World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Alternative names Chhana, chhena
Type Cheese
Place of origin India and Middle East
Region or state Indian Subcontinent and Middle East
Main ingredients Strained curdled milk
Other information Rich source of milk protein
Cookbook: Paneer 

Paneer (pronounced ) is a fresh cheese common in Indian cuisine. It is an unaged, acid-set, non-melting farmer cheese or curd cheese made by curdling heated milk with lemon juice, vinegar, or any other food acids. Its crumbly and moist form is called chhena in eastern India and in Bangladesh.


  • History 1
  • Preparation 2
  • Dishes 3
  • Fast food 4
  • Similar cheeses 5
  • References 6


The word "paneer" is of Persian origin.[1] The Turkish word peynir, the Persian word panir, the Azerbaijani word panir, and the Armenian word panir (պանիր), all derived from "paneer", refers to any type of cheese. The origin of paneer itself is debated. Vedic Indian, Afghan-Iranian and Portuguese-Bengali origins have been proposed for paneer.[2][3]

Vedic literature refers to a substance that is interpreted by some authors, such as Sanjeev Kapoor, as a form of paneer.[2] According to Arthur Berriedale Keith, a kind of cheese is "perhaps referred to" in Rigveda 6.48.18.[4] However, Otto Schrader believes that the Rigveda only mentions "a skin of sour milk, not cheese in the proper sense".[5] K. T. Achaya mentions that acidulation of milk was a taboo in Indo-Aryan culture, pointing out that the legends about Krishna (who was brought up by dairy farmers) make several references to milk, butter, ghee and yogurt, but do not mention sour milk cheese.[6]

Based on texts such as Charaka Samhita, BN Mathur wrote that the earliest evidence of a heat-acid coagulated milk product in India can be traced to 75-300 CE, in the Kushan-Satavahana era.[7] Sunil Kumar etal. interpret this product as the present-day paneer. According to them, paneer is indigenous to north-western part of South Asia, and was introduced in India by Afghan and Iranian travelers.[8] D.R. Ghodekar of India's National Dairy Research Institute also believed that paneer was introduced into India by Afghan and Iranian invaders.[9]

According to writers such as K.T. Achaya, Andrea S. Wiley and Pat Chapman, the Portuguese introduced the technique of "breaking" milk with acid to Bengal in 17th century. Thus, Indian acid-set cheeses such as paneer and chhena were first prepared in Bengal, under Portuguese influence.[10][6][11]


Paneer, homemade
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 182 kJ (43 kcal)
5.5 g
Sugars 5 g
0.9 g
3.6 g
Vitamin A 174 IU
127 mg
0 mg
11.9 mg
101 mg
161 mg
47 mg
0.5 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Paneer is prepared by adding food acid, such as lemon juice, vinegar, citric acid or yogurt,[12] to hot milk to separate the curds from the whey. The curds are drained in muslin or cheesecloth and the excess water is pressed out. The resulting paneer is dipped in chilled water for 2–3 hours to improve its texture and appearance. From this point, the preparation of paneer diverges based on its use and regional tradition.

In most Nepalese cuisines, the curds are wrapped in cloth, placed under a heavy weight such as a stone slab for two to three hours, and then cut into cubes for use in curries. Pressing for a shorter time (approximately 20 minutes) results in a softer, fluffier cheese.

In Indian and Bengali cuisine, the curds are beaten or kneaded by hand into a dough-like consistency called ছানা sana in Assamese, ছানা chhana in Bengali, or ଛେନା chhena in Oriya and Maithili. In these regions, sana/chhana/chhena is distinguished from ponir, a salty semi-hard cheese with a sharper flavor and high salt content. Hard ponir is typically eaten in slices at teatime with biscuits or various types of bread, or deep-fried in a light batter.

In the area surrounding the Gujarati city of Surat, Surti Paneer is made by draining the curds and ripening them in whey for 12 to 36 hours.


Mattar paneer, a vegetarian dish from India
Saag paneer or palak paneer, a spinach-based curry dish
Panner Butter Masala

Paneer is the most common type of cheese used in traditional Indian cuisines. The use of paneer is more common in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan due to the prominence of milk in their cuisine. It is sometimes wrapped in dough and deep-fried or served with either spinach (palak paneer) or peas (mattar paneer).

The well-known rasgulla features plain chhana beaten by hand and shaped into balls which are boiled in syrup. The sana / chhana / chhena used in such cases is manufactured by a slightly different procedure from paneer; it is drained but not pressed, so that some moisture is retained, which makes for a soft, malleable consistency. It may, however, be pressed slightly into small cubes and curried to form a dalna in Maithili, Oriya and Bengali cuisines.

Some paneer dishes include:

Fast food

A Pizza with Paneer and vegetable topping from India.

Most international fast food restaurants in India offer paneer. McDonalds India serves the McSpicy Paneer[13] and Paneer Wrap.[14] In the United Kingdom, Subway has started serving a saag paneer patty. The Tamatanga urban Indian cuisine restaurant also serves a paneer wrap.[15] Taco Bell India serves a paneer and potato burrito.[16] Pizza Hut,[17] Domino's,[18] and Papa John's[19] have pizzas with paneer toppings.

Similar cheeses

Anari, a fresh mild whey cheese produced in Cyprus, is very similar in taste and texture to fresh Indian paneer.

Circassian cheese is produced using a similar method and is close in consistency to paneer, but is usually salted.

Farmer cheese, dry curd cottage cheese, and firm versions of quark are similar except that they are made from cultured milk and may be salted.

Queso blanco or queso fresco are often recommended as substitutes in the Americas as they are more commercially available in many American markets. Both are generally salted, unlike paneer.


  1. ^ The Indian Historical Quarterly, Volume 2, Issues 1-2. Ramanand Vidya Bhawan. 1985. p. 236. 
  2. ^ a b  
  3. ^ Timothy G. Roufs and Kathleen Smyth Roufs (2014). Sweet Treats around the World: An Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 168.  
  4. ^  
  5. ^  
  6. ^ a b Harlan Walker, ed. (2000). Milk - Beyond the Dairy: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 1999. Oxford Symposium. pp. 53–57.  
  7. ^ Indian Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 45. Indian Dairy Science Association. 1992. p. 281. 
  8. ^ Kumar, Sunil; Rai, D.C.; Niranjan, K.; Bhat, Zuhaib (2011). "Paneer—An Indian soft cheese variant: a review". Journal of Food Science & Technology (Springer) 51 (5): 821–831.  
  9. ^ R. K. Robinson and A. Y. Tamime (1996). Feta & Related Cheeses. CRC Press. p. 231.  
  10. ^  
  11. ^ Andrea S. Wiley (2014). Cultures of Milk. Harvard University Press. p. 2.  
  12. ^ Adiraja Dasa. The Hare Krishna book of Vegetarian Cooking. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1989, ISBN 0-902677-07-1
  13. ^ "McDonald's launches McSpicy products". The Hindu. April 3, 2011. 
  14. ^
  15. ^ Mitra, Kushan (June 12, 2011). "Say (Cottage) Cheese: McDonalds paneer burger for the Indian palate". Retrieved July 1, 2011. 
  16. ^ Place, Investor (March 30, 2011). "Taco Bell paneer and potato burritos are a hit". MSN. Retrieved July 1, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Pizza Hut India menu". 
  18. ^ "Dominos Peppy Paneer Pizza". 
  19. ^ "Papa Johns Pizza India menu". 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.