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Pat Nixon

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Pat Nixon

Pat Nixon
First Lady of the United States
In role
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
Preceded by Lady Bird Johnson
Succeeded by Betty Ford
Second Lady of the United States
In role
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
Preceded by Jane Hadley Barkley
Succeeded by Lady Bird Johnson
Personal details
Born Thelma Catherine Ryan
(1912-03-16)March 16, 1912
Ely, Nevada, U.S.
Died June 22, 1993(1993-06-22) (aged 81)
Park Ridge, New Jersey, U.S.
Resting place Nixon Presidential Library
Yorba Linda, California
Spouse(s) Richard Nixon
Children Tricia Nixon Cox (b. 1946)
Julie Nixon Eisenhower (b. 1948)
Parents William Ryan, Sr. and Katherine Halberstadt
Alma mater Fullerton College
University of Southern California
Profession clerk, secretary, technician, teacher, analyst
Religion Methodist

Thelma Catherine "Pat" Nixon (née Ryan; March 16, 1912 – June 22, 1993) was the wife of Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States, and First Lady of the United States from 1969 to 1974.

Born in Ely, Nevada, she grew up with her two brothers in what is now Cerritos, California, graduating from high school in 1929. She attended Fullerton Junior College and later the University of Southern California. She paid for her schooling by working multiple jobs, including pharmacy manager, typist, radiographer, and retail clerk. In 1940, she married lawyer Richard Nixon and they had two daughters. Nixon campaigned for her husband in his successful congressional campaigns of 1946 and 1948. Richard Nixon was elected Vice President in the Eisenhower administration, whereupon Pat undertook many missions of goodwill with her husband and gained favorable media coverage. She assisted her husband in both his unsuccessful 1960 presidential campaign and later in his successful 1968 presidential campaign.

As First Lady, Pat Nixon promoted a number of charitable causes, including volunteerism. She oversaw the collection of more than 600 pieces of historic art and furnishings for the White House, an acquisition larger than that of any other administration. She was the most traveled First Lady in U.S. history, a record unsurpassed until twenty-five years later. She accompanied the President as the first First Lady to visit China and the Soviet Union and her solo trips to Africa and South America gained her recognition as "Madame Ambassador"; she was the first First Lady to enter a combat zone as well. These trips gained her favorable reception in the media and the host countries. Her tenure ended when, after being re-elected in a landslide victory in 1972, President Nixon resigned two years later amid the Watergate scandal.

Her public appearances became increasingly rare later in life. She and her husband returned to California, and later moved to New Jersey. She suffered two strokes, one in 1976 and another in 1983, then was diagnosed with lung cancer in 1992. She died in 1993, aged 81.


  • Early life 1
  • Education and career 2
  • Marriage and family, early campaigns 3
  • Wife of the Vice President, 1953–1961 4
  • Her husband's campaigns—1960, 1962 and 1968 5
  • First Lady of the United States, 1969–1974 6
    • Major initiatives 6.1
    • Life in the White House 6.2
    • Travels 6.3
    • Fashion and style 6.4
    • Watergate 6.5
  • Public perception 7
  • Later life 8
  • Death and funeral 9
  • Legacy 10
  • Footnotes 11
  • References 12
  • External links 13

Early life

Thelma Catherine Ryan was born in the small mining town of Ely, Nevada, the day before Saint Patrick's Day.[1] Her father, William M. Ryan Sr., was a sailor, gold miner, and truck farmer of Irish descent; her mother, Katherine Halberstadt, was a German immigrant.[1] "Pat" was a nickname given to her by her father, referring to her birthdate and Irish ancestry.[1] Upon enrolling in college in 1931 she dropped her first name of Thelma, replacing it with Pat and occasionally rendering it as Patricia; the name change, however, was not a legal action, merely one of preference.[2][3]

After her birth, the Ryan family moved to California, and in 1914 settled on a small truck farm in Artesia (present-day Cerritos).[4] Thelma Ryan's high-school yearbook page gives her nickname as "Buddy" and her ambition to run a boarding house.[5]

During this time she worked on the family farm, and also at a local bank as a janitor and bookkeeper. Her mother died of cancer in 1924.[6] Pat, who was 12 at the time, assumed all the household duties for her father, who died in 1929 of silicosis, and two older brothers, William Jr. (1910–1997) and Thomas (1911–1992). She also had a half-sister, Neva Bender (born 1909), and a half-brother, Matthew Bender (born 1907), from her mother's first marriage;[1] her mother's first husband had died during a flash flood in South Dakota.[1]

