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Nitrogen deficiency

 

Nitrogen deficiency

A young cabbage plant exhibiting nitrogen deficiency.

Nitrogen deficiency can be prevented in the short term by using grass mowings as a green manure crops such as grazing rye to cover soil over the winter will help to prevent nitrogen leaching, while leguminous green manures such as winter tares will fix additional nitrogen from the atmosphere.

Contents

  • Symptoms 1
    • Disease 1.1
  • Detection 2
  • Corrective Measures 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5

Symptoms

Some symptoms of nitrogen deficiency (in absence or low supply) are given below :

  1. The chlorophyll content of the plant leaves is reduced which results in pale yellow colour. Older leaves turn completely yellow.
  2. Flowering, frutings, protein and starch contents are reduced. Reduction in protein results stunted growth and dormant lateral buds.

[1]

Disease

Plants look thin, pale and the condition is called general starvation.[1]

Detection

The visual symptoms of nitrogen deficiency mean that it can be relatively easy to detect in some plant species. Symptoms include poor plant growth, and leaves that are pale green or yellow because they are unable to make sufficient chlorophyll. Leaves in this state are said to be chlorotic. Lower leaves (older leaves) show symptoms first, since the plant will move nitrogen from older tissues to more important younger ones.[2] Nevertheless, plants are reported to show nitrogen deficiency symptoms at different parts. For example, Nitrogen deficiency of tea is identified by retarded shoot growth and yellowing of younger leaves.[3]

However, these physical symptoms can also be caused by numerous other stresses, such as deficiencies in other nutrients, toxicity, herbicide injury, disease, insect damage or environmental conditions. Therefore, nitrogen deficiency is most reliably detected by conducting quantitative tests in addition to assessing the plants visual symptoms. These tests include soil tests and plant tissue test.[4]

By measuring chlorophyll content Nitrogen deficiency can be detected.

Plant tissue tests destructively sample the plant of interest. However, nitrogen deficiency can also be detected non-destructively by measuring chlorophyll content.

Chlorophyll content tests work because leaf nitrogen content and chlorophyll concentration are closely linked, which would be expected since the majority of leaf nitrogen is contained in chlorophyll molecules.[5] Chlorophyll content can be detected with a Chlorophyll content meter; a portable instrument that measures the greenness of leaves to estimate their relative chlorophyll concentration.

Chlorophyll content can also be assessed with a chlorophyll fluorometer, which measures a chlorophyll fluorescence ratio to identify phenolic compounds that are produced in higher quantities when nitrogen is limited. These instruments can therefore be used to non-destructively test for nitrogen deficiency.

Corrective Measures

Fertilisers like ammonium phosphate, calcium ammonium nitrate, urea can be supplied. Foliar spray of urea can be a quick method.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Pandey, S N; Sinha, B K. "Mineral Nutrition". Plant Physiology (fourth ed.). 576Masjid Road, Jangpura, New Delhi-110014: VIKAS PUBLISHING HOUSE Pvt. Ltd. pp. 125–126.  
  2. ^ http://www.rainbowplantfood.com/agronomics/efu/nitrogen.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.upasitearesearch.org/soil-nutrition/
  4. ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/15085476/CROP-NUTRIENT-DEFICIENCIES-TOXICITIES
  5. ^ http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2349&context=extensionhist
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