World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Peah

Article Id: WHEBN0006882053
Reproduction Date:

Title: Peah  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 613 commandments, Jerusalem Talmud, Doeg the Edomite, Simeon ben Azzai, Abba bar Abba, Rav Jonah, Hanina ben Pappa, Samuel ben Nahman, Eliezer ben Jacob II, Hoshaiah Rabbah
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Peah

Pe'ah (Hebrew: פֵּאָה‎, lit. "Corner") is the second tractate of Seder Zeraim ("Order of Seeds") of the Mishnah and of the Talmud. This tractate begins the discussion of topics related to agriculture, the main focus of this seder (order) of the Mishnah. The tractate discusses the laws of gifts to the poor when a person harvests their field, vineyards or trees, based on commandments in the Torah. The tractate also deals with the laws of giving charity in general. The tractate is called Pe'ah because the first part of the tractate deals with the laws of Pe'ah, while the remainig part of the tractate deals with a number of other related topics.[1]

Topics

This tractate discusses the gifts due to the poor when fields, vineyards or trees are harvested, and the laws of giving charity in general. Six categories of obligations are discussed in the tracate, as follows:

  1. Pe'ah: "corner" - the portion of the crop that must be left standing for the poor, in accordance with Lev. 23:22
  2. "Leket": "gleanings" - ears of grain that fell from the reaper's hand or the sickle while the grain is being gathered during the harvest, as described in Lev. 23:22)
  3. "Shich'chah": "forgotten sheaves" - sheaves left and forgotten in the field while the harvest is being brought to the threshing floor, as well as attached produce overlooked by the harvesters, as in Deut. 24:19
  4. "Olelot" - immature clusters of grapes, as in Deut. 24:21
  5. "Peret" - grapes that fall from their clusters while being plucked from the vine, as in Lev. 19:10
  6. "

There are three gifts to the poor from the field: Pe'ah, Leket and Shich'chah; four gifts from the vineyard: Pe'ah, Shich'chah, Peret, and Olelot; and two from the trees: Pe'ah and Shich'chah. These gifts apply every year. In addition, in the third and sixth year of the Shmita cycle, a person is required to set aside the ma'aser ani (tithe for the poor).[1]

Structure and content

The tractate consists of eight chapters and has a Gemara (rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah) only in the Jerusalem Talmud.

Chapters 1-4 deal with the obligation of Pe'ah. The end of chapter 4 and most of chapter 5 concern the laws of leket; the end of chapter 5 to the beginning of chapter 7 deals with the laws of shechicha. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss the laws of peret and olelot, followed by the laws of ma'aser ani and tzedakah (charity).[1]

Chapter eight discusses the laws of eligibility and entitlement to public charity, including tithes and agricultural gifts. It relates that Jewish communities maintained two kinds of charitable organizations: tamchuy and kuppah. One was for travelers, who were to be provided food and lodgings, includings extra meals for the Sabbath. The other was the charity fund for the local poor. Both institutions were required to provide minimum quantities to the poor from funds collected by the local community.

Of general interest are the first and last mishnayot in the tractate:

The first mishna of tractate Pe'ah declares that there is no maximum limit to pe'ah (one can give as much of the produce in one's field to the poor as one desires once the harvest has begun), bikkurim (the first-fruits), the pilgrimage, acts of lovingkindness, and Torah study. After exhorting people to give their all to God and other people, the mishnah states that a person receives a reward in this world and in the next by honoring his father and mother, doing acts of lovingkindness, making peace between people, and that the study of Torah is equivalent to them all.

Likewise, the concluding mishnah is a compilation of ethical homilies warning people against feigning poverty, improperly taking from charity and perverting justice. On the other hand, it lauds the poor person, who is eligible to be supported by charity, yet refuses public funds, working hard and living frugally. To such a person, the verse "Blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord; and the Lord will be his trust" (Jer. 17:7) applies.



References

External links

  • Partial text of mishnah Pe'ah at
  • Partial text (Hebrew) of mishnah Pe'ah at Hebrew
  • Full text (Hebrew) of mishnah Pe'ah
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.