World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

New York Cosmos (2010)

Article Id: WHEBN0028262005
Reproduction Date:

Title: New York Cosmos (2010)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 2013 North American Soccer League season, North American Soccer League, 2014 Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup, Giovanni Savarese, David Diosa
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

New York Cosmos (2010)

New York Cosmos
Full name New York Cosmos
Nickname(s) The Cosmos
Founded August 1, 2010 (2010-08-01)[1][nb 1]
Stadium Shuart Stadium, Hempstead, New York[2]
Owner New York Cosmos LLC[5]
Chairman Seamus O'Brien[6]
Head Coach Giovanni Savarese[7]
League North American Soccer League[6]
2014 Spring: 2nd
Fall: 6th
Combined: 3rd
Playoffs: Championship semifinals
Website Club home page

The New York Cosmos are an American professional rebirth[8][9][10] of the original New York Cosmos (1970–1985) that played in the previous North American Soccer League (1968–1984).

The Cosmos' ownership group is headed by chairman Seamus O'Brien. Key executives include Chief Operating Officer Erik Stover, Vice Chairman Jeremy Wilkins and the team head coach Giovanni Savarese. A number of former stars are still involved with the team: Pelé as honorary president, with Shep Messing and Carlos Alberto as international ambassadors.


1985–2012: The fall of the original Cosmos and revival of the brand

The original New York Cosmos club was founded on December 10, 1970, and was named on February 4, 1971. The original North American Soccer League ceased operations after the 1984 season and the Cosmos were dissolved in 1985 after playing a season in the Major Indoor Soccer League.[11] Peppe Pinton, managing director for the Cosmos at the time, continued to run and operate youth camps started in 1977 and named after the club's stars.[12][13][14]

With the rise of Major League Soccer (MLS) during the late 1990s and 2000s, various New York City area entities approached Pinton about using the name for an MLS franchise. The existing franchise in New York, the MetroStars, made relevant inquiries both before and after becoming the New York Red Bulls in 2006.[15] Pinton was reluctant to let the name be used by an MLS team, believing that the league was unwilling to respect the Cosmos' heritage;[16] however, after seeing MLS reintroduce historical NASL names, he changed his mind. In late August 2009, Pinton sold the name and image rights to Paul Kemsley, the former vice-chairman of English Premier League club Tottenham Hotspur,[15][17][18] who headed a group intent on establishing a new Cosmos team in MLS. As the group's honorary president, Pelé announced the club's return on August 1, 2010.[19]

Kemsley's group included English soccer businessman [5]

The new Cosmos' first match was on August 5, 2011, when they played against Manchester United at Old Trafford in Paul Scholes's testimonial match. Cantona managed the team, mixing members of the Cosmos' under-23 team with guest players from around the world.[22][23][24]

The departure of Kemsley as chairman and CEO was announced by the Cosmos on October 26, 2011, with an official club statement saying that he wished "to pursue other interests and commitments". His replacement was not immediately announced.[25] A further press release on November 2 gave news of a company buyout, restructuring and various unspecified management changes within the organization. The statement also said that the goal of the club remained the same under its new, then unidentified owners – "unequivocally" to become an MLS team.[26]

2013–present: Return to competitive league play

The Cosmos announced on July 12, 2012, that they will start competitive play in the second-tier North American Soccer League in 2013, but insisted in the same press release that the club was still bent on ultimately joining MLS.[6][27] Giovanni Savarese, who had coached in the club's youth system, was confirmed as the senior team's first head coach on November 19 the same year.[7] About a month later, on December 11, former Red Bulls defender Carlos Mendes, a native of Long Island, became the new Cosmos' first senior player.[28]

The Cosmos found immediate success in the NASL, winning the Fall Season Championship with a 9–4–1 (Win-Draw-Loss) record.[29] On November 9, 2013, the team emerged as the winner of Soccer Bowl 2013, winning 1–0 against the spring season champions, the Atlanta Silverbacks.[30]


