World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

1866 National Union Convention

Article Id: WHEBN0000867624
Reproduction Date:

Title: 1866 National Union Convention  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Reconstruction Era
Collection: 1866 in American Politics, 1866 in Pennsylvania, Political Conventions in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Reconstruction Era
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

1866 National Union Convention

The National Union Convention (also known as the Loyalist Convention, the Southern Loyalist Convention, the National Loyalists' Loyal Union Convention, or the Arm-In-Arm Convention) was held on August 14, 15, and 16 1866, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[1]


  • Convention 1
  • Notable Attendees 2
  • Further reading 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


The convention was called in advance of the mid-year elections of 1866 in an attempt to help President Johnson, who was under heavy fire from both Radical Republicans and more moderate Republicans. Johnson's friends tried to rally support for the lenient, pro-South Reconstruction policies of President Andrew Johnson. The goal of creating a new political party was not realized.[2]

Delegates gathered at a hastily-built temporary structure that was designed to accommodate the several thousand people expected to attend. Formally called "the Wigwam", this immense edifice was located on Girard Avenue between 19th and 20th Streets, across from Philadelphia's Girard College.[3]

About 7,000 prominent politicians and activists attended the convention. At its opening, representatives from Massachusetts (General Darius Nash Couch) and South Carolina (Governor James Lawrence Orr) paraded arm-in-arm to symbolize national reconciliation and social equity. The convention was called to order by U.S. Postmaster General Alexander Randall. General (and former New York Governor and Senator) John Adams Dix served as the temporary chairman and Wisconsin Senator James R. Doolittle served as permanent convention president.

In the end, the convention was not successful in unifying the country behind President Johnson. He then launched a speaking tour (known as the "Swing Around the Circle") hoping to regain public and political support. On this speaking tour, Johnson at times attacked his Republican opponents with crude and abusive language and on several occasions appeared to have had too much to drink. Ultimately, the tour was a disaster for Johnson, emboldening the Congress to override him and to impeach him in 1868.[4]

Notable Attendees

Notable attendees of the National Union Convention include:

Further reading

  • McKitrick, Eric. Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (1960) pp 394–420
  • Thomas Wagstaff. "The Arm-in-Arm Convention," Civil War History 1968 14(2): 101-119
  • The proceedings of the National union convention, held at Philadelphia, August 14, 1866 at Internet Archive. primary sources

See also


  1. ^ McKitrick, Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (1960) pp 394-420
  2. ^ Wagstaff (1968)
  3. ^ Wagstaff (1968)
  4. ^ Wagstaff (1968)

External links

  • address to President, by Hon. Reverdy Johnson, Aug. 18, 1866, communicating proceedings National Union Convention entered into the record of Johnson's impeachment trial.
  • cartoon mocking the convention by Thomas Nast, originally published in Harper's Weekly, September 29, 1866
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.