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Renal glucose reabsorption

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Renal glucose reabsorption

Renal glucose reabsorption is the part of renal physiology that deals with the retrieval of filtered glucose, preventing it from disappearing from the body through the urine.

If glucose is not reabsorbed by the kidney, it appears in the urine, in a condition known as glucosuria. This is associated with diabetes mellitus.[1]

Selective Reabsorption of glucose is achieved by a combination of processes.

Firstly, the glucose in the proximal tubule is co-transported with sodium ions into the proximal convoluted tubule walls. Some (typically smaller) amino acids are also transported in this way. Once in the tubule wall, the glucose and amino acids diffuse directly into the blood capillaries along a concentration gradient. This blood is flowing, so the gradient is maintained. Lastly, sodium/potassium ion active transport pumps remove sodium from the tubule wall and the sodium is put back into the blood. This maintains a sodium concentration gradient in the proximal tubule lining, so the first step continues to happen.

Overview table

Characteristics of Glucose reabsorption
Characteristic proximal tubule loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule Collecting duct system
S1 S2 S3
reabsorption (%) 98[2] Beyond the Distal convoluted tubule: 2%[2]
reabsorption (mmoles/day)
Concentration
apical transport proteins
basolateral transport proteins
Other reabsorption features

References

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