In July 2012, when the Cosmos' entry to the second-tier North American Soccer League was confirmed, starting in 2013, The New York Times reported that the club would initially play home games at James M. Shuart Stadium, on the campus of Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York, about 20 miles (32 km) east of downtown New York City on Long Island. The stadium seats 11,929,[4] and was home to the original Cosmos club during the 1972 and 1973 seasons.[2]

The Cosmos have proposed to construct a new 25,000-seat stadium at a parking lot next to the Belmont Park racetrack in Elmont, at the border between Queens and Nassau County. Plans for the $400 million project were submitted to the Empire State Development Corporation as a response to a request for proposal. A decision is pending.[31]


There are currently three supporters groups.[32] The main supporters group is the Borough Boys Supporters Club, a group originally formed in 2007 to lobby for the creation of a professional soccer team based in New York City. The members first met in October 2007 and decided on the name "Borough Boys" on November 17, 2007, after holding a vote. The club's original motivation was simply the desire for professional soccer in the city, and to that end it held talks with city officials in early 2008. Soon after Kemsley's group bought the Cosmos rights in late 2009, the club wrote an open letter asking him to create an MLS franchise within the city; he reacted positively, leading the Borough Boys to pledge their support. The Borough Boys have since maintained a close relationship with the Cosmos.[33][34]

The supporters club is made up of around 1,000 members, and represents a broad spectrum of fans from many different backgrounds.[35] The Borough Boys' original logo used the colors of New York City—white, blue and orange—and was based around the arches of the Brooklyn Bridge; it also used the motto of Brooklyn, Eendracht Maakt Macht, which translates from Dutch as "Unity makes strength".[35] After the club became affiliated with the Cosmos, it adopted a new emblem featuring a navy blue skull, seen in profile facing to the left, surrounded by green, yellow and blue "blades" similar to those on the Cosmos badge.[34][35]

La Banda del Cosmos[36] and The Cross Island Crew which is based on Long Island are two other supporters groups for the Cosmos. The Cross Island Crew was originally founded as Sagan's Army but decided to re-branded themselves in late 2013. The name comes from the region that they represent. The Cross Island Crew logo is a green ring with yellow edging, with the name is in white lettering in the green ring, and the center having the top of a lighthouse with in it.


For the 2013 season, all Cosmos games were broadcast live on ONE World Sports and live or tape-delayed on SNY. The majority of the games featured the on-air team of play-by-play announcer JP Dellacamera and Janusz Michallik as the color analyst. ONE World Sports also produced Cosmos Classics, an original series featuring historic Cosmos matches from the 1970s and 1980s.[37] The 2014 broadcasting package has not yet been announced by the club.


Current roster

As of July 19, 2014.[38]
No. Position Player Nation
1 Goalkeeper Maurer, JimmyJimmy Maurer      United States
2 Defender Freeman, HunterHunter Freeman      United States
3 Defender Gorskie, HunterHunter Gorskie      United States
4 Defender Mendes, CarlosCarlos Mendes (Captain)     United States
6 Defender Rovérsio,Rovérsio      Brazil
7 Forward , RaúlRaúl      Spain
8 Midfielder Díaz, DiomarDiomar Díaz      Venezuela
11 Midfielder Flores, AndrésAndrés Flores (on loan from Isidro Metapán)     El Salvador
12 Goalkeeper Zobeck, KyleKyle Zobeck      United States
13 Midfielder Guenzatti, SebastiánSebastián Guenzatti      Uruguay
14 Midfielder Szetela, DannyDanny Szetela      United States
16 Midfielder Murphy, DaneDane Murphy      United States
17 Midfielder Garcia, AyozeAyoze Garcia      Spain
18 Forward Stokkelien, MadsMads Stokkelien      Norway
19 Midfielder Senna, MarcosMarcos Senna      Spain
20 Forward Denissen, HansHans Denissen      Netherlands
21 Forward Diosa, DavidDavid Diosa      Colombia
25 Midfielder Chirishian, HagopHagop Chirishian      United States
27 Forward Johnson, JemalJemal Johnson      England
28 Midfielder Mulligan, JimmyJimmy Mulligan      United States
Forward Mkosana, LuckyLucky Mkosana      Zimbabwe

