World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

New Super Mario Bros. Wii

Article Id: WHEBN0023065843
Reproduction Date:

Title: New Super Mario Bros. Wii  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Toad (Mario), Electronic Entertainment Expo 2009, Super Mario Galaxy 2, Super Mario Bros. 2, Mario
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

New Super Mario Bros. Wii

New Super Mario Bros. Wii

North American box art

Developer(s) Nintendo EAD Group No. 4
Publisher(s) Nintendo
Director(s) Shigeyuki Asuke
Producer(s) Takashi Tezuka
Hiroyuki Kimura
Composer(s) Kenta Nagata
Shiho Fujii
Ryo Nagamatsu[1]
Series Super Mario
Platform(s) Wii
Release date(s)
  • TW July 3, 2010
  • HK July 3, 2010
  • KO August 7, 2010
Genre(s) Platforming
Mode(s) Single-player

New Super Mario Bros. Wii (New スーパーマリオブラザーズ Wii) is a 2009 side-scrolling platform video game published and developed by Nintendo for the Wii video game console. The game was released on November 11, 2009, in Australia, November 15, 2009, in North America, November 20, 2009, in Europe and December 3, 2009, in Japan. It is the first game in the Mario main series since Mario Bros. to feature simultaneous multiplayer gameplay, and the first title to include Nintendo's new "Super Guide" feature. To highlight the uniqueness of the title, Nintendo chose to use a red keep case instead of the traditional white. The game is also the first Mario sidescroller to have up to four player multiplayer.

The game’s plot is similar to those of other side-scrolling Mario games. New Super Mario Bros. Wii follows Mario as he fights his way through Bowser's henchmen to rescue Princess Peach. Mario has access to several power-ups that help him complete his quest, including the Ice Flower, the Fire Flower, and the Starman, each giving him unique abilities. While traveling through up to nine worlds with a total of 80 levels, Mario must defeat Bowser's children (the Koopalings and Bowser Jr.), Kamek, and Bowser himself before finally saving Princess Peach.

New Super Mario Bros. Wii has been critically and commercially successful with gaming aggregators GameRankings and Metacritic reporting average scores of 88% and 87/100, respectively. As of March 2014, it is the fourth best-selling game on the Wii, at 28.65 million copies sold worldwide.[6] It received several honors, including the 2009 Best Wii Game award from the 2009 Spike Video Game Awards, IGN, and GameTrailers.

A follow-up to New Super Mario Bros. Wii, entitled New Super Mario Bros. 2, was released for the Nintendo 3DS in August 2012. A direct sequel, New Super Mario Bros. U, was developed for the Wii U console and launched with the system in November 2012.


An early screenshot of the game, shown at E3 2009

While New Super Mario Bros. Wii is a 2D platformer, some of the characters and objects are 3D polygonal renderings on 2D backgrounds, resulting in a 2.5D effect (also seen in New Super Mario Bros.) that visually simulates 3D computer graphics. Players can play as either Mario, his brother Luigi, or two Toad characters: one blue and one yellow (with the first player always as Mario).[7] Controls are similar to those of New Super Mario Bros., albeit with the added abilities of spinning in mid-air by shaking the Wii Remote; and picking up, carrying, and throwing other players. In multiplayer mode, there can be up to four players simultaneously.[8] If players lose a life but have at least one life in reserve, they will re-emerge encased inside a bubble, and can resume play once another player frees them by touching the bubble or a fire/ice ball (the player can shake the Wii Remote to move their bubble closer to an active player, but they cannot free themselves). If players lose a life and do not have any more lives, they must use a Continue and start all over with 5 lives.[9] Players can also encase themselves inside the bubble by pressing the A button while a more skilled player traverses a difficult segment.[8] If every character in a co-op session enters a bubble at the same time (whether through death or by pressing the A button), they will lose the level and must restart.