Education and career

It has been said that few, if any, First Ladies worked as consistently before their marriage as did Pat Nixon.[1] As she told the writer Gloria Steinem during the 1968 presidential campaign, "I never had time to think about things like that—who I wanted to be, or who I admired, or to have ideas. I never had time to dream about being anyone else. I had to work."[7]

After graduating from Excelsior High School in 1929, she attended Fullerton Junior College. She paid for her education by working odd jobs, including as a driver, a pharmacy manager, a telephone operator, and a typist.[1] She also earned money sweeping the floors of a local bank,[1] and from 1930 until 1932, she lived in New York City, working as a secretary and Radiographer.[6]

Determined "to make something out of myself",[8] she enrolled in 1931 at the University of Southern California (USC), where she majored in merchandising. A former professor noted that she "stood out from the empty-headed, overdressed little sorority girls of that era like a good piece of literature on a shelf of cheap paperbacks."[9] She held part-time jobs on campus, worked as a sales clerk in Bullock's-Wilshire department store,[10] taught typing and shorthand at a high school,[6] and supplemented her income by working as an extra in the film industry.[11] She appeared as part of a brief walk-on in the 1935 film Becky Sharp, as well as the 1936 film The Great Ziegfeld.[12]

In 1937, Pat Ryan graduated cum laude from USC with a Bachelor of Science degree in merchandising,[1] together with a certificate to teach at the high school level, which USC deemed equivalent to a Master's degree.[13] Pat accepted a position as a high school teacher in Whittier, California.[11]

Marriage and family, early campaigns

While in Whittier, Pat Ryan met a young lawyer fresh out of Duke University Law School, Richard Milhous Nixon. The two became acquainted at a Little Theater group when they were cast together in The Dark Tower.[6] Known as Dick, he asked Pat Ryan to marry him the first night they went out. "I thought he was nuts or something!" she recalled.[14] He courted the redhead he called his "wild Irish Gypsy" for two years,[15] even driving her to and from her dates with other men.

Eventually they married at the Mission Inn in Riverside, California, on June 21, 1940.[16] She said that she had been attracted to the young Nixon because he "was going places, he was vital and ambitious ... he was always doing things".[8] Later, referring to Richard Nixon, she said, "Oh but you just don't realize how much fun he is! He's just so much fun!"[17] Following a brief honeymoon in Mexico, the two lived in a small apartment in Whittier.[16] As U.S. involvement in World War II began, the couple moved to Washington, D.C., with Richard taking a position as a lawyer for the Office of Price Administration (OPA); Pat worked as a secretary for the American Red Cross, but also qualified as a price analyst for the OPA.[16] He then joined the United States Navy, and while he was stationed in San Francisco, she resumed work for the OPA as an economic analyst.[16]

Veteran UPI reporter Helen Thomas suggested that in public, the Nixons "moved through life ritualistically", but privately, however, they were "very close".[18] In private, Richard Nixon was described as being "unabashedly sentimental", often praising Pat for her work, remembering anniversaries and surprising her with frequent gifts.[18] During state dinners, he ordered the protocol changed so that Pat could be served first.[19] Pat, in turn, felt that her husband was vulnerable and sought to protect him.[19] Of his critics, she said that "Lincoln had worse critics. He was big enough not to let it bother him. That's the way my husband is."[19]

Pat campaigned at her husband's side in 1946 when he entered politics, running successfully for a seat in the United States House of Representatives. That same year, she gave birth to a daughter and namesake, Patricia, known as Tricia. In 1948, Pat had her second and last child, Julie. When asked about her husband's career, Pat once stated, "The only thing I could do was help him, but [politics] was not a life I would have chosen."[20] Pat participated in the campaign by doing research on his opponent, incumbent Jerry Voorhis.[1] She also wrote and distributed campaign literature.[21] Nixon was elected in his first campaign to represent California's 12th congressional district. During the next six years, Pat saw her husband move from the U.S. House of Representatives to the United States Senate, and then be nominated as Dwight D. Eisenhower's vice presidential candidate.

Although Pat Nixon was a Methodist, she and her husband attended whichever Protestant Church was nearest to their home, especially after moving to Washington. They attended the Metropolitan Memorial Methodist Church because it sponsored her daughters' Brownie troop, occasional Baptist services with the Reverend Dr. Billy Graham, and Norman Vincent Peale's Marble Collegiate Church.[22]

