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Title: Parambikulam  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Changeable Hawk-Eagle, Scops owl, Palakkad district, Malabar rainforests, Chalakudy River, Wildlife photography, Oriental Scops Owl, Indian elephant, Indirana semipalmata, Parambikulam Dam
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Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary
Parambikulam Tiger Reserve
Location Palakkad District, Kerala, India
Nearest city Coimbatore (85 km)

10°23′0″N 76°42′30″E / 10.38333°N 76.70833°E / 10.38333; 76.70833Coordinates: 10°23′0″N 76°42′30″E / 10.38333°N 76.70833°E / 10.38333; 76.70833

Area 285 square kilometres (110 sq mi)
Established 1973
Governing body Kerala Forest Dept.

Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is a 285 square kilometres (110 sq mi) protected area in Chittur taluk in Palakkad district of Kerala state, South India. Established in 1973, it is in the Sungam range of hills between the Anaimalai Hills and Nelliampathy Hills.[1][2][3] The Western Ghats, Anamalai Sub-Cluster, including all of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, is under consideration by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.[4] The sanctuary is the home of 4 different tribes of indigenous peoples including the Kadar, Malasar, Muduvar and Mala Malasar settled in six colonies. Parambikkulam Wildlife Sanctuary was declared as part of the 391 square kilometres (151.0 sq mi)[5] Parambiculam Tiger Reserve on February 19, 2010.[6] [7] [8]


The sanctuary is located between Longitude:76° 35’- 76° 50’ E, and Latitude:10° 20’ – 10° 26’ N. It is 135 kilometres (84 mi) from Palakkad town and adjacent to the Annamalai Wildlife Sanctuary to the east in Tamil Nadu. It is bordered to the north by Nemmara Forest Division, to the south by Vazhachal Forest Division and the west by Chalakudy Forest Division. The sanctuary has a hornblende, biotite, gneiss and charnockite geology.

Altitude ranges between 300 m and 1438 m. There is a 600 m elevation opening through the Nelliampathy hills from Anamalai hills on the northern boundary of the sanctuary at Thoothampara. Major peaks in the sanctuary are Karimala (1438 m) in the southern boundary of the sanctuary, Pandaravarai (1290 m) in the north, Kuchimudi, Vengoli Malai (1120 m) in the eastern boundary and Puliyarapadam (1010 m) in the west.

The sanctuary has three man-made reservoirs; Parambikulam, Thunacadavu and Peruvaripallam, with a combined area of 20.66 km². The Thuvaiar water falls empty into one of the reservoirs. There are 7 major valleys and 3 major rivers, the Parambikulam, the Sholayar and the Thekkedy. The Karappara river and Kuriarkutty river also drain the area. See 3-D topographic maps

Visitor information

Trekking in the forest is allowed with prior permission. Boating can be done at the reservoir. The Cannimare Teak Tree, which is said to be Asia’s largest, is here near Thoonakkadavu village.

There is a tree-house in the Reserve Forest area in Thoonakkadavu, the headquarters of Parambikkulam, which has to be booked in advance. The Rest Houses of the State Forest Department at Thoonakkadavu, Thellikkal and Elathode offer comfortable lodging.[9]

Parambikkulam is only accessible by road from Pollachi, Tamil Nadu. Palakkad to Pollachi is about 45 km; then Pollachi to Parambikkulam is about 65 km. The nearest railway station is at Pollachi and the nearest airport is at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, about 120 km via Palakkad.


The sanctuary has a rich diversity of animal life including: Mammals 39 species, Amphibians 16 sp., Birds 268 sp., Reptiles 61 sp., Fish 47 sp., Insects 1049 sp. and Butterflies 124 sp.

  • Reptiles- Reptiles of very high importance in Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary include: Checklist Of Reptile Species
  • Fish- 47 species of fish are recorded in the Sanctuary of which seven species are listed as endangered and 17 are endemic to Western Ghats. Some fishes include: listing of Fish.
  • Birds- 268 bird species have been recorded in the sanctuary. 134 species are listed as rare and 18 species are endemic to Western Ghats. PDF
  • Butterflies- There are 124 species of butterflies recorded in the sanctuary of which 34 are rare and endemic. See checklist of Butterflies found in Parambikulam PDF
  • Amphibians- 23 amphibian species living in the sanctuary include: Ridged toad it is near kerala


The sanctuary has a variety of trees mainly teak, neem, sandalwood and rosewood. Even the oldest ever teak tree, Kannimara Teak exists here. It is about 450 years old and has a girth of 6.8 metres (22 ft) and a height of 49.5 metres (162 ft). It won the Mahavriksha Puraskar given by the Indian Government.


In April 2007 a wild fire in parts of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary and the adjoining Nelliampathy forests destroyed hundreds of acres of forest tracts and plantations. Fires were caused by unemployed firewatchers and honey gatherers.

One of the reasons for the fires was the lack of pre-monsoon rain in the area. The area used to get rain in during January, February, March and April. This year, there was only 4 mm rain in January and after that there was no rain. Nelliampathy was facing an unprecedented drought this summer. The temperature reached 34oC in April when the average high is usually 26oC.[12]


External links

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