On some levels in multiplayer mode, if one or more players do not keep up with the one in the lead, the view will pan out a bit so that the player[s] in the rear can still be in view.[10] If the players still do not catch up, they are then dragged by the edge of the screen, until they move forward faster or lose a life by a fall or other object.[11] If one player enters a pipe, climbs a vine, grabs the flagpole at the end of the stage, etc. without the others, the other players will warp to the same place after a short time, or have a limited amount of time to grab the pole before the course ends.[12] On vertically scrolling courses, being left below the screen results in losing a life. On the world map, Mario (Player 1) controls navigation.[13]

Players return to the map screen if they all run out of lives, or if all players lose their lives at the same time, leaving no one to free them. For most levels, there is a midway flag that if touched will return the player to that point after dying and being sent back to the map screen. Stages are completed by getting at least one player to touch the goal at the end, though a bonus is awarded if all players manage to grab hold of the flag within three seconds of the first player grabbing it. In a few levels, in addition to the normal goal and flag pole, there are alternative exits leading to a red flag pole. Reaching this goal will open up a new path on the map, leading to new stages on the overworld map and on occasion a warp cannon (which will blast the player off to a later world). The game does not feature online multiplayer.[14] During single player mode, losing a life sends the player back to the map screen.

Along with the usual Mario series items, like the Mini Mushroom from New Super Mario Bros., new items have been added, including: the Propeller Mushroom, which allows players to fly; the Ice Flower, which allow players to freeze enemies with snowballs;[15] and the Penguin Suit which, on top of the Ice Flower's ability, allows players to slide along the ground and across water as well as have better control on ice and in water.[16] Players are also able to ride on Yoshis, who appear in certain levels and can swallow enemies and flutter in the air.[17][18] All levels can be accessed via a map screen, and enemies are often roaming it. If the player bumps into one while traveling the map, a "mini-boss" fight will be initiated; if successful in the fight, players can earn 3 extra Super Mushrooms. There are also Toad Houses where players can earn additional lives and items that can be equipped on the map screen. At some points, a Toad will appear trapped in one of the previously completed levels, and the player can choose to rescue him from a block and carry him safely to the end of the stage to earn bonus lives (this can only be done with one player). There are three Star Coins hidden in each course which can be spent on hint movies that show certain secrets, such as the location of a secret goal or how to gain infinite 1-ups.[19]

The game includes simultaneous multiplayer capability of up to four players. In addition to the main story mode, which can be played in either single-player or multiplayer modes, there are two dedicated multiplayer modes. "Free-for-All Mode" ranks players at the end of each course by score, coins, and enemy kills; while the other mode, "Coin Battle," ranks players on the amount of coins collected.[20]

The game is played either in classic style, with the Wii Remote held horizontally, or in Nunchuk style, with the Nunchuk used for movement. Some actions, such as jumping and attacks, are performed with the buttons, whereas others, like spinning in midair and picking up other players, are performed by shaking the Wii Remote.[16] Certain areas within levels, such as specific platforms, can also be manipulated by tilting the Wii Remote.

The game is the first on the Wii to feature "Super Guide", a new system devised by Mario creator Shigeru Miyamoto. During singleplayer mode, if a player dies eight times in a row in any level, a green "!" Block appears, allowing a computer-controlled Luigi to show the player a safe path through the level. The player may interrupt the guide at anytime and take control. After Luigi completes it, the player has the option to try the level again, or skip it completely. However, Luigi will not reveal any Star Coin locations or secret exits.[21][22]


The game follows the traditional storyline of Princess Peach getting kidnapped by Bowser, the Koopalings and Bowser Jr. When Mario, Luigi, Blue Toad, and Yellow Toad are celebrating Princess Peach's birthday in her castle, a large cake appears. Bowser Jr. and the Koopalings emerge from the cake and trap Peach inside. The cake is loaded onto Bowser's airship and it takes off, with Mario, Luigi, and the two Toads giving chase. The Toads in the castle then grant them access to the new items, the Propeller Mushrooms and Penguin Suits.[23]

After traveling over many worlds fighting the Koopalings, Bowser Jr., and Kamek the Magikoopa, the Mario Bros. and the Toads arrive at Bowser's castle. Bowser is defeated but is then revived by Kamek, who casts a magical spell that transforms him into a giant. Bowser then chases Mario and the others, destroying everything in his path. Mario finds a huge switch and triggers it, causing Bowser to fall through the ground and releasing Peach from her cage. Peach and Mario depart from the castle in a hot-air balloon, with Luigi and the Toads following behind.

