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Title: Perm  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Maria Vigalova, Perm Krai, Chaykovsky, Perm Krai, List of the busiest airports in Russia, List of rivers of Europe
Collection: Perm, Permsky Uyezd, Populated Places Established in 1723
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Perm (English)
Пермь (Russian)
Перем (Komi-Permyak)
-  City[1]  -

View of Perm

Location of Perm Krai in Russia
Perm is located in Perm Krai
Location of Perm in Perm Krai
Coat of Arms of Perm
Flag of Perm
City Day June 12
Administrative status (as of December 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Perm Krai[1]
Administratively subordinated to city of krai significance of Perm[1]
Administrative center of Perm Krai,[1] Permsky District,[1] city of krai significance of Perm[1]
Municipal status (as of August 2012)
Urban okrug Perm Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Perm Urban Okrug,[2] Permsky Municipal District[3]
Head[4] Igor Sapko[4]
Representative body City Duma[5]
Area 799.68 km2 (308.76 sq mi)[6]
Population (2010 Census) 991,162 inhabitants[7]
Rank in 2010 13th
Density 1,239/km2 (3,210/sq mi)[8]
Time zone YEKT (UTC+05:00)[9]
Founded May 15, 1723
City status since October 29, 1781
Previous names Yagoshikha (Yegoshikha) (until 1781),
Perm (until 1940),
Molotov (until October 2, 1957)[10]
Postal code(s)[11] 614xxx
Dialing code(s) +7 342[12]
Official website

Perm (Russian: Пермь; IPA: ;[13] Komi-Permyak: Перем, Perem; Komi: Перым, Perym) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains. From 1940 to 1957 it was named Molotov (Russian: Мо́лотов ).[10]

According to the 2010 Census, Perm's population is 991,162,[7] down from 1,001,653 recorded in the 2002 Census[14] and 1,090,944 recorded in 1989 Census.[15] As of the 2010 Census, the city was the thirteenth most populous in Russia.[7]


  • Etymology 1
  • Geography 2
  • History 3
    • Soviet period 3.1
    • Modern city 3.2
    • The Jewish community 3.3
  • Administrative and municipal status 4
    • City divisions 4.1
  • Economy 5
    • Transportation 5.1
      • Proposed metro system 5.1.1
  • Culture 6
  • Education 7
  • Climate 8
  • Sports 9
  • Notable people 10
  • Twin towns and sister cities 11
  • Gallery 12
  • See also 13
  • References 14
    • Notes 14.1
    • Sources 14.2
  • External links 15
    • Education 15.1


The name Perm is of finno-ugric etymology, likely of Uralic (Komi or Veps) origin. Komi is a member of the Permic group of Fenno-Ugriche Uralic languages, which is also named for Perm. Likewise, the geologic period of the Permian takes its name from the toponym in Finnish or Vepsian language "Perämaa", means "Far away Land".


The Kama River near Perm

The city is located on the bank of the Kama River upon hilly terrain. The Kama is the main tributary of the Volga River and one of the deepest and most picturesque rivers of Russia. This river is the waterway which grants the Ural Mountains access to the White Sea, Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea. The Kama divides the city into two parts: the central part and the right bank part. The city stretches for 70 kilometers (43 mi) along the Kama and 40 kilometers (25 mi) across it. The city street grid parallels the Kama River, traveling generally east-west, while other main streets run perpendicularly to those following the river. The grid pattern accommodates the hills of the city where it crosses them.

Another distinguishing feature of the city's relief is the large quantity of small rivers and brooks. The largest of them are the Mulyanka, the Yegoshikha, the Motovilikha (all are on the left bank of Kama River), and the Gayva (on the right bank).

Perm has a continental climate with warm summers and long, cold winters.


Perm was first mentioned as the village of Yagoshikha (Ягошиха) in 1647; however, the history of the modern city of Perm starts with the development of the Ural region by Tsar Peter the Great. Vasily Tatishchev, appointed by the Tsar as a chief manager of Ural factories, founded Perm together with another major center of the Ural region, Yekaterinburg.