Retired numbers





Year Division League Regular Season Playoffs U.S. Open Cup Avg. Attendance
2013 2 NASL Spring: Did not enter
Fall: 1st
Overall: 5th
Champions Did not enter 6,859
2014 2 NASL Spring: 2nd
Fall: 6th
Overall: 3rd
Semifinal 5th Round 4,704

Note: Only regular season goals counted
DNQ = Did Not Qualify

Top goal scorers

# Pos. Name Nation Career NASL Playoffs US Open Cup Total
1 Midfielder Senna, MarcosMarcos Senna  Spain 2013– 5 1 6
2 Forward Díaz, DiomarDiomar Díaz  Venezuela 2013– 5 0 5
3 Midfielder Ferreira-Mendes, PauloPaulo Ferreira-Mendes  Brazil 2013– 4 0 4
4 Forward Noselli , AlessandroAlessandro Noselli  Italy 2013– 3 0 3
5 Forward Marošević, PeriPeri Marošević  United States 2013– 2 0 2
Forward López, Henry DavidHenry David López  Guatemala 2013 2 0 2
Midfielder Guenzatti, SebastianSebastian Guenzatti  Uruguay 2013– 2 0 2
8 Midfielder Szetela, DannyDanny Szetela  United States 2013– 1 0 1
Forward Dimitrov, StefanStefan Dimitrov  Bulgaria 2013– 1 0 1
Forward Ayoze García,Ayoze García  Spain 2013– 1 0 1
Forward Stokkelien, MadsMads Stokkelien  Norway 2014– 1 0 1

Last updated: May 9, 2014.
Bolded players are currently on the New York Cosmos roster.

Top assists

# Pos. Name Nation Career NASL Playoffs US Open Cup Total
1 Forward Dimitrov, StefanStefan Dimitrov  Bulgaria 2013– 3 0 3
2 Defender Freeman, HunterHunter Freeman  United States 2013– 2 0 2
Forward Díaz, DiomarDiomar Díaz  Venezuela 2013– 2 0 2
Midfielder Ayoze García,Ayoze García  Spain 2013– 2 0 2
Midfielder Guenzatti, SebastianSebastian Guenzatti  Uruguay 2013– 2 0 2
6 Midfielder Senna, MarcosMarcos Senna  Spain 2013– 1 0 1
Defender Veeder, KoreyKorey Veeder  United States 2013 1 0 1
Forward Stokkelien, MadsMads Stokkelien  Norway 2014– 1 0 1

Last updated: May 9, 2014.
Bolded players are currently on the New York Cosmos roster.

Most appearances

# Pos. Name Nation Career NASL Playoffs US Open Cup Total
1 Defender Mendes, CarlosCarlos Mendes  United States 2013– 17 1 18
Midfielder Ayoze García,Ayoze García  Spain 2013– 17 1 18
Midfielder Senna, MarcosMarcos Senna  Spain 2013– 17 1 18
4 Defender Freeman, HunterHunter Freeman  United States 2013– 16 1 17
Forward Díaz, DiomarDiomar Díaz  Venezuela 2013– 16 1 17
Midfielder Szetela, DannyDanny Szetela  United States 2013– 16 1 17
7 Defender Rovérsio,Rovérsio  Brazil 2013– 15 1 16
8 Forward Dimitrov, StefanStefan Dimitrov  Bulgaria 2013– 14 1 15
9 Midfielder Guenzatti, SebastianSebastian Guenzatti  Uruguay 2013– 13 1 14
Goalkeeper Reynish, KyleKyle Reynish  United States 2013 13 1 14
11 Midfielder Nane, JosephJoseph Nane  Cameroon 2013– 13 13

Last Updated: May 9, 2013.
Bolded players are currently on the New York Cosmos roster.

