB produced interrogation protocols of former members of the battalions, but these are not considered reliable as confessions were often obtained through torture or outright fabricated. Nevertheless, Lithuanian scholars, primarily Arūnas Bubnys, published several articles analyzing structure and activities of individual battalions, but they are yet to produce a detailed monograph on the topic.[4]


Lithuanian soldier escorting a group of Lithuanian Jews in Vilnius in July 1941

In June 1940, Lithuania was 29th Rifle Corps (179th Rifle and 184th Rifle Divisions) of the Red Army. More than 500 of Lithuanian officers were retired and 87 were imprisoned.[8]

When Nazi Germany invaded Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, Lithuanians greeted the Germans as liberators from the repressive Soviet rule.[9] They spontaneously joined the anti-Soviet June Uprising, formed the Provisional Government of Lithuania, and declared restoration of independence. Lithuanians began forming their own military and police units in hopes to recreate the Lithuanian Army.[10] The territory of Lithuania was invaded by and divided between two German Amy Groups: Army Group North, which took over western and northern Lithuania, and Army Group Centre, which took over most of the Vilnius Region.[11] Therefore, developments in Kaunas and Vilnius were parallel but separate.

The first battalion, known as the German: Polizeihilfsdienst bataillone; Lithuanian: Pagalbinės policijos tarnyba or PPT). During August three more battalions of PPT were formed. In October, these five battalions were renamed to security battalions (Lithuanian: apsaugos batalionas). In December, the five battalions were reorganized again into battalions of Schutzmannschaft.

Lithuanian men massively deserted from the Soviet 29th Rifle Corps and gathered in Vilnius. They organized Lithuanian Self-defense Units (

