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National Union of Greece

National Union of Greece
Εθνική Ένωσις Ελλάδος
Founder Georgios Kosmidis
Founded 1927 (1927)
Dissolved 1944 (1944)
Ideology National Socialism
Political position Far-right
Religion Greek Orthodox
Politics of Greece
Political parties

The National Union of Greece (Greek: Εθνική Ένωσις Ελλάδος, Ethniki Enosis Ellados or EEE) was an anti-Semitic nationalist party established in Thessaloniki, Greece, in 1927.

Registered as a Christians could join. Its members were opposed to Thessaloniki's substantial Jewish population.

It was led by

  • Mark Mazower, Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430-1950, London: HarperCollins, 2004. ISBN 0-00-712023-0

Further reading

  • History of the EEE (Greek)

External links

  1. ^ Mark Mazower, Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430-1950, London: HarperCollins, 2004, p. 413. ISBN 0-00-712023-0.
  2. ^ Victor Roudometof (2002). Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict. Praeger/Greenwood. p. 115.  


Owing to its paramilitary uniforms and organisation, the party was commonly referred to as "The Three Epsilons" (τα Τρία Εψιλον) or "The Steelhelmets" (οι Χαλυβδόκρανοι), in allusion to the German paramilitary Stahlhelm.

Estimates put the party's strength at 7,000 members in 1932; by 1933, it had 3,000 members march to Athens, in apparent imitation of Benito Mussolini's 1922 March on Rome.[2] However, it polled miserably in the 1934 city elections in Thessaloniki, and in 1935, the party imploded as a result of in-fighting. It was revived by the German occupation authorities in 1942, during the Axis Occupation of Greece; many members of EEE became prominent collaborators of the Nazis, and many more joined the Security Battalions and helped in the identification of Greek Jews.

The party's leaders were the main defendants in the trial held after the Campbell Riot of 29 June 1931, in which Greek nationalist mobs attacked the Jewish "Campbell" settlement in the city. (A co-defendant was Nikolaos Nikos Fardis (Νίκος Φαρδής), editor-in-chief of the Makedonia newspaper.)

), a banking clerk. Δ. Χαριτόπουλος and D. Charitopoulos ([1]), an illiterate Turkish-speaking traderΓιώργος Κοσμίδης

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