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Miosis

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Title: Miosis  
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Subject: Mydriasis, Pilocarpine, Pupillary response, Ectopia lentis, Argyll Robertson pupil
Collection: Diseases of the Eye and Adnexa
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Miosis

Miosis
Miosis due to opiate use
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 H57.0
ICD-9-CM 379.42
DiseasesDB 8243
MeSH D015877

Miosis (or myosis, from Ancient Greek μύειν, mūein, "to close the eyes") is a term with various definitions, which generally include constriction of the pupil.

The opposite condition, mydriasis, is the dilation of the pupil. Anisocoria is the condition of one pupil being more dilated than the other.

Contents

  • Definitions 1
  • Physiology of the photomotor reflex 2
  • Causes 3
    • Age 3.1
    • Diseases 3.2
    • Drugs 3.3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Definitions

Definitions of miosis include:

  • Constriction of the pupil that is excessive,[1] relative to the amount of light the pupil receives
  • Constriction of the pupil to a diameter of less than two millimeters[2][3]
  • Constriction of the pupil with causes including both abnormal and physiological ones.[4]
  • Pupillary constriction by abnormal causes.[5]

Physiology of the photomotor reflex

Light entering the eye strikes three different photoreceptors in the retina: the familiar rods and cones used in image forming and the more newly discovered photosensitive ganglion cells. The ganglion cells give information about ambient light levels, and react sluggishly compared to the rods and cones. Signals from photosensitive ganglion cells have multiple functions including acute suppression of the hormone melatonin, entrainment of the body's circadian rhythms and regulation of the size of the pupil.

The retinal photoceptors convert light stimuli into electric impulses. Nerves involved in the resizing of the pupil connect to the pretectal nucleus of the high midbrain, bypassing the lateral geniculate nucleus and the primary visual cortex. From the pretectal nucleus neurons send axons to neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus whose visceromotor axons run along both the left and right oculomotor nerves. Visceromotor nerve axons (which constitute a portion of cranial nerve III, along with the somatomotor portion derived from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus) synapse on ciliary ganglion neurons, whose parasympathetic axons innervate the iris sphincter muscle, producing miosis. This occurs because sympathetic activity from the ciliary ganglion is lost thus parasympathetics are not inhibited. Image

Causes

Age

  • senile miosis (a reduction in the size of a person's pupil in old age)

Diseases

Drugs

See also

References

  1. ^ Farlex medical dictionary citing:
  2. ^ Seidel, Henry M.; Jane W. Ball; Joyce E. Dains; G. William Benedict (2006-03-29). Mosby's Guide to Physical Examination. Mosby.  
  3. ^ Farlex medical dictionary citing: Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition.
  4. ^ Farlex medical dictionary citing: The American Heritage Medical Dictionary. Copyright 2007
  5. ^ Farlex medical dictionary citing: Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition.

External links

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