Wife of the Vice President, 1953–1961

Vice President and Pat Nixon during a visit to Ghana, 1957

During the Presidential campaign of 1952, Pat Nixon's attitude toward politics changed when her husband was accused of accepting illegal campaign contributions. Pat encouraged him to fight the charges, and he did so by delivering the famed "Checkers speech", so-called for the family's dog, a Cocker Spaniel given to them by a political supporter. This was Pat's first national television appearance, and she, her daughters, and the dog were featured prominently. Defending himself as a man of the people, Nixon stressed his wife's abilities as a stenographer,[7] then said, "I should say this, that Pat doesn't have a mink coat. But she does have a respectable Republican cloth coat, and I always tell her she would look good in anything."[23][24]

Pat Nixon accompanied her husband abroad in his vice presidential years. She visited 53 nations, often bypassing luncheons and teas and instead visiting hospitals, orphanages, and even a leper colony in Panama.[1] On a trip to Venezuela, the Nixons' limousine was pelted with rocks and the couple was spat upon as representatives of the U.S. government.[9]

A November 1, 1958, article in The Seattle Times was typical of the media's favorable coverage of the future First Lady, stating that "Mrs. Nixon is always reported to be gracious and friendly. And she sure is friendly. She greets a stranger as a friend. She doesn't just shake hands but clasps a visitor's hand in both her hands. Her manner is direct ... Mrs. Nixon also upheld her reputation of always looking neat, no matter how long her day has been." A year and a half later, during her husband's campaign for the presidency, The New York Times called her "a paragon of wifely virtues" whose "efficiency makes other women feel slothful and untalented".[25]

Pat Nixon was named Outstanding Homemaker of the Year (1953), Mother of the Year (1955), and the Nation's Ideal Housewife (1957), and once admitted that she pressed all of her husband's suits one evening.[8] "Of course, I didn't have to," she told The New York Times, "But when I don't have work to do, I just think up some new project."

Her husband's campaigns—1960, 1962 and 1968

Vice President Nixon ran for President of the United States in the 1960 election against Senator John F. Kennedy. Pat was featured prominently in the campaign; an entire advertisement campaign was built around the slogan "Pat for First Lady".[1] Nixon conceded the election to Kennedy, although the race was very close and there were allegations of voter fraud. Pat had urged her husband to demand a recount of votes, though Nixon declined.[17] Pat was most upset about the television cameras, which recorded her reaction when her husband lost—"millions of television viewers witnessed her desperate fight to hold a smile upon her lips as her face came apart and the bitter tears flowed from her eyes", as one reporter put it.[8] This permanently dimmed Pat Nixon's view of politics.[1]

In 1962, the Nixons embarked on another campaign, this time for Governor of California. Prior to Richard Nixon's announcement of his candidacy, Pat's brother Tom Ryan said, "Pat told me that if Dick ran for governor she was going to take her shoe to him."[26] She eventually agreed to another run, citing that it meant a great deal to her husband,[26] but Richard Nixon lost the gubernatorial election to Pat Brown.

Six years later, Richard Nixon ran again for the presidency. Pat was reluctant to face another campaign, her eighth since 1946.[27] Her husband was a deeply controversial figure in American politics,[28] and Pat had witnessed and shared the praise and vilification he had received without having established an independent public identity for herself.[7] Although she supported him in his career, she feared another "1960", when Nixon lost to Kennedy.[27] She consented, however, and participated in the campaign by traveling on campaign trips with her husband.[29] Richard Nixon would make a political comeback with his presidential victory of 1968 over Vice-President Hubert Humphrey—and the country would have a new First Lady.

First Lady of the United States, 1969–1974

Major initiatives

Pat Nixon felt that the First Lady should always set a public example of high virtue as a symbol of dignity, but she refused to revel in the trappings of the position.[30] When considering ideas for a project as First Lady, Pat refused to do (or be) something simply to emulate her predecessor, Lady Bird Johnson.[31] She decided to continue what she called "personal diplomacy", which meant traveling and visiting people in other states or other nations.[32]

Pat Nixon greets young White House visitors, 1969

One of her major initiatives as First Lady was the promotion of volunteerism, in which she encouraged Americans to address social problems at the local level through volunteering at hospitals, civic organizations, and rehabilitation centers.[33] She stated, "Our success as a nation depends on our willingness to give generously of ourselves for the welfare and enrichment of the lives of others."[34] She undertook a "Vest Pockets for Volunteerism" trip, where she visited ten different volunteer programs.[34] Susan Porter, in charge of the First Lady's scheduling, noted that Pat "saw volunteers as unsung heroes who hadn't been encouraged or given credit for their sacrifices and who needed to be".[34] Her second volunteerism tour—she traveled 4,130 miles (6,647 km) within the United States—helped to boost the notion that not all students were protesting the

Honorary titles
Preceded by
Jane Hadley Barkley
Second Lady of the United States
Succeeded by
Lady Bird Johnson
Preceded by
Lady Bird Johnson
First Lady of the United States
Succeeded by
Betty Ford

