World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Murine typhus

Article Id: WHEBN0001948256
Reproduction Date:

Title: Murine typhus  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Rickettsia typhi, Typhus, Yersinia pestis, List of infectious diseases, Rickettsia africae
Collection: Bacterium-Related Cutaneous Conditions, Rickettsioses
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Murine typhus

Murine typhus
Classification and external resources
Specialty Infectious disease
ICD-10 A75.2
ICD-9-CM 081.0
DiseasesDB 32211
MeSH D014437

Murine typhus (also called endemic typhus) is a form of typhus transmitted by fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis), usually on rats. (This is in contrast to epidemic typhus, which is usually transmitted by lice.) Murine typhus is an under-recognized entity, as it is often confused with viral illnesses. Most people who are infected do not realize that they have been bitten by fleas.

Contents

  • Causes 1
  • Symptoms 2
  • Treatment and prognosis 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Causes

It is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia typhi, and is transmitted by the fleas that infest rats. While rat fleas are the most common vectors, cat fleas and mouse fleas are less common modes of transmission. These fleas are not affected by the infection. Human infection occurs because of flea-fecal contamination of the bites on human skin. Rats, cats, possums maintain the rickettsia colonization by providing it with a host for its entire life cycle. Rats can develop the infection, and help spread the infection to other fleas that infect them, and help multiply the number of infected fleas that can then infect humans.

Less often, endemic typhus is caused by Rickettsia felis and transmitted by fleas carried by cats or opossums.

In the United States of America, Murine typhus is found most commonly in southern California,[1] Texas and Hawaii. In some studies, up to 13% of children were found to have serological evidence of infection.[2]

Symptoms

Chest Xray of a 40 yr old male in acute respiratory distress syndrome as a complication of murine typhus

Symptoms of endemic typhus include headache, fever, muscle pain, joint pain, nausea and vomiting. 40–50% of patients will develop a discrete rash six days after the onset of signs. Up to 45% will develop neurological signs such as confusion, stupor, seizures or imbalance.

Symptoms may resemble those of measles, rubella, or possibly Rocky Mountain spotted fever. These symptoms are likely caused by a vasculitis caused by the rickettsia.

Treatment and prognosis

Endemic typhus is highly treatable with antibiotics. Most people recover fully, but death may occur in the elderly, severely disabled or patients with a depressed immune system. The most effective antibiotics include tetracycline and chloramphenicol.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Murine (endemic) Typhus" (PDF). California Department of Public Health. Retrieved 30 May 2012. 
  2. ^ The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 3.57). 07/2000; 19(6):535-8.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.