  • Anušauskas, Arvydas; Bubnys, Arūnas; Kuodytė, Dialia; Jakubčionis, Algirdas; Titinis, Vytautas; Truska, Liudas, eds. (2005). Lietuva, 1940–1990 (in Lietuvių). Vilnius: Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras.  
  • Breslavskienė, Laimutė (August 2010a). "Pažyma apie 259-ojo lietuvių policijos mokomojo bataliono fondą Nr. R-670" (in Lietuvių). Lietuvos centrinis valstybės archyvas. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
  • Breslavskienė, Laimutė (August 2010b). "Pažyma apie 255-ojo lietuvių policijos bataliono fondą Nr. R-677" (in Lietuvių). Lietuvos centrinis valstybės archyvas. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
  • Breslavskienė, Laimutė (September 2010a). "Pažyma apie 258-ojo lietuvių policijos bataliono fondą Nr. R-669" (in Lietuvių). Lietuvos centrinis valstybės archyvas. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
  • Breslavskienė, Laimutė (September 2010b). "Pažyma apie 257-ojo lietuvių policijos bataliono fondą Nr. R-668" (in Lietuvių). Lietuvos centrinis valstybės archyvas. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
  • Breslavskienė, Laimutė (September 2010c). "Pažyma apie 6-ojo lietuvių policijos bataliono fondą Nr. R-664" (in Lietuvių). Lietuvos centrinis valstybės archyvas. Retrieved 2015-04-18. 
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (1998a). "Lietuvių viešoji policija ir policijos batalionai (1941–1944)". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 3.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (1998b). "253-iasis lietuvių policijos batalionas (1943–1944)". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 4.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (1998c). Vokiečių okupuota Lietuva (1941–1944) (in Lietuvių). Vilnius: Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (2000). "Lietuvių policijos 2-asis (Vilniaus) ir 252-asis batalionai (1941–1944)". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 8.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (2001a). "Penktasis lietuvių policijos batalionas (1941–1944)". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 9.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (2001b). "Lietuvių policijos batalionai Pskovo srityje ir Kurše: 13-asis ir 10(256)-asis batalionai (1942–1945)". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 10.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (2001c). "Atsakymas ponui H. Kudreikiui". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 10.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (2006). "Lietuvių policijos 1 (13)-asis batalionas ir žydų žudynės 1941 m.". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 20.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (2007). "Lietuvių policijos 15-asis batalionas. (1941-1944 m.)". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 21.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (2008a). "Lietuvių policijos 3(11)-iasis batalionas". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 23.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (2008b). "Lietuvių savisaugos dalinių Vilniaus apygardos batalionai (1941-1944 m.)". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 24.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (2009-10-17). "Lietuvių policijos batalionų nuginklavimas ir išformavimas Rytprūsiuose 1944 metais" (PDF). Voruta 20 (686): 6, 8.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (2010). "Lietuvių policijos Šiaulių (14-asis) ir Panevėžio (10-asis) batalionai (1941-1944)". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 27.  
  • Bubnys, Arūnas (2013). "Lietuvių policijos Vilniaus 4-asis batalionas (1941-1944)". Voruta (in Lietuvių). 17–18 (781–782).  
  • Čekutis, Ričardas; Žygelis, Dalius (2010-04-14), Laisvės kyžkelės. Lietuvių policijos batalionai Antrojo pasaulinio karo metais (in Lietuvių),, retrieved 2015-04-18 
  • Knezys, Stasys (2000). "Kauno karo komendantūros Tautinio darbo batalionas 1941 m.". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 7.  
  • Rukšėnas, Alfredas (2007). "Kauno 2-asis pagalbinės policijos tarnybos batalionas ir gyventojų žudynės Baltarusijoje 1941–1943 m.". Genocidas ir rezistencija (in Lietuvių) 22.  
  • Stoliarovas, Andriejus (2008a). Lietuvių pagalbinės policijos (apsaugos) 12-asis batalionas (Thesis) (in Lietuvių).  
  • Stoliarovas, Andriejus (2008b). "Lietuvių pagalbinės policijos (apsaugos) 252-asis (Kauno) batalionas. Nežinomas bataliono istorijos fragmentas". Kauno istorijos metraštis 9.  
  • Suziedelis, Saulius A. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Lithuania. Scarecrow Press.  
  • Zizas, Rimantas (2004). "Lietuvių savisaugos (apsaugos) bataliono karių nuostoliai Vokietijos-SSRS karo metu (1941-1945)". Karo archyvas (in Lietuvių) 19.  
  1. ^ Anušauskas, et al. (2005), p. 232
  2. ^ Stoliarovas (2008a), p. 16
  3. ^ a b c d Bubnys (1998a)
  4. ^ a b Stoliarovas (2008a), p. 8
  5. ^ Anušauskas, et al. (2005), pp. 116–119
  6. ^ Anušauskas, et al. (2005), p. 137
  7. ^ Anušauskas, et al. (2005), p. 140
  8. ^ Anušauskas, et al. (2005), p. 112
  9. ^ Suziedelis (2011), p. 252
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Knezys (2000)
  11. ^ Anušauskas, et al. (2005), p. 161
  12. ^ Bubnys (2008b), p. 36
  13. ^ a b c d e Bubnys (2008b), p. 37
  14. ^ a b c d Čekutis & Žygelis (2010-04-14)
  15. ^ Bubnys (1998c), p. 120
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bubnys (2000)
  17. ^ a b Bubnys (2008b), p. 42
  18. ^ Bubnys (2008b), p. 43
  19. ^ a b Bubnys (2008b), p. 48
  20. ^ a b Bubnys (2008b), p. 51
  21. ^ a b c d Bubnys (2001a)
  22. ^ a b Breslavskienė (September 2010c)
  23. ^ a b Stankeras (2008), p. 566
  24. ^ Stankeras (2008), p. 567
  25. ^ Stankeras (2008), p. 534
  26. ^ a b c d e f Bubnys (1998b)
  27. ^ a b c Bubnys (2010), p. 84
  28. ^ Bubnys (2010), p. 85
  29. ^ Bubnys (2010), p. 85–86
  30. ^ a b Bubnys (2010), p. 87
  31. ^ Bubnys (2008a), p. 52
  32. ^ Stoliarovas (2008a), p. 21
  33. ^ a b Stoliarovas (2008a), p. 36
  34. ^ Bubnys (2006), pp. 48–49
  35. ^ a b c d e f Bubnys (2001b)
  36. ^ Bubnys (2010), p. 81
  37. ^ Bubnys (2010), p. 82
  38. ^ Bubnys (2010), pp. 82–83
  39. ^ a b Bubnys (2007), p. 70
  40. ^ Bubnys (2007), p. 69
  41. ^ a b Bubnys (2007), p. 76
  42. ^ a b c Bubnys (2001c)
  43. ^ Stoliarovas (2008b), p. 292
  44. ^ Bubnys (2008b), p. 52
  45. ^ Bubnys (2008b), p. 53
  46. ^ a b Bubnys (2008b), p. 54
  47. ^ Breslavskienė (August 2010b)
  48. ^ a b c d Bubnys (2009-10-17)
  49. ^ Stankeras (2008), p. 533–534
  50. ^ Breslavskienė (September 2010b)
  51. ^ Stankeras (2008), p. 533
  52. ^ a b Stankeras (2008), p. 538
  53. ^ a b Breslavskienė (September 2010a)
  54. ^ a b Breslavskienė (August 2010a)
  55. ^ a b Stoliarovas (2008a), p. 15