External links


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ Illustration in a New York Times article by Judith M. Kinnard, entitled "Thelma Ryan's Rise: From White Frame to White House" (August 20, 1971).
  6. ^ a b c d e
  7. ^ a b c d
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i
  9. ^ a b
  10. ^
  11. ^ a b
  12. ^
  13. ^ Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), p. 48
  14. ^
  15. ^ Marton, Kati (2001), p. 173
  16. ^ a b c d Sferrazza, "Thelma Catherine (Patricia) Ryan Nixon", p. 353.
  17. ^ a b O'Brien, C.; Suteski, M. (2005), p. 234
  18. ^ a b c d Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 172
  19. ^ a b c Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 173
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^ In 1968, however, a fashion writer of The New York Times noted that Pat Nixon had purchased a coat made of blonde mink and one of brown-and-black Persian lamb by the furrier Sidney Fink of Blum & Fink.
  25. ^
  26. ^ a b Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), pp. 205–206
  27. ^ a b Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), pp. 235, 237
  28. ^
  29. ^ Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), p. 236
  30. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 165
  31. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 168
  32. ^ Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), p. 254
  33. ^ a b
  34. ^ a b c d Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 177
  35. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 181
  36. ^
  37. ^ a b Burns, Lisa (2008), p. 125
  38. ^ a b c Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 178
  39. ^ Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), pp. 260, 264
  40. ^
  41. ^ Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), pp. 261, 263
  42. ^ Brower, K. A. (2015), pp. 155–156
  43. ^ Brower, K. A. (2015), p. 62
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 188
  45. ^ a b c d e f g Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 187
  46. ^ David, Lester (1978), p. 128
  47. ^
  48. ^ a b c
  49. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 194
  50. ^
  51. ^ O'Brien, C.; Suteski, M. (2005), p. 239
  52. ^ a b c d Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 171
  53. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 185
  54. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 186
  55. ^ a b c d e f Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 196
  56. ^ a b Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 197
  57. ^ a b c Anthony, C. S. (1991), pp. 199–200
  58. ^ a b Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 215
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 192
  62. ^
  63. ^ Nixon also frequently wore wigs that replicated her short blonde hairstyle, especially on political trips when access to a hairdresser would be difficult.
  64. ^ Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), p. 187
  65. ^ a b c Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 201
  66. ^ a b Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 203
  67. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 210
  68. ^ Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), pp. 409–410
  69. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 214
  70. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 216
  71. ^ Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), pp. 417–419
  72. ^ a b Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 217
  73. ^ Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), p. 424
  74. ^
  75. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 218
  76. ^
  77. ^ Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), p. 453
  78. ^ a b
  79. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 167
  80. ^ Burns, Lisa (2008), pp. 107–108
  81. ^ a b Burns, Lisa (2008), pp. 110–111
  82. ^
  83. ^
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^
  87. ^ Anthony, C. S. (1991), p. 182
  88. ^
  89. ^ a b c Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), p. 441
  90. ^ Eisenhower, Julie (1986), p. 451
  91. ^ a b c d
  92. ^ Eisenhower, Julie Nixon (1986), p. 458
  93. ^
  94. ^
  95. ^
  96. ^ a b
  97. ^ Bush, Barbara (1994), p. 97
  98. ^ Bush, Barbara (1994), p. 441
  99. ^
  100. ^ a b
  101. ^ Thomas, Helen (1999) p. 258
  102. ^
  103. ^


Pat has been portrayed by Joan Allen in the 1995 film Nixon, Patty McCormack in the 2008 film Frost/Nixon and Nicole Sullivan in the 2009 film Black Dynamite. She was sung by soprano Carolann Page in the 1987 opera Nixon in China world premiere in Houston, Texas, and later by Scottish soprano Janis Kelly in the 2011 Metropolitan Opera premiere in New York.

In 1994, the Pat Nixon Park was established in Cerritos, California. The site where her girlhood home stood is on the property.[33] The Cerritos City Council voted in April 1996 to erect a statue of the former first lady, one of the few statues created in the image of a first lady.[103]


reads: epitaph Her [102]Nixon's tombstone gives her name as "Patricia Ryan Nixon", the name by which she was popularly known. Former President Nixon survived her by 10 months, dying on April 22, 1994.