The credits are then shown as a minigame, where they can be smashed by the playable characters to get the most coins. After the credits, Bowser Jr. and the Koopalings help Bowser out of his (now unstable) castle, which topples over and traps them.


On May 30, 2009 the online version of the Nihon Keizai Shimbun Japanese newspaper reported that two new sequels would be released for the Wii: Wii Fit Plus (a sequel to Wii Fit) and a new Mario game tentatively called New Super Mario Bros. Wii (which was an unconfirmed name at the time), a sequel to New Super Mario Bros.[24] New Super Mario Bros. Wii was later officially announced at the 2009 E3 convention[25][26][27] and Gamescom in Cologne, Germany.[28][29][30] To highlight the uniqueness of the title, Nintendo chose to use a red case instead of the traditional white.[31] At the 2011 E3 convention, a variation of New Super Mario Bros. Wii, dubbed New Super Mario Bros. Mii, was showcased as a playable demo for Nintendo's new console, the Wii U, which allows players to play as their Miis. It has been stated by Kotaku that this version is a prototype designed to showcase the technology and is currently not a confirmed title.[32]

The game was created in response to Nintendo's head game developer Shigeru Miyamoto's desire to recreate the Mario series's single-player gameplay experience for multiple players, as he was unable to bring these ideas to fruition in previous installments. The idea had specifically been proposed for the original prototype of Super Mario Bros. 2 on the NES/Famicom, but the system was found to be not strong enough to handle the multiple sprites required, and the game was redeveloped at that time.[14] The release of the Wii, in 2006, finally gave Miyamoto a chance to revive this idea, as the hardware finally allowed the smooth display of enough enemies and items on the screen at once, and allowed a camera that could dynamically adapt to the players' movements, ensuring they constantly know what is the situation of their character.[33] Miyamoto said Princess Peach was not a playable character because of her dress, since it would require "special processing and programming to handle how her skirt is handled within the gameplay."[34]

The music for New Super Mario Bros. Wii was principally created by Shiho Fujii and Ryo Nagamatsu, with additional compositions provided by sound director Kenta Nagata.[1][35] Series regular Koji Kondo was the sound advisor and did not write any new compositions, though some of his creations were rearranged for the game.[36] Charles Martinet returned to voice Mario and Luigi, along with Samantha Kelly as the Toads and Princess Peach, Kenny James as Bowser, and Caety Sagoian as Bowser Jr.[37]


Aggregate scores
Aggregator Score
GameRankings 88.18%[38]
Metacritic 87/100[39]
Review scores
Publication Score A+[40]
Edge 7/10[41]
Eurogamer 9/10[42]
Famitsu 40/40[43]
Game Informer 9.25/10[44]
GamesRadar 7/10[45]
GameSpot 8.5/10[46]
GameSpy 4.5/5 stars[47]
GameTrailers 8.9/10[48]
IGN 8.9/10[49]
Nintendo Power 9/10[50]
Official Nintendo Magazine 96%[51] 8/10[52]
X-Play 4/5 stars[53]
Destructoid 9/10[54]
The A.V. Club C+[55]
Nintendo Life 10/10[56]


New Super Mario Bros. Wii was a commercial success, selling 936,734 units in four days in Japan, the biggest debut for a Wii game in that region;[57] its sales increased to 1,401,558 in the following week.[58] New Super Mario Bros. Wii sold three million units in Japan in the shortest time ever, selling 3,002,753 units in just seven weeks.[59] In North America, New Super Mario Bros. Wii sold 1,390,000 units in November 2009, making it the third best-selling game of the month behind the Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3 versions of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2.[60] New Super Mario Bros. Wii has sold over 4,000,000 units in the U.S.,[60] and this has taken worldwide sales to over the 10,000,000 mark, making it the fastest selling single-system game in history.[61]