Club captains

Dates Name Nation
2013– Carlos Mendes  United States

Youth Academy

The club operates the Cosmos Academy, which it formed on foundation in August 2010. The academy is affiliated with Blau Weiss Gottschee and based in Queens, New York. It competes at various levels of the U.S. Soccer Development Academy, fielding teams in the under-9 to under-18 age groups.[42] The US under-17 team's Spring 2011 roster included three players from the Cosmos Academy, more than any MLS team.[43][44]

A western division called Cosmos Academy West existed between August 2010 and August 2011, based in Pomona, California, about 27 miles (43 km) east of Los Angeles.[nb 2] At the end of 2010, it was ranked by Soccer America as the third best boys' club in the United States and the top boys' club in California.[46][47] Six months after its original partnership with Los Angeles Futbol Club was terminated in February 2011,[45][46][48] Cosmos Academy West disbanded in August 2011, its operations folded into those of MLS club Chivas USA.[49] This was done so that the Cosmos would fit more closely the requirements of a potential MLS team based out of New York City.[50]

As part of the deal made with the Cosmos in 2010, Blau Weiss Gottschee were to receive payment from New York in January and August each year. After the first two bi-annual payments were made on-time, an unspecified amount was still outstanding from the third three months after its due date on August 1, 2011, causing Blau Weiss Gottschee to file suit for non-payment against the Cosmos on November 8, 2011. Because of the lack of funding, Blau Weiss was forced to restore the tuition, transport and training fees which players had been required to pay before the 2010 deal, but which had been thereafter covered by the Cosmos sponsorship. The Blau Weiss statement did not reveal the court in which the claim will be filed.[51]

An under-23 Cosmos side was accepted into the USL Premier Development League (PDL), the fourth tier of the United States soccer pyramid, in May 2011, and was expected to join for the 2012 season. In preparation for this it played exhibition matches against existing PDL clubs during 2011, coached by Savarese.[52] However, it did not take part in the 2012 PDL season.[53]

Ownership and team management

Pelé, pictured in June 2010, became honorary president of the revived Cosmos in August that year.
Eric Cantona, the club's former director of soccer, seen here in 2009, served from January 2011 until November 2012.
As of December 3, 2014.[54]


Technical staff


  • Director of Finance: Kevin Kletz
  • Director of Licensing, Merchandising and Retail Development: Paul White
  • Director of Operations: Sofia Sanchez
  • Operations and Events Manager: David Schenkel
  • Office Manager: Margaret Valenzuela

Potential Major League Soccer expansion

At the time of the Cosmos' return in 2010, MLS was made up of 16 franchises, with three new teams set to join over the following two seasons: the Vancouver Whitecaps FC and Portland Timbers in 2011, and the Montreal Impact in 2012. The earliest a 20th franchise could potentially join MLS would be in 2013.[55] Newsday reported in late April 2011 that the league was committed to placing the next franchise in the New York borough of Queens if a deal could be reached.[56] Terry Byrne said in July 2011 that the stadium was the biggest factor regarding the Cosmos' accession to MLS. "The league wants us to demonstrate that we are capable of taking a stadium [area] and building a stadium," he said.[57]

Working alongside New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg, the Cosmos sought a location within New York City's boroughs rather than a surrounding city (which would distinguish them from the Red Bulls, based in Harrison, New Jersey). Over a dozen locations around Queens, The Bronx, and Manhattan were marked out in March 2011,[33][57] narrowed down to four sites by the end of July; two in Queens and one each in Brooklyn and "uptown" Manhattan.[57]

Apart from the stadium, an issue regarding MLS membership was the franchise fee that the Cosmos would have to pay to the league. When the club first announced its intention to join, the price stood at $40 million, but by the end of July 2011 the fee for any expansion team playing in New York had risen to $70 million, a 57% rise from the entry price paid by Montreal. At this time the club and league were in negotiations, which included talks over perhaps starting play at a temporary home stadium for "two or three years".[58] Negotiations broke down, in part due to the lack of a stadium plan and disputes over the league's single entity structure.[10]

In May 2013, Major League Soccer announced that their 20th franchise would be a different New York–based team, New York City FC, a new team co-owned by Premier League team Manchester City and Major League Baseball team the New York Yankees.[59] Cosmos chairman Seamus O'Brien, however, noted that London had fourteen professional soccer teams, so New York City could "handle three."[60]