The funeral service for Pat Nixon took place in the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library in Yorba Linda on June 26, 1993. Speakers at the ceremony, including California Governor Pete Wilson, Kansas senator Bob Dole, and the Reverend Dr. Billy Graham, eulogized the former First Lady. In addition to her husband and immediate family, former presidents Ronald Reagan and Gerald Ford and their wives, Nancy and Betty, were also in attendance.[100] Lady Bird Johnson was unable to attend because she was in the hospital recovering from a stroke, and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis did not attend either.[100] President Nixon sobbed openly, profusely, and at times uncontrollably during the ceremony. It was a rare display of emotion from the former president, and Helen McCain Smith said that she had never seen him more distraught.[101]

Pat Nixon died at her Park Ridge, New Jersey home at 5:45 am on June 22, 1993, the day after her 53rd wedding anniversary. She was 81. Her daughters and husband were by her side.

A statue of Pat Nixon was erected in her honor at the Pat Nixon Park in her girlhood town of Cerritos, California

Death and funeral

The Nixons moved to a gated complex in Park Ridge, New Jersey in 1991. Pat's health was failing, and the house was smaller and contained an elevator.[91] A heavy smoker most of her adult life who nevertheless never allowed herself to be seen with a cigarette in public,[96] she eventually endured bouts of oral cancer,[99] emphysema, and ultimately lung cancer, with which she was diagnosed in December 1992 while hospitalized with respiratory problems.[6]

Appearing "frail and slightly bent",[94] she appeared in public for the opening of the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace (now Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum) in Yorba Linda, California on July 19, 1990. The dedication ceremony included 50,000 friends and well-wishers, as well as former Presidents Ford, Reagan, and Bush and their wives.[95] The library includes a Pat Nixon room, a Pat Nixon amphitheater, and rose gardens planted with the red-black Pat Nixon Rose developed by a French company in 1972, when she was first lady.[96] Pat also attended the opening of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library in Simi Valley, California in November 1991. Former First Lady Barbara Bush reflected, "I loved Pat Nixon, who was a sensational, gracious, and thoughtful First Lady",[97] and at the dedication of the Reagan Library, Bush remembered, "There was one sad thing. Pat Nixon did not look well at all. Through her smile you could see that she was in great pain and having a terrible time getting air into her lungs."[98]

Nixon (seated second from left) attends the opening of the Ronald Reagan Library, November 1991

Nixon suffered a stroke on July 7, 1976, at La Casa Pacifica, which resulted in the paralysis of her entire left side. Physical therapy enabled her to eventually regain all movement.[1] She said that her recovery was "the hardest thing I have ever done physically".[90] In 1979, she and her husband moved to a townhouse on East 65th Street in Manhattan, New York City.[91] They lived there only briefly and in 1981 moved to a 6,000 square feet (557 m2) house in Saddle River, New Jersey.[91] This gave the couple additional space, and enabled them to be near their children and grandchildren.[91] Pat, however, sustained another stroke in 1983[92] and two lung infections the following year.[93]

After returning to San Clemente, California, in 1974 and settling into the Nixons' home, La Casa Pacifica, Pat Nixon rarely appeared in public and only granted occasional interviews to the press. In late May 1975, Pat went to her girlhood town of Artesia to dedicate the Patricia Nixon Elementary School.[89] In her remarks, she said, "I'm proud to have the school carry my name. I always thought that only those who have gone had schools named after them. I am happy to tell you that I'm not gone—I mean, not really gone."[89] It was Pat's only solo public appearance in five and a half years in California.[89]

Pat Nixon's official White House portrait, painted in 1978 by Henriette Wyeth Hurd

Later life

Despite her largely demure public persona as a traditional wife and homemaker, Nixon was not as self-effacing and timid as her critics often claimed. When a news photographer wanted her to strike yet another pose while wearing an apron, she firmly responded, "I think we've had enough of this kitchen thing, don't you?"[86] Some journalists, such as columnist and White House Correspondent Robert Thompson felt that Pat was an ideal balance for the 1970s; Thompson wrote that she proved that "women can play a vital role in world affairs" while still retaining a "feminine manner."[65] Other journalists felt that Pat represented the failings of the feminine mystique, and portrayed her as being out of step with her times.[81] Those who opposed the Vietnam War identified her with the Nixon administration's policies, and, as a result, occasionally picketed her speaking events. After she had spoken to some of them, though, one student told the press that "she wanted to listen. I felt like this is a woman who really cares about what we are doing. I was surprised."[87] Veteran CBS correspondent Mike Wallace expressed regret that the one major interview he was never able to conduct was that of Pat Nixon.[88]

As for the criticisms, she said, "I am who I am and I will continue to be."[8] She portrayed some of her views on her life in a 1968 interview aboard a campaign plane with Gloria Steinem: "Now, I have friends in all the countries of the world. I haven’t just sat back and thought of myself or my ideas or what I wanted to do. Oh no, I’ve stayed interested in people. I’ve kept working. Right here in the plane I keep this case with me, and the minute I sit down, I write my thank you notes. Nobody gets by without a personal note. I don’t have time to worry about who I admire or who I identify with. I’ve never had it easy. I’m not like all you ... all those people who had it easy."[7]

