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Save (sport)

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Save (sport)


In baseball, a save (abbreviated SV or S or "SVO" for a save opportunity) is credited to a pitcher who finishes a game for the winning team under certain prescribed circumstances. The number of saves, or percentage of save opportunities successfully converted, is an oft-cited statistic of relief pitchers, particularly those in the closer role. It became an official Major League Baseball (MLB) statistic in 1969.[1] Mariano Rivera is MLB's all-time leader in regular season saves with 652.

History

The term save was being used as far back as 1952.[2] Executives Jim Toomey of the St. Louis Cardinals, Alan Roth of the Los Angeles Dodgers and Irv Kaze of the Pittsburgh Pirates awarded saves to pitchers that finished winning games but were not credited with the win, regardless of the margin of victory. The statistic went largely unnoticed. A formula with more criteria for saves was invented in 1960 by baseball writer Jerome Holtzman.[3] He felt that the existing statistics at the time, earned run average (ERA) and win–loss record (W-L), did not sufficiently measure a reliever's effectiveness. ERA does not account for inherited runners a reliever allows to score, and W-L record does not account for relievers protecting leads. Elroy Face of the Pittsburgh Pirates was 18–1 in 1959; however, Holtzman wrote that in 10 of the 18 wins, Face allowed the tying or lead run but got the win when the Pirates offense regained the lead.[1][note 1] Holtzman felt that Face was more effective the previous year when he was 5–2. When Holtzman presented the idea to J. G. Taylor Spink, publisher of The Sporting News, "[Spink] gave [Holtzman] a $100 bonus. Maybe it was $200." Holtzman recorded the unofficial save statistic in The Sporting News weekly for nine years before it became official in 1969. It was MLB's first new major statistic since the run batted in was added in 1920.[1]

In conjunction with publishing the statistic, The Sporting News in 1960 also introduced the Fireman of the Year Award, which was awarded based on a combination of saves and wins.[1][6] A save became an official MLB statistic in 1969,[1] although research has identified saves earned prior to that point. Bill Singer is credited with recording the first official save when he pitched three shutout innings in relief of Don Drysdale in the Los Angeles Dodgers' 3–2 Opening Day victory over the Cincinnati Reds at Crosley Field on April 7 of that year.[7][8]

Usage

In baseball statistics, the term save is used to indicate the successful maintenance of a lead by a relief pitcher, usually the closer, until the end of the game. A save is a statistic credited to a relief pitcher, as set forth in Rule 10.19 of the Official Rules of Major League Baseball. That rule states the official scorer shall credit a pitcher with a save when such pitcher meets all four of the following conditions:[9]

  1. He is the finishing pitcher in a game won by his team;
  2. He is not the winning pitcher;
  3. He is credited with at least ⅓ of an inning pitched; and
  4. He satisfies one of the following conditions:
    1. He enters the game with a lead of no more than three runs and pitches for at least one inning
    2. He enters the game, regardless of the count, with the potential tying run either on base, at bat or on deck
    3. He pitches for at least three innings

If a relief pitcher satisfies all of the criteria for a save, except he does not finish the game, he will often be credited with a hold (which is not an officially recognized statistic by Major League Baseball).

A blown save (abbreviated BS or B) is charged to a pitcher who enters a game in a situation which permits him to earn a save (a save situation or save opportunity), but who instead allows the tying run to score. Note that if the tying run was scored by a runner who was already on base when the new pitcher entered the game, that new pitcher will be charged with a blown save even though the run will not be charged to the new pitcher, but rather to the pitcher who allowed that runner to reach base. Due to this definition, a pitcher cannot blow multiple saves in a game unless he has multiple save opportunities, a situation only possible when a pitcher temporarily switches defensive positions. The blown save was introduced by the Rolaids Relief Man Award in 1988.[10] A pitcher who enters the game in a save situation and does not finish the game—but his team still leading—is not charged with a save opportunity. Save percentage is the ratio of saves to save opportunities.[11]

In 1974, tougher criteria were adopted for saves where the tying run had to be on base or at the plate when the reliever entered to qualify for a save (unless he pitched three innings).[12] This addressed saves such as Ron Taylor's in a 20–6 New York Mets win over the Atlanta Braves.[13][14] The rule was relaxed in 1975 to credit a save when a reliever pitches at least one inning with no more than a three-run lead, or comes in with runners on base but the tying run on deck.[15] In 2000, Rolaids started recording a tough save when a pitcher enters a save situation with the potential tying run already on base, but still earns the save. [12]