Map of Perm and the Yagoshikha River, 1898

In the 19th century, Perm became a major trade and industrial center with a population of more than 20,000 people in the 1860s, with several metallurgy, paper, and steamboat producing factories, including one owned by a British entrepreneur. In 1870, an opera theater was opened in the city, and in 1871 the first phosphoric factory in Russia was built. In 1916, Perm State University—a major educational institution in modern Russia—was opened.

Pokrovskaya Street in central Perm around 1910

After the outbreak of the Russian Civil War, Perm became a prime target for both sides because of its military munitions factories. On December 25, 1918, the Siberian White Army under Anatoly Pepelyayev (who acknowledged the authority of the Omsk Government of Aleksandr Kolchak), took Perm. On July 1, 1919, the city was retaken by the Red Army.

Soviet period

In the 1930s, Perm grew as a major industrial city with aviation, shipbuilding, and chemical factories built during that period. During the Great Patriotic War (World War II), Perm was a vital center of artillery production in the Soviet Union. During the cold war, Perm became a closed city.[16]

Modern city

The city is a major administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center. The leading industries include machinery, defence, oil production (about 3% of Russian output), oil refining, chemical and petrochemical, timber and wood processing and the food industry.

Since 2004, in the city of Perm functioned modern Russia's first Muslim Cossack unit.

The Jewish community

The first Jews who arrived in Perm were demobilized soldiers from the imperial army who were allowed, after completing their service, to settle outside the pale of settlement and, in 1861, there were 194 Jews in Perm. Over the years the community grew larger, and at the beginning of the 20th century, there were 1,000 Jews living in the city with their own synagogue on Kungurskaya Street (now Komsomolsky Avenue) and school for boys. After the Revolution of 1917 the building of the synagogue and community property were confiscated and were not returned until 1922.[17]

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, many Jews emigrated from the city. The first rabbi to arrive in the city after the collapse was David Vajs, who arrived in 1996. He was then replaced with Rabbi Eliyagy Habi in 2001.

On March 9, 2013, two unidentified assailants threw a rock and a Molotov cocktail through a window of the Jewish Community Center. A small area was set on fire, but a security guard extinguished it. Jewish community leaders ascribed the incident to incitement in the local media the previous week, related to stories about a new Torah scroll for the community [18]

Administrative and municipal status

Perm is the administrative center of the krai and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Permsky District, even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is, together with two rural localities, incorporated separately as the city of krai significance of Perm—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Perm is incorporated as Perm Urban Okrug.[2]

City divisions

Administrative divisions
Building of the Perm Administration
A view from the new bridge along the Stroiteley Street
For administrative purposes, Perm is divided into seven city districts:
City District Population (2010 Census)[7]
Dzerzhinsky 155,632
Industrialny 157,575
Kirovsky 127,793
Leninsky 48,520
Motovilikhinsky 179,961
Ordzhonikidzevsky 111,204
Sverdlovsky 210,477


Perm has the largest industrial output among cities in the Urals, ahead of Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk and Ufa, although Perm has a smaller population than these. 35% of Perm Oblast's industry is located in Perm.[19] The largest industries in the city are electric power engineering, oil and gas refining, machine building, chemicals and petrochemicals, forestry processing, printing and food industry.[20]

Several major industrial companies are located in Perm. Engine-makers Perm Motors and Aviadvigatel are among the major players of the Russian aircraft industry. Rocket engine company Proton-PM will mass-produce the RD-191 engine for the upcoming Angara rocket family. In electric engineering, Morion JSC and Perm Scientific and Industrial Group, along with Perm Electrical Engineering Plant are the leading companies. JSC KAMKABEL is Russia's largest exporter of cables and wires. Oil-refining and natural gas processing are also among the city's leading industries. The largest companies in this sector are LUKoil-Perm Ltd., and LUKoilPernefteprodukt Ltd.[19]


Perm is an important railway junction on the Trans-Siberian Railway with lines radiating to Central Russia, the north part of the Urals, and the far east of Russia. Perm has two big railway stations - historical Perm-I and modern Perm-II. The Kama River is an important link in the unifying deep-water system of the European part of Russia. The river connects the city with European waterways. It is possible to ship cargo from the Kama river area to the sea ports of the White, Baltic, Azov, Black, and Caspian seas without reloading.[21]

Perm is served by the international airport Bolshoye Savino, 16 km (9.9 mi) southwest.