Press accounts Framing (social sciences) Nixon as an embodiment of Cold War domesticity, in stark contrast to the second-wave feminism of the time.[80] Journalists often portrayed her as dutiful and selfless[81] and seeing herself as a wife first and individual second.[37] Time magazine described her as "the perfect wife and mother–pressing [her husband's] pants, making dresses for daughters Tricia and Julie, doing her own housework even as the Vice President's wife."[82] In the early years of her tenure as First Lady she was tagged 'Plastic Pat,' the derogatory nickname applied because, according to critics, she was always smiling while her face rarely expressed emotion[83][84] and her body language made her seem reserved, and at times, artificial.[85] Some observers described Pat Nixon as "a paper doll, a Barbie doll–plastic, antiseptic, unalive" and that she "has put every bit of the energy and drive of her youth into playing a role, and she may no longer recognize it as such".[8]

Pat Nixon was listed on the top-ten list of the most admired women fourteen times, from 1959 to 1962 and 1968 to 1979.[78] She was third in 1969, and remained at number two until 1972, when she was ranked number one as the most admired woman. She remained on the top-ten list until 1979, five years after her husband left office.[78] To many, she was seen as an example of the "American Dream," having risen from a poor background, with her greatest popularity among the "great silent majority" of voters.[65] Mary Brooks, the director of the United States Mint, described the First Lady as "a good example to the women of this country–if they're not part of those Women's Liberation groups."[8] Additionally, it was the view of veteran UPI correspondent Helen Thomas that Pat "was the warmest First Lady I covered and the one who loved people the most. I think newspeople who covered her saw a woman who was sharp, responsive, sensitive."[79]

Historian Carl Sferrazza Anthony noted that ordinary citizens responded to Nixon.[45] When a group of rural people visited the White House to present a quilt to the First Lady, many were overcome with nervousness; upon hearing their weeping, Pat hugged each individual tightly, and the tension dissipated.[45] When a young boy doubted that the Executive Mansion was her house because he could not see the washing machine, Pat led him through the halls and up an elevator, into the family quarters and the laundry room.[45] She mixed well with people of different races, and made no racial distinctions them.[56] During the Nixons' trip to China in 1972, foreign minister Zhou En-lai became so smitten with her that he gave two rare giant pandas to the ambassador as a gift from China.[57]

Pat Nixon reaches out from her limousine to a young girl during an October 1972 campaign stop in Atlanta.

Public perception

Pat Nixon later told her daughter Julie, "Watergate is the only crisis that ever got me down ... And I know I will never live to see the vindication."[77]

The next morning, a televised 20-minute farewell speech to the White House staff took place in the East Room, during which the President read from Theodore Roosevelt's biography and praised his own parents.[74] The First Lady could hardly contain her tears; she was most upset about the cameras, because they recorded her anguish, as they had during the 1960 election defeat. The Nixons walked onto the Executive Mansion's South Lawn with Vice President Gerald Ford and Betty Ford to Marine One. As they walked, Pat, with one arm around her husband's waist and one around Betty's, said to Betty, "You'll see many of these red carpets, and you'll get so you hate 'em."[75] The helicopter carried them to Andrews Air Force Base; from there they flew to California.[76]

After President Nixon told his family he would resign the office of the presidency, she replied, "But why?"[70] She contacted White House curator Clement Conger to cancel any further development of a new official china pattern from the Lenox China Company, and began supervising the packing of the family's personal belongings.[71] On August 7, 1974, the family met in the solarium of the White House for their last dinner. Pat sat on the edge of a couch and held her chin high, a sign of tension to her husband.[72] When the president walked in, she threw her arms around him, kissed him, and said, "We're all very proud of you, Daddy."[72] Later Pat Nixon said of the photographs taken that evening, "Our hearts were breaking and there we are smiling."[73]

Pat Nixon did not know of the secret tape recordings her husband had made. Julie Nixon Eisenhower stated that the First Lady would have ordered the tapes destroyed immediately, had she known of their existence.[68] Once she did learn of the tapes, she vigorously opposed making them public, and compared them to "private love letters—for one person alone".[69] Believing in her husband's innocence, she also encouraged him not to resign and instead fight all the impeachment charges that were eventually leveled against him. She said to her friend Helene Drown, "Dick has done so much for the country. Why is this happening?"[58]

The Fords escort the Nixons to a waiting helicopter on Nixon's final day as president, August 9, 1974.

