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Polish orthography

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Title: Polish orthography  
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Subject: Polish language, History of Polish orthography, Polish morphology, History of Polish, Specific Polish letters
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Polish orthography

Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language. The language is written using the Polish alphabet, which derives from the Latin alphabet, but includes some additional letters with diacritics. The orthography is mostly phonetic, or rather phonemic – the written letters (or combinations of them) correspond in a consistent manner to the sounds, or rather the phonemes, of spoken Polish. For detailed information about the system of phonemes, see Polish phonology.

Polish alphabet

The diacritics used in the Polish alphabet are the kreska (graphically similar to the acute accent) in the letters ć, ń, ó, ś, ź; the kreska ukośna (stroke) in the letter ł; the kropka (overdot) in the letter ż; and the ogonek ("little tail") in the letters ą, ę. There are 32 letters in the Polish alphabet: 9 vowels and 23 consonants.

The Polish alphabet. Grey indicates letters not used in native words.
Letter Name
A a a
Ą ą ą
B b be
C c ce
Ć ć ci
D d de
E e e
Ę ę ę
F f ef
G g gie
H h ha
I i i
J j jot
K k ka
L l el
Ł ł
M m em
N n en
Ń ń
O o o
Ó ó ó or o z kreską
P p pe
R r er
S s es
Ś ś
T t te
U u u
W w wu
Y y y or igrek
Z z zet
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