As of March 2014, the game has sold 28.65 million copies. This makes it the fourth best-selling Wii game as well as the second best-selling Mario game on the Wii console (behind Mario Kart Wii).[6]

Critical response

The game received positive reviews from critics. Japanese gaming magazine Famitsu called the game a "masterpiece of 2D action" and gave the game a perfect 40/40, making it only the 13th title overall and fourth Wii game to receive this score in the 23-year history of Famitsu.[62][63] British publication Official Nintendo Magazine gave the game a score of 96%, praising its attention to detail and multiplayer mode in particular.[64] Computer and Video Games gave the game 9.0.[65] Gaming web site IGN AU gave New Super Mario Bros. Wii a 9.2, calling it a "blast" in co-op and praising its replication of the gameplay that made the Super Mario Bros. series popular.[66] IGN UK gave the game a 9.4 out of 10 and IGN US gave the game 8.9, calling the core gameplay brilliant, but noting the lack of online play. GameSpy, however, did not consider this a negative point, arguing that online play is a primarily competitive experience whereas New Super Mario Bros. Wii required a cooperative experience to enjoy.[67] rated it A+, stating that it satisfyingly incorporated the innovations of prior Mario games while offering something for every kind of gamer, and improved on Super Mario World "in every way".[68] Gaming blog Kotaku highly praised the game, calling it a reason to buy a Wii.[69] X-Play gave it a 4 out of 5, praising the difficulty and levels of the game.[53]

Edge, while giving the game a positive score of 7/10, criticized the lack of traditional Mario charm, poor graphical detail and overall easiness.[41] GamesRadar, who also scored the game of 7/10, argued that the game lacked the creativity of others in the series.[70] The A.V. Club gave it a negative score of C+, calling it "the least essential Mario title to date", and stating that the game lacks a strong concept and shows an underlying repetitiveness in Mario games.[71] Nintendo Power argued that the game works as a sequel because it maintains what made the original Mario games great while adding new features.[50]


New Super Mario Bros. Wii received the Best Wii Game award at the 2009 Spike Video Game Awards. IGN gave it the 2009 Wii Game of the Year Award.[72] GameTrailers awarded it Best Wii Game of 2009.[73] It also received the Best Family Game of the Year award in Yahoo's 2009 Game Awards,[74] and the Nintendo Power Award for 2009's "Wii Game of the Year".[75]

New Super Mario Bros. Wii Coin World

New Super Mario Bros. Wii Coin World (New スーパーマリオブラザーズ Wii コインワールド) is a 2011 Japan-only arcade game developed by Capcom.[76] The gameplay features multiplayer, much like its console counterpart, and is based primarily on a slot machine mechanic. The game features a variety of "event" elements as well, each based upon gameplay from New Super Mario Bros. Wii. Winning various events and on the slot machine gives players opportunities to collect keys. Once five keys are collected, the player enters an event with Bowser to win a jackpot.[77]


