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Mating

 

Mating

Dragonflies (Austrogomphus guerini) mating

In autogamy); for example, banana slugs.

For animals, mating strategies include random mating, disassortative mating, assortative mating, or a mating pool. In some birds, it includes behaviors such as nest-building and feeding offspring. The human practice of mating and artificially inseminating domesticated animals is part of animal husbandry.

Contents

  • Animals 1
  • Plants and fungi 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Animals

In some terrestrial arthropods, including insects representing basal (primitive) phylogenetic clades, the male deposits spermatozoa on the substrate, sometimes stored within a special structure. Courtship involves inducing the female to take up the sperm package into her genital opening without actual copulation. In groups such as dragonflies and many spiders, males extrude sperm into secondary copulatory structures removed from their genital opening, which are then used to inseminate the female (in dragonflies, it is a set of modified sternites on the second abdominal segment; in spiders, it is the male pedipalps). In advanced groups of insects, the male uses its aedeagus, a structure formed from the terminal segments of the abdomen, to deposit sperm directly (though sometimes in a capsule called a "spermatophore") into the female's reproductive tract.

Other animals reproduce sexually with external fertilization, including many basal vertebrates. Vertebrates (such as reptiles, some fish, and most birds) reproduce with internal fertilization through cloacal copulation (see also hemipenis), while mammals copulate vaginally.

Plants and fungi

Like in animals, mating in other Eukaryotes, such as kingdom Fungi, with 1,500 species currently described.[3] In general, under high stress conditions like nutrient starvation, haploid cells will die; under the same conditions, however, diploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can undergo sporulation, entering sexual reproduction (meiosis) and produce a variety of haploid spores, which can go on to mate (conjugate) and reform the diploid.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ The Free Dictionary. "Mate". Retrieved May 31, 2013. 
  2. ^ The Free Dictionary. Fertilization' - definition of"'". Farlex, Inc. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  3. ^ "What are yeasts?". Yeast Virtual Library. 13 September 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2009. 
  4. ^ Neiman, A.M. (2005). "Ascospore formation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 69 (4): 565–584.  

External links

  • Introduction to Animal Reproduction
  • Advantages of Sexual Reproduction
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