Perm's public transit network includes tram, bus, trolleybus and city-railway routes.

Proposed metro system

The Perm Metro is a planned construction of a metro system which has been considered. The first plans date back to the 1970s. A feasibility study was compiled in 1990 but economic difficulties during the decade prevented its final planning and construction. The plans were revitalized in the early 2000s, but a lack of funding hampered the project and plans were once again put on hold. Light rail has also been considered.[22]


The Perm Opera and Ballet House is one of the best in Russia.[23] There are many other theaters in Perm, including the Drama Theater, the Puppet Theater, the Theater for Young Spectators, the Theater "Stage Molot", and the Theater "Near the Bridge".

PERMM in former building of River Station

Among the cities museums and galleries, the Perm State Art Gallery is recognized for its outstanding collections of art, including paintings from the 15th- to 18th-century art movements, and wooden sculptures from the region. It is housed in a notable early 19th-century structure, once an orthodox cathedral. The spire of the museum towers over the rest of Perm, as it is situated on the Komsomolsky Prospect.[24] Perm is receiving attention from the development of the new Museum of Contemporary Art, PERMM which came into existence officially in March 2009.[25][26]

Perm is also home to the At the Bridge Theatre, the first mystical theatre in the world.


Perm is a scientific center; some of the scientific institutes are combined in the Perm Scientific Center of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Perm is a home to several major universities including Perm State University,[27] Perm State Technical University,[28] Perm State Teachers' Training University, Perm State Medical Academy,[29] Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy,[30] Perm State Agricultural Academy, The Institute of Art and Culture, Perm State Choreographic School,[31] Perm branch of state university Higher school of economics[32] and others. There are also three military schools in Perm.


Perm has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb).

Climate data for Perm
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.3
Average high °C (°F) −9.3
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.8
Average low °C (°F) −16.2
Record low °C (°F) −44.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44
Average snowfall cm (inches) 46
Average rainy days 2 2 4 10 17 17 16 19 20 16 7 4 134
Average snowy days 27 20 16 5 1 0 0 0 1 7 18 24 145
Average relative humidity (%) 85 81 74 66 61 68 71 77 81 83 85 85 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 37.2 79.1 151.9 198.0 275.9 291.0 285.2 226.3 132.0 65.1 36.0 21.7 1,799.4
Source #1:[33]
Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)[34]


Club Sport Founded Current League League
Amkar Perm Football 1994 Russian Premier League 1st Zvezda Stadium
Zvezda 2005 Perm Football 1994 Women's Supreme League 1st Zvezda Stadium
Oktan Perm Football 1958 Russian Second Division 3rd Neftyanik Stadium
Molot-Prikamye Perm Ice Hockey 1948 Higher Hockey League 2nd Universal Sports Palace Molot
Prikamye Perm Volleyball 1983 Volleyball Super League 1st Sukharev Sports Complex
Permskie Medvedi Handball 1999 Handball Super League 1st Permskie Medvedi Sports Complex
Parma Perm Krai Basketball 2012 Supreme Basketball League 3rd Sukharev Sports Complex

There's also a bandy team called Kama, which was reconstituted in 2013 after having ceased to exist in 1993.[35]

Notable people

The following people were either born in Perm or made names for themselves while residing there.