  1. ^ a b やさしくひける New スーパーマリオブラザーズ Wii.  
  2. ^ "New SUPER MARIO BROS. Wii Release Date Announced".  
  3. ^ "Wii at $199.99 Beginning Sept. 27 publisher=Nintendo" (Press release). 2009-09-23. Retrieved 2009-09-23. 
  4. ^ "Multiplayer mayhem galore in new Mario adventure!". Nintendo of Europe. 2009-09-24. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  5. ^ "New Super Mario Bros. Wii – Release Summary".  
  6. ^ a b "Top Selling Software Sales Units - Wii Software".  
  7. ^ Thomas, Lucas M. (2009-06-03). "Call to Arms: Name the Toads!".  
  8. ^ a b "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Nintendo Wii Review – Video Preview" (Flash). IGN. 2009-10-29. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  9. ^ Anderson, Luke (2009-06-02). "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Press Conference Impressions".  
  10. ^ "Semi-annual Financial Results Briefing Q&A". Corporate Management Policy Briefing.  
  11. ^ Yawney, Mike (2009-11-16). "Review: New Super Mario Bros. Wii". The Review Crew. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  12. ^ "New Super Mario Bros. Wii 'Here We Go'" Instruction Booklet, p.18
  13. ^ "New Super Mario Bros. Wii 'Here We Go'" Instruction Booklet, p.7
  14. ^ a b "E3 2009: Shigeru Miyamoto Roundtable LiveBlog". IGN. 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2009-06-07. 
  15. ^ Razak, Matthew (2009-10-18). "New Mario Bros. Wii is going to be epic, video proof". Destructoid. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  16. ^ a b Crecente, Brian (2009-06-03). "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Preview: Classic Mario, Endless Play". Kotaku. Retrieved 2009-06-07. 
  17. ^ Parish, Jeremy (2009-06-04). "New Super Mario Bros (Wii)".  
  18. ^ Welsh, Oli (2009-06-02). "E3: New Super Mario Bros. Wii".  
  19. ^ Crecente, Brian (2009-11-14). "New Super Mario Bros. Wii In-Game Tips". Kotaku. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  20. ^ John, Tracy (2009-10-16). "Miyamoto: New Mario Tests Your Hard-Core Gaming Chops".  
  21. ^ Molina, Brett; Snider, Mike; Saltzman, Marc (2009-06-05). "A quick-play wrap-up for E3 summit".  
  22. ^ Totilo, Stephen (2009-10-05). Kind Code" Demo Shows New Super Mario Bros on Auto-Pilot""". Kotaku. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  23. ^ "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Stage Demo" (Flash).  
  24. ^ Tanaka, John (2009-05-30). "Japanese newspaper confirms sequels.".  
  25. ^ DeVires, Jack (2009-06-02). "E3 2009: New Super Mario Bros Wii Announced".  
  26. ^ Bozon, Mark (2009-06-02). "E3 2009: New Super Mario Bros. Wii Hands-on".  
  27. ^ M. Thomas, Lucas (2009-06-02). "E3 2009: Return of the Koopalings?".  
  28. ^ Casamassina, Matt (2011-08-19). "GC 2009: New Super Mario Bros. Hands-on".  
  29. ^ Casamassina, Matt (2011-08-19). "GC 2009: Nintendo's Gamescom Lineup".  
  30. ^ "GC 2009: Best of Gamescom 2009 Nominees".  
  31. ^ "Reggie – New Super Mario Bros. Wii 'red box' was the idea of NCL, but is a one-time deal". GoNintendo. 2009-11-13. Retrieved 2011-06-08. 
  32. ^ Plunkett, Luke. "You Are the Hero In Super Mario Bros. Mii". Kotaku. Retrieved 2011-06-08. 
  33. ^ Klepek, Patrick (2009-06-02). "New Super Mario Bros. Achieve Shigeru Miyamoto's Dream: Multiplayer". G4. Retrieved 2009-06-03. 
  34. ^ Chester, Nick (2009-10-16). "Peach's dress the reason for her not being playable in new Mario Wii". Destructoid. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  35. ^   ISBN 978-4-636-85336-0 C0073
  36. ^ East, Thomas (2009-12-17). "Video: Koji Kondo on making the classic Mario theme".  
  37. ^ Thomason, Steve. "Sizing Up Mario". Nintendo Power (202): 41–42. 
  38. ^ "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Reviews".  
  39. ^ "New Super Mario Bros. Wii (wii: 2009): Reviews".  