Value

As Francisco Rodríguez pursued the single-season saves record in 2008, Baseball Prospectus member Joe Sheehan, Sports Illustrated writer Tom Verducci, and The New York Sun writer Tim Marchman wrote that Rodríguez's save total was enhanced by the number of opportunities his team presented, allowing him to amass one particular statistic. They thought that Rodríguez on his record-breaking march was less effective than in prior years.[16][17][18] Sheehan offered that saves did not account for a pitcher's proficiency at preventing runs nor did it reflect leads that were not preserved.[16]

Bradford Doolittle of The Kansas City Star wrote, "[The closer] is the only example in sports of a statistic creating a job." He decried the best relievers pitching fewer innings starting in the 1980s with their workload being reduced from two- to one-inning outings while less efficient pitchers were pitching those innings instead.[19] ESPN.com columnist Jim Caple has argued that the save statistic has turned the closer position into "the most overrated position in sports".[20] Caple and others contend that using one's best reliever in situations such as a three-run lead in the ninth—when a team will almost certainly win even with a lesser pitcher—is foolish, and that using a closer in the traditional fireman role exemplified by pitchers such as Goose Gossage is far wiser. (A "fireman" situation is men on base in a tied or close game, hence a reliever ending such a threat is "putting out the fire.")[20][21]

Firemen frequently pitched two- or three-inning outings to earn saves. The modern closer, reduced to a one-inning role, is available to pitch more save opportunities. In the past, a reliever pitching three innings one game would be unavailable to pitch the next game.[22] Gossage had more saves of at least two innings than saves where he pitched one inning or less.[23] "The times I did a one-inning save, I felt guilty about it. It's like it was too easy," said Gossage.[24] ESPN.com wrote that saves have not been determined to be "a special, repeatable skill—rather than simply a function of opportunities".[25] It also noted that blown saves are "non-qualitative", pointing out that the two career leaders in blown saves—Gossage (112) and Rollie Fingers (109)—were both inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.[25] Fran Zimniuch in Fireman: The Evolution of the Closer in Baseball wrote, "But you have to be a great relief pitcher to blow that many saves. Clearly, [Gossage] saved many, many more than he did not save."[26] More than half of Gossage's and Finger's blown saves came in tough save situations, where the tying run was on base when the pitcher entered. In nearly half of their blown tough saves, they entered the game in the sixth or seventh inning. Multiple-inning outings provide more chances for a reliever to blow a save. The pitchers need to get out of the initial situation and pitch additional innings with more chances to lose the lead. A study by the Baseball Hall of Fame[note 2] found modern closers were put into fewer tough save situations compared to past relievers.[note 3] The modern closer also earned significantly more "easy saves", defined as saves starting the ninth inning with more than a one-run lead.[note 4][12] The study offered "praise to the combatants who faced more danger for more innings."[12]

On September 3, 2002, the Texas Rangers won 7-1 over the Baltimore Orioles as Joaquin Benoit pitched a seven-inning save, the longest save since it became an official statistic in 1969.[27][note 5] Benoit relieved Todd Van Poppel (who entered the game in the first inning after starter Aaron Myette was ejected for throwing at Melvin Mora) at the start of the third inning, and finished the game while allowing just one hit. The official scorer credited the win to Van Poppel and not Benoit, a decision that was also supported by Texas manager Jerry Narron.[30]

On August 22, 2007, Wes Littleton earned a save with the largest winning margin ever, pitching the last three innings of a 30–3 Texas Rangers victory win over the Baltimore Orioles. Littleton entered the game with a 14–3 lead, and the final 27-run differential broke the previous record for a save by eight runs. The New York Times noted that "there are the preposterous saves, of which Littleton’s now stands out as No. 1."[31]

Leaders in Major League Baseball

Saves

The statistic was formally introduced in 1969,[1] although research has identified saves earned prior to that point.[32]

Most saves in a career

Listed are the Major League Baseball players with the most saves in their career.

