World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pelvic congestion syndrome

Article Id: WHEBN0030168512
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pelvic congestion syndrome  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Vulvitis, Theca lutein cyst, Kraurosis vulvae, Parametritis, Vestibular papillomatosis
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Pelvic congestion syndrome

Pelvic congestion syndrome
A very large (9cm) fibroid of the uterus which is causing pelvic congestion syndrome as seen on X-ray computed tomography
Classification and external resources
ICD-9-CM 625.5

Pelvic congestion syndrome (also known as pelvic vein incompetence) is a chronic medical condition in women caused by varicose veins in the lower abdomen. The condition causes chronic pain, often manifesting as a constant dull ache, which can be aggravated by standing.[1] Early treatment options include pain medication, alternative therapies such as acupuncture, and suppression of ovarian function. Surgery can be done using noninvasive transcatheter techniques to embolize the varicose veins.[1] Up to 80% of women obtain relief using this method.

The condition can occur as a result of pregnancy or for unknown reasons.[2] The presence of estrogen in the body causes vasodilation, which can result in the accumulation of blood in the veins in the pelvic area.[3] Estrogen can weaken the vein walls, leading to the changes that cause varicosities.[2] Up to 15% of all women have varicose veins in the abdominal area, but not all have symptoms.[3]

Signs and symptoms

Women with this condition experience a constant pain that may be dull and aching, but is occasionally more acute. The pain is worse at the end of the day and after long periods of standing, and sufferers get relief when they lie down. The pain is worse during or after sexual intercourse, and can be worse just before the onset of the menstrual period.[2][3]

Women with pelvic congestion syndrome have a larger uterus and a thicker endometrium. 56% of women manifest cystic changes to the ovaries,[4] and many report other symptoms, such as dysmenorrhea, back pain, vaginal discharge, abdominal bloating, mood swings or depression, and fatigue.[2][3]


A very large (9cm) fibroid of the uterus which is causing pelvic congestion syndrome as seen on ultrasound

Diagnosis can be made using ultrasound or laparoscopy testing. The condition can also be diagnosed with a venogram, CT scan, or an MRI. Ultrasound is the diagnostic tool most commonly used.[2][3] Recent research from a leading pelvic venous unit has suggested that Transvaginal Duplex Ultrasound scanning is the "Gold Standard" test for pelvic venous reflux.[5] The same research group has shown that the size of the veins - as shown by venography and also used as the diagnostic criteria in CT and MRI - is not relevant and only Trannsvaginal Duplex Ultrasound shows the venous reflux that causes the problem.[6]


Early treatment options include pain medication using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,[3] suppression of ovarian function,[4] and alternative therapies such as acupuncture and physical therapy.[2]

The surgical option involves stopping blood flow to the varicose veins using noninvasive surgical techniques such as a procedure called embolization. The procedure requires an overnight stay in hospital, and is done using local anesthetic.[2][7] Patients report an 80% success rate, as measured by the amount of pain reduction experienced.[7]

See also


  1. ^ a b
  2. ^ a b c d e f g
  3. ^ a b c d e f
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.