At the time the Watergate scandal broke to the media, Nixon "barely noticed" the reports of a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters.[65] Later, when asked by the press about Watergate, she replied curtly, "I know only what I read in the newspapers."[66] In 1974, when a reporter asked "Is the press the cause of the president's problems?", she shot back, "What problems?"[67] Privately, she felt that the power of her husband's staff was increasing, and President Nixon was becoming more removed from what was occurring in the administration.[66]


Nixon did not sport the outrageous fashions of the 1970s, because she was concerned about appearing conservatively dressed, especially as her husband's political star rose. "Always before, it was sort of fun to get some ... thing that was completely different, high-style", she told a reporter. "But this is not appropriate now. I avoid the spectacular."[64]

The fashion press tends to take special interest in First Ladies. The traditional role of a First Lady as the nation's hostess puts her personal appearance and style under scrutiny, and the attention to Pat was lively. Women's Wear Daily stated that Pat had a "good figure and good posture", as well as "the best-looking legs of any woman in public life today".[59] Some fashion writers tended to have a lackluster opinion of her well tailored, but nondescript, American-made clothes. "I consider it my duty to use American designers", she said,[60] and favored them because, "they are now using so many materials which are great for traveling because they're non crushable".[61] She preferred to buy readymade garments rather than made-to-order outfits. "I'm a size 10," she told The New York Times. "I can just walk in and buy. I've bought things in various stores in various cities. Only some of my clothes are by designers."[48] She did, however, wear the custom work of some well-known talents, notably Geoffrey Beene, at the suggestion of Clara Treyz, her personal shopper.[48] Many fashion observers concluded that Pat Nixon did not greatly advance the cause of American fashion. Nixon's yellow-satin inaugural gown by Harvey Berin was criticized as "a schoolteacher on her night out", but Treyz defended her wardrobe selections by saying, "Mrs. Nixon must be ladylike."[62][63]

Pat Nixon posing in the White House, 1970

Fashion and style

Another notable journey was the Nixons' historic visit to the People's Republic of China in 1972. While President Nixon was in meetings, Pat toured through Peking in her red coat. According to Carl Sferrazza Anthony, China was Pat Nixon's "moment", her turning point as an acclaimed First Lady in the United States.[57] She accompanied her husband to the Nixon–Brezhnev summit meetings in the Soviet Union later in the year. Though security constraints left her unable to walk freely through the streets as she did in China, Pat was still able to visit with children and walk arm-in-arm with Soviet First Lady Viktoria Brezhneva.[57] Later, she visited Brazil and Venezuela in 1974 with the unique diplomatic standing of personal representative of the president. The Nixons' last major trip was in June 1974, to Austria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Israel, and Jordan.[58]

She became the first First Lady to visit Africa in 1972, on a 10,000-mile (16,093 km), eight-day journey to Ghana, Liberia, and the Ivory Coast.[55] Upon arrival to Liberia, Pat was honored with a 19-gun salute, a tribute reserved only for heads of government, and she reviewed troops.[55] She later donned a traditional native costume and danced with locals. She was awarded the Grand Cordon of the Most Venerable Order of Knighthood, Liberia's highest honor.[55] In Ghana, she again danced with local residents, and addressed the nation's Parliament.[55] In the Ivory Coast, she was met by a quarter of a million people shouting "Vive Madame Nixon!"[55] She conferred with leaders of all three African nations.[55] Upon her return home, White House staffer Charles Colson sent a memo to the President reading in part, "Mrs. Nixon has now broken through where we have failed ... People—men and women—identify with her, and in return with you."[56]

[1], the highest Peruvian distinction and the oldest such honor in the Americas.Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun On the trip, the Peruvian government presented her with the [45] wrote that no First Lady had ever undertaken a "mercy mission" resulting in such "diplomatic side effects".Associated Press of the Fran Lewine [45] After hearing about the

The Nixons on the Great Wall of China during their historic trip, 1972
Pat Nixon in Beijing, 1972

Pat Nixon held the record as the most-traveled First Lady before Hillary Rodham Clinton.[1] In President Nixon's first term, Pat traveled to 39 of 50 states, and in the first year alone, shook hands with a quarter of a million people.[51] She undertook many missions of goodwill to foreign nations as well. Her first foreign trip took in Guam, India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Pakistan, Romania, and England.[52] On such trips, Pat refused to be serviced by an entourage, feeling that they were an unnecessary barrier and a burden for taxpayers.[52] Soon after, during a trip to South Vietnam, Pat became the first First Lady to enter a combat zone.[1] She had tea with the wife of President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu in a palace, visited an orphanage, and lifted off in an open-door helicopter—armed by military guards with machine guns—to witness U.S. troops fighting in a jungle below.[52] She would later admit to experiencing a "moment of fear going into a battle zone", because, as author and historian Carl Sferrazza Anthony noted, "Pat Nixon was literally in a line of fire."[52] She later visited an army hospital, where, for two hours, she walked through the wards and spoke with each wounded patient.[18] The First Lady of South Vietnam, Madame Thieu, said Pat Nixon's trip "intensified our morale".[18]

Escorted by armed guards, Pat Nixon (far right) arrives via helicopter on the ground in South Vietnam, July 31, 1969. It was the first time a first lady had entered a combat zone.