Stats updated through 2013 season
Key
Player Name of the player
Saves Career saves
Years The years this player played in the major leagues
Elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame
* Denotes pitcher who is still active
L Denotes pitcher who is left-handed
Regular season
Player Saves Years
Rivera, MarianoMariano Rivera 652 1995–2013
Hoffman, TrevorTrevor Hoffman 601 1993–2010
Smith, LeeLee Smith 478 1980–1997
Franco, JohnJohn FrancoL 424 1984–2005
Wagner, BillyBilly WagnerL 422 1995–2010
Dennis Eckersley 390 1975–1998
Reardon, JeffJeff Reardon 367 1979–1994
Percival, TroyTroy Percival 358 1995–2005, 2007–2009
Myers, RandyRandy MyersL 347 1985–1998
Fingers, RollieRollie Fingers 341 1968–1985
Nathan, JoeJoe Nathan* 341 1999–present

Most in a single season

Stats updated through 2013 season
Regular season
Player Saves Team Year
Rodríguez, FranciscoFrancisco Rodríguez* 62 Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim 2008
Thigpen, BobbyBobby Thigpen 57 Chicago White Sox 1990
Gagné, ÉricÉric Gagné 55 Los Angeles Dodgers 2003
Smoltz, JohnJohn Smoltz 55 Atlanta Braves 2002
Rivera, MarianoMariano Rivera 53 New York Yankees 2004
Hoffman, TrevorTrevor Hoffman 53 San Diego Padres 1998
Myers, RandyRandy MyersL 53 Chicago Cubs 1993
Gagné, ÉricÉric Gagné 52 Los Angeles Dodgers 2002
Johnson, JimJim Johnson* 51 Baltimore Orioles 2012
Beck, RodRod Beck 51 Chicago Cubs 1998
Eckersley, DennisDennis Eckersley 51 Oakland Athletics 1992
Johnson, JimJim Johnson* 50 Baltimore Orioles 2013
Kimbrel, CraigCraig Kimbrel* 50 Atlanta Braves 2013
Rivera, MarianoMariano Rivera 50 New York Yankees 2001

Most consecutive

Stats updated through 2013 season
Regular season
Player Saves Team(s) Years Ref
Gagné, ÉricÉric Gagné 84 Los Angeles Dodgers 20022004 [33]
Gordon, TomTom Gordon 54 Boston Red Sox 19981999 [33]
Valverde, JoséJosé Valverde* 51 Detroit Tigers 20102011 [34]
Axford, JohnJohn Axford* 49 Milwaukee Brewers 20112012 [35]
Lidge, BradBrad Lidge 47 Houston Astros, Philadelphia Phillies 20072009 [33]
Balfour, GrantGrant Balfour* 44 Oakland Athletics 20122013 [36]
Beck, RodRod Beck 41 San Francisco Giants 19931995 [33]
Hoffman, TrevorTrevor Hoffman 41 San Diego Padres 19971998 [33]
Bell, HeathHeath Bell* 41 San Diego Padres 20102011 [33]
Eckersley, DennisDennis Eckersley 40 Oakland Athletics 19911992 [37]

Blown saves

Regular season

Career

Stats updated through 2007 season.[38]

  1. Rich "Goose" Gossage – 112
  2. Rollie Fingers – 109
  3. Jeff Reardon – 106
  4. Lee Smith – 103
  5. (tie) Bruce Sutter – 101
  6. (tie) John FrancoL – 101
  7. Sparky LyleL – 95
  8. Roberto Hernández – 94
  9. Gene Garber – 82
  10. Kent Tekulve – 81
L denotes left-handed pitcher.
Single season

Stats updated through 2007 season.[39]

  1. (tie) Gerry Staley, Chicago White Sox (1960) – 14
  2. (tie) Rollie Fingers, Oakland Athletics (1976) – 14
  3. (tie) Bruce Sutter, Chicago Cubs (1978) – 14
  4. (tie) Bob Stanley, Boston Red Sox (1983) – 14
  5. (tie) Ron Davis, Minnesota Twins (1984) – 14
  6. (tie) John HillerL, Detroit Tigers (1976) – 13
  7. (tie) Rich "Goose" Gossage, New York Yankees (1983) – 13
  8. (tie) Jeff Reardon, Montréal Expos (1986) – 13
  9. (tie) Dan PlesacL, Milwaukee Brewers (1987) – 13
  10. (tie) Dave RighettiL, New York Yankees (1987) – 13
L denotes left-handed pitcher.

See also

Baseball portal

Notes

References

External links

  • Career Leaders & Records for Saves
  • From 1957 to 2007, Saves without a batter faced

Template:300 saves club

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