World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0012486082
Reproduction Date:

Title: Polychronicity  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Time management
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


The word "polychronicity" is a term that describes people who prefer to work on multiple activities at the same time. Examples of polychronic behaviors include: cooking food while watching television, browsing the internet while driving a car, and talking on the phone while sitting in meetings. Polychronicity is in contrast to those who prefer monochronicity (doing one thing at a time). The polychronic-monochronic concept was first developed by Edward T. Hall in 1959 in his anthropological studies of time use in different cultures.

Measuring polychronicity

Researchers have developed the following questionnaires to measure polychronicity:

  • Inventory of Polychronic Values (IPV), developed by Bluedorn et al. (1997) which is a 10-item scale designed to assess "the extent to which people in a culture prefer to be engaged in two or more tasks or events simultaneously and believe their preference is the best way to do things."
  • Polychronic Attitude Index (PAI), developed by Kaufman-Scarborough & Lindquist in 1991, which is a 4-item scale measuring individual preference for polychronicity, in the following statements:
    1. "I do not like to juggle several activities at the same time".
    2. "People should not try to do many things at once".
    3. "When I sit down at my desk, I work on one project at a time".
    4. "I am comfortable doing several things at the same time".

See also

Further reading

  • Bluedorn, A., Kalliath, T., Strube, M. & Martin, G. (1999). Polychronicity and the Inventory of Polychronic Values (IPV). Journal of Managerial Psychology, Volume 14, Numbers 3-4, 1999, pp. 205–231(27)
  • Conte, J. M., Rizzuto, T. E., & Steiner, D. D. (1999). A construct-oriented analysis of individual-level polychronicity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 14, 269–288.
  • Kaufman-Scarborough, Carol and Jay D. Lindquist (1999), "Time Management and Polychronicity: Comparisons, Contrasts, and Insights for the Workplace," Journal of Managerial Psychology, special issue on Polychronicity, Vol. 14, Numbers 3 /4, 288-312.
  • Timesense: Polychronicity and Monochronicity
  • Luximon, Y. and Goonetilleke, R. S. (2010). The relationship between monochronicity, polychronicity and individual characteristics. Behaviour & Information Technology, Volume 29(2), 187-198
  • Zhang Y., Goonetilleke, R. S., Plocher, T., and Liang, Sheau-Farn Max. (2005). Time-related behaviour in multitasking situations. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies. Vol. 62(4), pp. 425-455.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.