The Nobel-prize-winning writer Boris Pasternak lived in Perm for a time, and it figures in his novel Doctor Zhivago under the fictional name "Yuriatin" where Yuri sees Lara again in the public library.[36]

Twin towns and sister cities

Perm is twinned with:


See also



  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Law #416-67
  2. ^ a b c Law #2038-446
  3. ^ Law #1868-402
  4. ^ a b Official website of the Head of Perm (Russian)
  5. ^ (Russian)Пермская Городская Дума
  6. ^
  7. ^ a b c d
  8. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  9. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  10. ^ a b Official website of Perm. History.
  11. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  12. ^ Russian Federation - International Codes - The Phone Book from BT, Retrieved 2014-04-12
  13. ^ #18475
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ Religion; Visit Perm online; accessed .
  18. ^
  19. ^ a b Industry Perm City Administration
  20. ^ English version City of Perm. Department of Industrial Policy, Investment and Entrepreneurship
  21. ^ Transport infrastructure — Perm regional server.
  22. ^ [1] Perm' Metro Project; article (includes map); Urban Rail online; accessed .
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^ Perm State Academy Of Medicine
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^ 友好城市 (Friendly cities), 市外办 (Foreign Affairs Office), 2008-03-22. (Translation by Google Translate.)
  39. ^ 国际友好城市一览表 (International Friendship Cities List), 2011-01-20. (Translation by Google Translate.)
  40. ^ 友好交流 (Friendly exchanges), 2011-09-13. (Translation by Google Translate.)
  41. ^
  42. ^


  • Законодательное собрание Пермской области. Закон №416-67 от 28 февраля 1996 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пермского края», в ред. Закона №504-ПК от 9 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Пермской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Пермского края"». Вступил в силу с момента опубликования. Опубликован: "Звезда", №38, 12 марта 1996 г. (Legislative Assembly of Perm Oblast. Law #416-67 of February 28, 1996 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Perm Krai, as amended by the Law #504-PK of July 9, 2015 On Amending the Law of Perm Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Perm Krai". Effective as of the moment of publication.).
  • Законодательное собрание Пермской области. Закон №2038-446 от 11 февраля 2005 г. «Об утверждении границ и о наделении статусом муниципального образования "Город Пермь" Пермского края», в ред. Закона №499-ПК от 16 октября 2009 г «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Пермской области и Коми-Пермяцкого автономного округа». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования (12 марта 2005 г.), за исключением отдельных положений, вступивших в силу в иные сроки. Опубликован: "Российская газета", №41, 2 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Perm Oblast. Law #2038-446 of February 11, 2005 On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Perm" of Perm Krai, as amended by the Law #499-PK of October 16, 2009 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Perm Oblast and Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug. Effective as of the day which is ten days following the day of the official publication (March 12, 2005), with the exception of certain clauses, which took effect on different dates.).
  • Законодательное собрание Пермской области. Закон №1868-402 от 1 декабря 2004 г. «Об утверждении границ и о наделении статусом муниципальных образований Пермского района Пермского края», в ред. Закона №273-ПК от 14 декабря 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Законы Пермской области, Коми-Пермяцкого автономного округа, Пермского края». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Бюллетень Законодательного Собрания и администрации Пермской области", №1, II часть, 27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Perm Oblast. Law #1868-402 of December 1, 2004 On Establishing the Borders and on Granting the Status to the Municipal Formations of Permsky District of Perm Krai, as amended by the Law #273-PK of December 14, 2013 On Amending Various Laws of Perm Oblast, Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug, Perm Krai. Effective as of the day which is ten days following the day of the official publication.).

External links

  • Official website of Perm (Russian)
  • Official website of the Perm City Duma (Russian)
  • Street View of Perm
  • Perm Chamber of Commerce and Industry
  • The Western Ural Photographic Album
  • Virtual museum of Romanov in Perm
  • History of Perm
  • The city of Perm - The poem of the town
  • Article about Perm Ballet
  • S. Kishkovsky "Modern Dance and Art Bring a Burst of Color to a Gray City"
  • Unofficial website of Perm
  • Perm City Guide (English Version)


  • Perm State University
  • Perm State Technical University
  • Perm State Pharmaceutical Academy
  • Perm State Choreographic School
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