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National Liberation Front (Greece)

National Liberation Front
Εθνικό Απελευθερωτικό Μέτωπο
Ethniko Αpeleftherotiko Metopo
Participant in the Greek Resistance
EAM-ELAS-EPON memorial statue in Ano Liosia
Active 1941–1944
Ideology Republicanism,
Left-wing nationalism,
Leaders Georgios Siantos,
Alexandros Svolos,
Ilias Tsirimokos
Allies Soviet Union, SNOF, Albanian Partisans, Bulgarian Partisans, Yugoslav Partisans
Opponents Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Greek Collaborationist government, Security Battalions, EDES, EKKA

The National Liberation Front (December 1944 events. This marked the beginning of its gradual decline and the open persecution of its members (accusing it for crimes against political rivals and Soviet perspective) and leading eventually to the outbreak of the Greek Civil War.


  • History 1
    • Background 1.1
    • Establishment of EAM 1.2
    • Expansion and preparation for armed struggle 1.3
    • The First Civil War and the "Mountain Government" 1.4
    • Liberation, the Dekemvriana, and the road to the Civil War 1.5
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • Sources 4



During the

  • Wievorka, Olivier; Tebinka, Jacek (2006). "Resisters: From Everyday Life to Counter-state". In Gildea, Robert; Wievorka, Olivier; Warring, Anette. Surviving Hitler and Mussolini: Daily Life in Occupied Europe. Oxford: Berg. pp. 153–176.  


  1. ^ a b Mazower (2001), p.103
  2. ^ Mazower (2001), pp. 108-109
  3. ^ Wievorka & Tebinka (2006), p. 165
  4. ^ Wievorka & Tebinka (2006), p. 158
  5. ^ Wievorka & Tebinka (2006), p. 169
  6. ^ Wievorka & Tebinka (2006), p. 170


See also

After Liberation in October 1944, the tensions between EAM and right-wing, nationalist or western-oriented republican forces, which were supported by Great Britain, escalated. Originally, as agreed at the Dekemvrianá), which resulted in a British and Greek government victory. In February, the Varkiza agreement was signed, leading to the disbandment of ELAS. In April, the SΚΕ and ΕLD parties left EAM. EAM was not dissolved, but was hence for all intents and purposes merely an expression of the KKE. During the 1945-1946 period, a conservative terror campaign (the "White Terror") was launched against EAM-KKE supporters. The country became polarized, eventually leading to the outbreak of the Greek Civil War in March 1946, which lasted until 1949. In its aftermath, and in the context of the Cold War, KKE was outlawed, and EAM/ELAS vilified as an attempt at "Communist take-over" and accused for various crimes against political rivals. The issue remains a highly controversial subject to this day. With the coming of Andreas Papandreou to power in 1981 however, EAM was recognized as a resistance movement, and the fighters of ELAS were honored and given state pensions.

Liberation, the Dekemvriana, and the road to the Civil War

In the territories it controlled, EAM implemented its own political concept, known as laokratia (λαοκρατία, "people's rule"), based upon "based upon self-administration, involvement of new categories (mainly women and youths) and popular courts".[5] At the same time, the mechanisms of the "revolutionary order" created by EAM were often employed to eliminate political opponents.[6]

EAM-ELAS activity resulted in the complete liberation of a large area of the mountainous Greek mainland from Axis control, where in March 1944 EAM established a separate government, the "Political Committee of National Liberation" (PEEA). EAM even carried out elections to the PEEA's parliament, the "National Council", in April, where for the first time in Greek electoral history, women were allowed to vote. In these elections is rumored that 1,000,000 people voted.

ELAS fought against German, Italian and Bulgarian occupation forces, as well as, by late 1943, its non-communist led rival organizations, namely the National Republican Greek League (EDES) and the National and Social Liberation (EKKA), succeeding in destroying the latter entirely in April 1944.

[4] One of the great successes of EAM was the mobilization against the plans of the Germans and the collaborationist government to send Greeks into

The First Civil War and the "Mountain Government"

On 10 October, EAM published its manifesto, and announced itself and its aims to the Greek people. During the autumn of 1941, its influence expanded throughout Greece, either through pre-existing Communist cells or through the spontaneous actions of local "people's committees".[2] Following Communist practice, EAM took care to set up a refined system with which to engage and mobilize the mass of the people. EAM committees were thus established on a territorial and occupational basis, starting from the local (village or neighbourhood) level and moving up, while subsidiary organizations were created: a youth movement, the "National Solidarity" (EA).[3] EAM's military wing, the "Greek People's Liberation Army" (ELAS) was formed in December 1942, and a crude navy, the "National People's Liberation Navy" (ELAN), was established later, but its strength and role were severely limited.

Expansion and preparation for armed struggle

At the KKE's 7th Plenum, the establishment of EAM was decided, despite the refusal of mainstream politicians to participate. EAM was founded in 27 September 1941 by representatives of four left-wing parties: Nikolaos Zachariadis, the KKE's proper leader, was interned in Dachau concentration camp.

Communist Party of Greece

Politics of Greece

Communist Youth
European United Left

History of the Party
Democratic Army of Greece
United Democratic Left
United Left

Komounistiki Epitheorisi

Elections in Greece

Communist Movement

Communism Portal

Establishment of EAM


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