In February 2014, MLS commissioner Don Garber named three other markets as candidates for the final expansion team that would get the league's stated 24-team target by 2020,[61] and on April 25, 2014, he told Associated Press's sports editors that there would not be a third New York team.[62]


  1. ^ Original NASL team founded December 10, 1970.
  2. ^ While Cosmos Academy West existed, the Cosmos Academy based in Queens was called Cosmos Academy East.[45]


  • Newsham, Gavin (2006). Once in a Lifetime: The Incredible Story of the New York Cosmos.  
Source notes
  1. ^ New York Cosmos. "August 01, 2010 - Pele announces to the return of the New York Cosmos". New York Cosmos. Retrieved September 5, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Bell, Jack (July 12, 2012). "Cosmos to Play in N.A.S.L. in ’13".  
  3. ^ Big Apple Soccer. "Hofstra's Capacity". Big Apple Soccer. 
  4. ^ a b Dicker, Ron (August 29, 2002). "College Football; Hofstra to Start Season Against Best in Its Class".  
  5. ^ a b c "The Club". New York City: New York Cosmos. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c O'Brien, Seamus (July 12, 2012). "New York Cosmos Returns to NASL". New York City: New York Cosmos. Retrieved July 12, 2012. 
  7. ^ a b "Gio Savarese Named New York Cosmos Head Coach". New York City: New York Cosmos. December 19, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2012. 
  8. ^ Williams, Jack (July 31, 2013). "Rebirth of the Cosmos". Retrieved September 5, 2013. 
  9. ^ Andrade, Mariano (August 4, 2013). "Pele looks on as New York Cosmos reborn with a win". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved September 5, 2013. 
  10. ^ a b Bell, Jack (August 2, 2013). "Reborn Cosmos Return to the Field". New York Times. Retrieved September 5, 2013. 
  12. ^ "COSMOS DROPPED BY N.A.S.L.".  
  13. ^ "Cosmos Soccer Day Camp Mixes Summer and Sport".  
  14. ^ "Sports People; Fewer Kicks".  
  15. ^ a b Bell, Jack (April 19, 2006). "Red Bulls May Be Mix of Former Cosmos".  
  16. ^ Spangler, Adam (May 4, 2009). "the cosmos, for free!". this is american soccer. Retrieved June 12, 2009. 
  17. ^ Sale, Charles (August 29, 2009). "Kemsley planning rebirth of New York Cosmos".  
  18. ^ Dyer, Kristian (May 15, 2007). "Cosmos' legacy yet to be fully embraced by MLS". ESPNsoccernet.  
  19. ^ Bell, Jack (August 1, 2010). "Cosmos Begin Anew, With Eye Toward M.L.S".  
  20. ^ Labidou, Alex. "Former Liverpool CEO Rick Parry Discusses Involvement With New York Cosmos".  
  21. ^ "Eric Cantona takes New York Cosmos director job". BBC. January 19, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2011. 
  22. ^ Batram, Steve (June 11, 2011). "Scholes match announced". ( 
  23. ^ "Paul Scholes 'one of Manchester United's greatest' says Sir Alex Ferguson". BBC. August 5, 2011. Retrieved August 6, 2011. 
  24. ^ Marshall, Adam (August 5, 2011). "United 6 New York Cosmos 0". (Manchester United). Retrieved August 6, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Paul Kemsley Steps Down as Chairman/CEO of The New York Cosmos". New York City: New York Cosmos. October 26, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2011. 
  26. ^ "Management Update From The New York Cosmos". New York City: New York Cosmos. November 2, 2011. Retrieved November 10, 2011. 
  27. ^ O'Mard, Marcus Kwesi (July 12, 2012). "Report: New York Cosmos Plan to Make NASL Return in 2013". Watertown, Massachusetts:  
  28. ^ "Long Island's own Carlos Mendes Returns Home to Play for New York Cosmos". New York City: New York Cosmos. December 11, 2012. Retrieved December 11, 2012. 
