World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0005978232
Reproduction Date:

Title: Nebmaatre  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of pharaohs, Pepi III, Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt, Sixteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Pharaohs
Collection: Pharaohs of the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt, Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Nebmaatre is the prenomen of a poorly attested ruler of the late Second Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt. Nebmaatre may have been a member of the early 17th dynasty and as such would have reigned over the Theban region.[2] Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath believes that Nebmaatre was a ruler of the late 16th Dynasty.[3][4]


  • Attestations 1
  • Chronological position 2
  • Other Ancient Egyptians named Nebmaatre 3
  • References 4


The prenomen Nebmaatre is attested on a bronze axe-head discovered in a tomb at Mostagedda in Middle Egypt and now in the British Museum under the catalog number BM EA 63224. The same prenomen is inscribed on a black steatite amulet representing a lion of unknown provenance and now in the Petrie Museum under the catalog number 11587.[1] A degree of uncertainty affects the ownership of these artifacts since Amenhotep III's prenomen was Nebmaatre as well. However, the axe-head can be dated to the late second intermediate period based on stylistic grounds and provenance while according to Flinders Petrie the amulet is of too rough a worksmanship to be attributable to Amenhotep III.[5][6] Instead Petrie suggested that the amulet be attributable to Ibi, an obscure ruler of the late 13th dynasty whose prenomen is partially preserved in Turin canon as "[...]maatre". However, Kim Ryholt's recent study of the Turin canon precludes this identification as a vertical stroke in the lacuna just prior to "maatre" rules out the hieroglyph for "neb".[5]

Chronological position

The chronological position of Nebmaatre in the second intermediate period is highly uncertain. The egyptologist Jürgen von Beckerath proposes that Nebmaatre was a ruler of a compounded 15th-16th dynasty, which he sees as an entirely Hyksos line of kings.[7] Alternatively, Kim Ryholt put forth the hypothesis that Nebmaatre was a king of the 17th dynasty, although he left his position in the dynasty unspecified. [8] Ryholt's datation is based on the observation that the axe-head bearing Nebmaatre name was found in a tomb belonging of the Pan-grave culture.[9] The Pan-grave people were Nubian mercenaries employed by rulers of the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt in their fight against the Hyksos foe.[5] Egyptologist Darell Baker points out that the Theban rulers of the period might indeed have provided such weapons to their mercenaries.[5]

Other Ancient Egyptians named Nebmaatre


  1. ^ a b c The amulet of the Petrie Museum
  2. ^ K. S. B. Ryholt, Adam Bülow-Jacobse, The political situation in Egypt during the second intermediate period, c. 1800-1550 B.C., pp 168, 170, 171, 179, 204, 400
  3. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  4. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz am Rhein, 1997
  5. ^ a b c d Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Egyptian Pharaohs. Volume I: Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty (3300-1069 BC), Bannerstone Press, London 2008, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9, p. 244
  6. ^ Flinders Petrie: Scarabs and Cylinders with Names, 1978, Aris & Philips, Ltd. (reprint of the 1917 original edition published by BSAE).
  7. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der agyptische Konigsnamen, Muncher. Agyptologische Studien, 49 Mainz, 1999, pp.118-119
  8. ^ Kim Ryholt, The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c.1800-1550 B.C, Museum Tusculanum Press, (1997)
  9. ^ Manfred Bietak: the Pan-grave culture
  10. ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson, 2004, ISBN 0-500-05128-3, pp. 191,193
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.