World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Naive T cell

Article Id: WHEBN0007728139
Reproduction Date:

Title: Naive T cell  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: CD28, Thymic involution, Antigen-presenting cell, Biomarkers of aging, T cells
Collection: Human Cells, T Cells
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Naive T cell

A naïve T cell is a T cell that has differentiated in bone marrow, and successfully undergone the positive and negative processes of central selection in the thymus. Among these are the naïve forms of helper T cells (CD4+) and cytotoxic T cells (CD8+). A naïve T cell is considered mature and unlike activated, or memory T cells it has not encountered its cognate antigen within the periphery. ,


  • Phenotype 1
  • Function 2
  • Mechanism of activation 3
  • See also 4
  • Notes and references 5


Naïve T cells are commonly characterized by the surface expression of L-selectin (CD62L); the absence of the activation markers CD25, CD44 or CD69; and the absence of memory CD45RO isoform.[1] They also express functional IL-7 receptors, consisting of subunits IL-7 receptor-α, CD127, and common-γ chain, CD132. In the naïve state, T cells are thought to be quiescent and non-dividing, requiring the common-gamma chain cytokines IL-7 and IL-15 for homeostatic survival mechanisms.


Naïve T cells can respond to novel pathogens that the immune system has not yet encountered. Recognition by a naïve T cell clone of its cognate antigen results in the initiation of an immune response. In turn, this results in the T cell acquiring an activated phenotype seen by the up-regulation of surface markers CD25+, CD44+, CD62Llow, CD69+ and may further differentiate into a memory T cell.

Having adequate numbers of naïve T cells is essential for the immune system to continuously respond to unfamiliar pathogens.

Mechanism of activation

When a recognized antigen binds to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) located in the cell membrane of Th0 cells, these cells are activated through the following "classical" signal transduction cascade:[2]

An alternative "non-classical" pathway involves activated Zap70 directly phosphorylating the p38 MAPK that in turn induces the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Furthermore, the expression of PLC-γ1 is dependent on VDR activated by calcitriol.[2] Naïve T cells have very low expression of VDR and PLC-γ1. However activated TCR signaling through p38 upregulates VDR expression and calcitriol activated VDR in turn upregulates PLC-γ1 expression. Hence the activation of naïve T cells is crucially dependent on adequate calcitriol levels.[2]

In summary, activation of T cells first requires activation through the non-classical pathway to increase expression of VDR and PLC-γ1 before activation through the classical pathway can proceed. This provides a delayed response mechanism where the innate immune system is allowed time (~48 hrs) to clear an infection before the inflammatory T cell mediated adaptive immune response kicks in.[2]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.