BN#[n 1] Formed from Formation began Formed in First commander[n 2] Holocaust?
[n 3][14]
Location on
Location on
Date disbanded Further fate
1st VAT Security Unit (former LSD)[13] July 14, 1941[16] Vilnius Col Lt Jonas Juknevičius[13] Yes Vilnius Vilnius Fall 1944[17] To anti-aircraft units or Germany[17]
2nd VAT Order Unit (former LSD)[13] July 14, 1941[16] Vilnius Col Lt Petras Vertelis[16] Yes Lublin Adutiškis August 1944[16] To various German units[16]
3rd VAT Work unit (former LSD)[13] July 14, 1941[16] Vilnius Capt Pranas Ambraziūnas[18] Yes Near Minsk Near Minsk July 1944[19] To anti-aircraft units or Dresden[19]
4th 4th battalion of PPT August 30, 1941[10] Kaunas Capt Viktoras Klimavičius[10] No Stalino disbanded February 1944[20] Kovel Pocket: Soviet captivity[20]
5th 5th battalion of PPT August 28, 1941[21] Kaunas Capt Juozas Kriščiūnas[10] No[21] Dedovichi Švenčionėliai December 1944[21] To the 256th and 13th battalions[21]
6th Railway Protection Battalion[22] July 1941[22] Vilnius No Vilnius Vilnius August 1944[23] To anti-aircraft units or Germany[23]
7th Kaunas Yes Lityn disbanded January 1944[24] To the 13th[14] and 257th battalions[25]
8th Kaunas No Kirovohrad disbanded Nov. 20, 1943[14]
9th Kaunas No Kaunas Kaunas July 1944[26] To the 1st Lithuanian Police Regiment[26]
10th - August 1941[27] Panevėžys Capt Bronius Kairiūnas[28] Yes[29] Panevėžys disbanded January 21, 1943[30] To the 14th battalion[30]
11th 3rd battalion of PPT August 15, 1941[10] Kaunas Capt Antanas Švilpa[3] Yes Korosten disbanded Late 1943[31]
12th 2nd battalion of PPT (former TDA) August 9, 1941[32] Kaunas Maj Antanas Impulevičius[10] Extensively Minsk disbanded February 1944[33] To the 15th battalion[33]
13th 1st battalion of PPT (former TDA) June 28, 1941[10] Kaunas Maj Kazys Šimkus[10] Extensively[34] Dedovichi Opochka May 1945[35] Courland Pocket: Soviet captivity[35]
14th - August 1941[36] Šiauliai Capt Stanislovas Lipčius[37] Yes[38] Šiauliai Šiauliai Summer 1944[27] To Gdansk and Dresden[27]
15th VAT Hrodna battalion[39] July 1941[39] Vilnius Maj Albinas Levickis[40] No Baranovichi Near Minsk July 26, 1944[41] To Szczecin and Gdansk[41]
250th - 1942[14] Kaunas No Pskov Daugavpils
251st - Summer 1942[42] Kaunas No Kaunas disbanded February 1943[42] To the 2nd battalion[42]
252nd - May 25, 1942[16] Kaunas Maj Bronius Bajerčius[16] Yes Kaunas Lublin November 1944[16] To northern Yugoslavia[43]
253rd - May 1943[26] Kaunas Capt Vladas Aižinas[26] No n/a Lublin August 1944[26] To aviation units and Dresden[26]
254th - Spring 1942[44] Vilnius Capt Povilas Bareišis[45] No Vilnius disbanded April 1944[46] To the 258th or 259th battalions[46]
255th - July 21, 1942[47] Kaunas No Kaunas Slutsk August 1944[48] To Dresden[48]
256th - March 1943[35] Kaunas Capt Jonas Matulis[35] No n/a Panemunė May 1945[35] Courland Pocket: Soviet captivity[35]
257th 4 representative police companies[49] October 24, 1943[50] Capt V. Miliauskas[51] No n/a Svir, Belarus October 1944[52] To Gdansk[52]
258th Training units[53] April 27, 1944[53] No n/a n/a Late 1944[48] To Germany near Belgian border[48]
259th - April 1944[54] Prienai[54] No n/a n/a
Lietuva Lithuanians in Reichsarbeitsdienst[55] Koszalin[55] No n/a n/a
  1. ^ Battalion number. Numbers 301 through 310 were assigned to the Lithuanian Territorial Defense Force.
  2. ^ Only the first commander is listed. Some of them were acting commanders, holding the post for a few weeks.
  3. ^ Indicates whether the unit participated in the Holocaust. The conclusion is based on the research by Arūnas Bubnys.

List of battalions

Two more battalions were organized before October 1941. [13]

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