  29. ^ "Cosmos Clinch NASL Fall Season Title In 2-1 Comeback Win At San Antonio". 
  30. ^ Bell, Jack (November 10, 2013). "Cosmos Rewind: Champions Again". The New York Times. 
  31. ^ "New York Cosmos plan Belmont Park soccer stadium". USA Today. Retrieved September 20, 2013. 
  32. ^ "NY Cosmos Supporters". 
  33. ^ a b Diaz, Cesar (March 24, 2011). "Borough Boys SC Host Successful Q&A with the New York Cosmos Front Office". Latino Sports. Latino Sports Ventures. Retrieved March 24, 2011. In addition, they have looked into the Bronx, Manhattan, and Randall's Island as potential sites other than Queens. 
  34. ^ a b Laveglia, Nick; Glickman, Leo. "The History of The Borough Boys". New York City: New York Cosmos. Retrieved August 3, 2011. 
  35. ^ a b c Dobens, Chris. "Mission: A History of the Borough Boys". Borough Boys Supporters Club. Retrieved August 3, 2011. 
  36. ^ "La Banda Del Cosmos". 
  37. ^ " News: SNY to broadcast Cosmos games". Retrieved February 17, 2014. 
  38. ^ "First Team". New York Cosmos. Retrieved July 19, 2014. 
  39. ^ Cosmos retiring Giorgio Chinaglia's N° 9 shirt",, 5 June 2014""". Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
  40. ^ Cosmos to honor Chinaglia, retire number in season-ending ceremony", Empire of Soccer, 25 Abr 2014""". Empire of Soccer. Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
  41. ^ "Heritage".  
  42. ^ "Academy". New York City: New York Cosmos. Retrieved March 13, 2011. 
  43. ^ Schaerlaeckens, Leander (April 24, 2011). "Cantona's big plans for the Cosmos".  
  44. ^ "Spring 2011 Roster".  
  45. ^ a b "The New York Cosmos Goes Coast-to-Coast With Cosmos Academy". New York City: New York Cosmos. August 25, 2010. Retrieved August 25, 2010. 
  46. ^ a b "Cosmos Academy West continues membership in USSDA". New York City: New York Cosmos. February 7, 2011. Retrieved March 13, 2011. 
  47. ^ Kennedy, Paul (December 7, 2010). "2010 Soccer America's Best Boys Clubs".  
  48. ^ "Press Release - Los Angeles Futbol Club".  
  49. ^ Eskilson, J. R. (August 9, 2011). "Cosmos Academy West disbands; joins Chivas USA Academy". Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  50. ^ "New York Cosmos Announce Closure of Cosmos Academy West". New York City: New York Cosmos. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2011. 
  51. ^ Lewis, Michael (November 8, 2011). "Gottschee club sues Cosmos". Big Apple Soccer. New York City: Sports Vue Interactive. Retrieved November 10, 2011. 
  52. ^ "New York Cosmos U23 Join PDL". USL Soccer Network.  
  53. ^ "PDL Schedule, Alignment Released". USL Soccer Network.  
  54. ^ "Management". New York City: New York Cosmos. Retrieved December 3, 2014. 
  55. ^ Ogden, Mark (January 19, 2011). "Eric Cantona's appointment at the New York Cosmos part of battle to restore football to heart of the Big Apple".  
  56. ^ Logan, Greg (April 21, 2011). "Second MLS club for New York on horizon".  
  57. ^ a b c Labidou, Alex (July 28, 2011). "What's going on with the New York Cosmos?". Retrieved July 28, 2011. 
  58. ^ "Cantona revelling in Cosmos role as United legend makes Old Trafford return".  
  59. ^ Mahoney, Ridge (May 21, 2013). "MLS says yes to Yankees and no to Cosmos". Retrieved September 6, 2013. 
  60. ^ Bercovici, Jeff (May 21, 2013). "Forbes article on Cosmos joining MLS after NYCFC". Retrieved September 6, 2013. 
  61. ^ "MLS Commissioner Don Garber gives update on league's expansion plans". Feb 20, 2014. 
  62. ^ "Twitter / AndrewDasNYT: Garber says @NYCosmos aren't". Retrieved April 28, 2014. 

External links

  • Official website
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.