  40. ^ "New Super Mario Bros (Wii)".  
  41. ^ a b Edge, Dec 2009, p.86
  42. ^ Welsh, Olly (2009-11-16). "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Review".  
  43. ^ Famitsu Magazine, November 2009
  44. ^ "Manic Multiplayer Introduces A Chaotic Twist to a Classic Formula – New Super Mario Bros. Wii – Nintendo Wii".  
  45. ^ GamesRadar, November 2009"New Super Mario Bros. Wii". 
  46. ^ "GameSpot New Super Mario Bros. Wii Review".  
  47. ^ "The Consensus: New Super Mario Bros. Wii Review".  
  48. ^ "GameTrailers New Super Mario Bros. Wii review". 2009-12-29. Retrieved 2009-08-10. 
  49. ^ "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Review". IGN. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  50. ^ a b Nintendo Power Vol. 249
  51. ^ Nintendo Official Magazine, December 2009, pp 96.
  52. ^ VideoGamer, November 2009"New Super Mario Bros. Wii Review". 
  53. ^ a b "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Review".  
  54. ^ "Destructoid – Review: New Super Mario Bros. Wii".  
  55. ^ "New Super Mario Bros Wii".  
  56. ^ "Nintendo Review: New Super Mario Bros. Wii". Nintendo Life. Retrieved 2009-11-24. 
  57. ^ Alexander, Leigh (December 7, 2009). "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Sees Biggest Wii Debut Ever In Japan". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  58. ^ Gantayat, Anoop (December 16, 2009). "Major Sales Feats for Wii and PS3". Andriasang. Retrieved 2009-12-16. 
  59. ^ Alexander, Leigh (January 19, 2010). "NSMB Wii Fastest Title Ever To Top 3 Million In Japan". Gamasutra. Retrieved 2010-01-19. 
  60. ^ a b Kohler, Chris (December 10, 2009). "November NPD: Modern Warfare Shifts 6 Million Copies". Wired. Retrieved 2009-12-10. 
  61. ^ "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Passes 10 Million Units Sold". January 24, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-24. 
  62. ^ Gifford, Kevin (25 November 2009). "Japan Review Check: New SMB, Assassin's, Left 4 Dead 2".  
  63. ^ Ashcraft, Brian (24 November 2009). "Famitsu Awards New Super Mario Bros. Wii A Perfect Score". Kotaku. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  64. ^ Scullion, Chris (18 November 2009). "New Super Mario Bros. Wii".  
  65. ^ Jackson, Mike (5 November 2009). "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Review".  
  66. ^ Kolan, Patrick (2009-11-09). "New Super Mario Bros. Wii AU Review". IGN AU. Retrieved 2009-11-10. 
  67. ^ Scott, Ryan (2009-11-13). "The Consensus: New Super Mario Bros. Wii Review". Gamespy. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  68. ^ Parish, Jeremy (2009-11-13). "New Super Mario Bros (Wii) Review". 1UP. Retrieved 2009-11-13. 
  69. ^ Crecente, Brian (13 November 2009). "New Super Mario Bros. Wii Review: Go Buy A Wii". Kotaku. Retrieved 10 December 2009. 
  70. ^ Elston, Brett (13 November 2009). "New Super Mario Bros Wii".  
  71. ^ Teti, John (23 November 2009). "New Super Mario Bros. Wii".  
  72. ^ "Wii Wii Game of the Year 2009 - New Super Mario Bros". Retrieved 2011-06-08. 
  73. ^ Posted: Dec 30, 2009 (2009-12-30). "GameTrailers Game Of The Year Awards 2009 Video Game, Best Wii Game | Video Clip | Game Trailers & Videos". Retrieved 2011-06-08. 
  74. ^ "New Super Mario Bros. Wii for Wii (2009) Trivia". MobyGames. 2009-12-27. Retrieved 2011-06-08. 
  75. ^ Thomason, Steve, ed. (March 2010). "The 2009 Nintendo Power Awards". Nintendo Power (252): 56. 
  76. ^ New Super Mario Bros. Wii Coin World.
  77. ^ NSMB Wii Coin World Step 4.

External links

  • Official website
    • European mirror
    • Japanese Official site
  • Game profile at
  • New Super Mario Bros. Wii at the Internet Movie Database
  • New Super Mario Bros. Wii at MarioWiki
  • New Super Mario Bros. Wii Coin World at MarioWiki
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.