In 1972, she became the first Republican First Lady to address a national convention.[1] Her efforts in the 1972 reelection campaign—traveling across the country and speaking on behalf of her husband—were copied by future candidates' spouses.[1]

She spoke out in favor of women running for political office and encouraged her husband to nominate a woman to the Supreme Court, saying "woman power is unbeatable; I've seen it all across this country".[48] She was the first of the American First Ladies to publicly support the Equal Rights Amendment,[49] though her views on abortion were mixed. Following the Court's 1973 Roe vs. Wade decision, Pat stated she was pro-choice.[1] However, in 1972, she said, "I'm really not for abortion. I think it's a personal thing. I mean abortion on demand—wholesale."[50]

She opened the White House for evening tours so that the public could see the interior design work that had been implemented. Among these tours were those conducted in December, displaying the White House's Christmas decor. In addition, she instituted a series of performances by artists at the White House in varied American traditions, from opera to bluegrass; among the guests were The Carpenters in 1972. These events were described as ranging from "creative to indifferent, to downright embarrassing".[8] When they entered the White House in 1969, the Nixons began inviting families to non-denominational Sunday church services in the East Room of the White House.[44] She also oversaw the White House wedding of her daughter, Tricia, to Edward Ridley Finch Cox in 1971.[47]

The First Lady had long been irritated with the perception that the White House and access to the President and First Lady were exclusively for the wealthy and famous;[44] she would routinely come down from the family quarters to greet tourists, shake hands, sign autographs, and pose for photos.[45] Her daughter Julie Eisenhower reflected, "she invited so many groups to the White House to give them recognition, not famous ones, but little known organizations..."[46]

Pat addresses the 1972 Republican National Convention. She was the first First Lady since Eleanor Roosevelt to address a party convention, and the first Republican First Lady to do so.

She ordered pamphlets describing the rooms of the house for tourists so they could understand everything, and had them translated into Spanish, French, Italian and Russian for foreigners.[44] She had ramps installed for the handicapped and physically disabled. She instructed the police who served as tour guides to attend sessions at the Winterthur Museum, Garden and Library (to learn how tours were guided "in a real museum"),[44] and arranged for them to wear less menacing uniforms, with their guns hidden underneath.[44] The tour guides were to speak slowly to deaf groups, to help those who lip-read, and Pat ordered that the blind be able to touch the antiques.[44]

Pat Nixon had an interest in adding artifacts to the Executive Mansion, and built on Jacqueline Kennedy's more publicized efforts. She added more than 600 paintings and furnishings to the White House and its collections, the largest number of acquisitions by any administration.[1] She created the Map Room and renovated the China room, and refurbished nine others.[44] She worked with engineers to develop an exterior lighting system for the entire White House, literally making it glow a soft white.[44] She ordered the flag flown, day and night, even when the president was not there.[44]

Nixon works with a florist on flower settings, December 1970

After her husband was elected president in 1968, Pat Nixon met with the outgoing First Lady Lady Bird Johnson and toured the private quarters of the White House on December 12.[39] Eventually she asked Sarah Jackson Doyle—an interior decorator who had worked for the Nixons since 1965 and who decorated the family's 10-room apartment on Fifth Avenue in New York with French and English antiques—to serve as a design consultant.[40] She hired Clement Conger from the State Department to be the Executive Mansion's new curator- replacing the house's first curator, James Ketchum, who had been hired by Jacqueline Kennedy.[41] To the White House residence staff, the Nixons were perceived as more stiff and formal than other first families, but nonetheless kind.[42] Pat in particular liked the butlers and maids to be very quiet when they were around her.[43]

Life in the White House

[38] For her first [1] Pat Nixon became involved in the development of recreation areas and parkland, was a member of the President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped, and lent her support to organizations dedicated to improving the lives of handicapped children.

[37].Jacqueline Kennedy Some reporters viewed her choice of volunteerism as safe and dull compared to the initiatives undertaken by Lady Bird Johnson and [36]

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